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News Article | January 10, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Palo Alto, CA, Jan. 10, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Dr. Tolga Kurtoglu has been named Chief Executive Officer of PARC, a Xerox company. Kurtoglu’s appointment follows previous CEO Stephen Hoover, who was promoted to CTO of Xerox Corporation, responsible for research, development and engineering, reporting to Jeff Jacobson, CEO of Xerox Corporation following the company’s separation. Prior to his promotion to CEO, Kurtoglu held the position of PARC Vice President and Director of the System Sciences Lab (SSL), where he was responsible for PARC’s research portfolio in artificial intelligence, machine learning, analytics, geometric reasoning, modeling and simulation, and cyber-physical security. Technologies developed in SSL served a variety of clients from Product Lifecycle Management, Energy, Transportation, and Automotive to Aerospace and Defense sectors. Dr. Ersin Uzun, formerly PARC Vice President and Director of the Computing Science Laboratory, will assume Kurtoglu’s prior responsibilities and will lead the combined organization as Vice President and Director of the System Sciences Laboratory. Kurtoglu joined PARC in 2010 and has held various leadership roles focusing on product strategy and technology commercialization to manage the transition of new technologies from an R&D output to production-quality software systems and services. Prior to PARC, he was a researcher at NASA Ames Research Center, and a mechanical design engineer at Dell Corporation. "It has been a pleasure working with Tolga and I've been very impressed with his impact at PARC,” said Stephen Hoover, CTO of Xerox. “Tolga has the very unique leadership qualities necessary to run a place like PARC. He combines deep technical expertise with a keen understanding of customer needs, and he is a confident leader who also leads with respect and humility. This combination brings out the best in the highly capable entrepreneurial scientists, engineers and business people we have at PARC. I am confident Tolga will continue to advance our mission of creating and commercializing the breakthrough innovations that PARC brings to Xerox and our open innovation partners in the commercial and government research sectors.” Kurtoglu received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin and M.S. from Carnegie Mellon University, both in Mechanical Engineering. “I am thrilled to take on the CEO responsibility at PARC and continue to advance the scientific breakthroughs that we’re creating here,” said Kurtoglu. About PARC PARC, a Xerox company, is in the Business of Breakthroughs®. Practicing open innovation, we provide custom R&D services, technology, expertise, best practices, and intellectual property to Fortune 500 and Global 1000 companies, startups, and government agencies and partners. We create new business options, accelerate time to market, augment internal capabilities, and reduce risk for our clients. Since its inception, PARC has pioneered many technology platforms – from the Ethernet and laser printing to the GUI and ubiquitous computing – and has enabled the creation of many industries. Incorporated as an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Xerox in 2002, PARC today continues the research that enables breakthroughs for our clients' businesses. To learn more about PARC, visit www.parc.com or contact engage@parc.com.


News Article | December 13, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

SAN MATEO, CA--(Marketwired - Dec 13, 2016) - Agari, a leading cybersecurity company, today announced the release of a new book by Agari Chief Scientist Markus Jakobsson and other cybersecurity thought leaders, Understanding Social Engineering Based Scams. The book describes the increased use of social engineering for email scams, and offers tools and techniques to identify these trends, as well as countermeasures to prevent these attacks. Examples of social engineering attacks, which are typically launched via email, include phishing, spear phishing and Business Email Compromise (BEC). Social engineering-based email attacks, which rely on human interaction and fraudulent behavior to trick people into handing over sensitive information or money, are the fastest growing security threat for enterprises today. While traditional attacks leverage technology-based system vulnerabilities, such as software bugs and misconfigurations, social engineering attacks take advantage of human vulnerabilities by using deception to trick victims into performing harmful actions. Understanding Social Engineering Based Scams provides a good starting point for practitioners, decision makers and researchers in the security space, offering guidance on ways to address the growing problem of social engineering-based cyberattacks, with a focus on understanding the metrics of email-based scams. Chapter topics include Scams and Targeting, Identifying Trends, Why People Fall for Scams, and Filtering Technology, as well as real-life case studies. "Understanding Social Engineering Based Scams is a broad work that touches on a foundational set of issues, with solid analytical underpinnings," said Michael Barrett, CEO of Stealth Security and former CISO of PayPal. "It's an extremely compelling read and I highly recommend it." Jakobsson, editor of Understanding Social Engineering Based Scams, is an established researcher and entrepreneur with deep roots in the cybersecurity community. In his career, he held key positions as Principal Scientist at PayPal, Xerox PARC and RSA Security, and co-founded three digital security startups spanning email fraud prevention, user authentication, mobile malware detection and secure user messaging. Other contributors to the book include highly-recognized security researchers and academics from Cornell University and New York University. "We wrote Understanding Social Engineering Based Scams to help raise awareness of social engineering, which provides the 'deceit' component that has powered some of the world's most visible and successful cyberattacks, including the Ukrainian power grid and Ubiquity attacks in 2015, and the Bangladesh Bank and John Podesta / DNC attacks earlier this year," said Jakobsson. "Social engineering is a real problem for individuals, enterprises and governments. With this book, we hope to lay the foundation for deeper understanding of the problem as without this understanding, we won't be able to stop these scams and prevent the subsequent damages." Hardcover and kindle versions of Understanding Social Engineering Based Scams are available on Amazon. To win a free copy of the book, visit the Agari Social Engineering website. About Agari Agari, a leading cybersecurity company, is trusted by leading Fortune 1000 companies to protect their enterprise, partners and customers from advanced email phishing attacks. The Agari Email Trust Platform is the industry's only solution that 'understands' the true sender of emails, leveraging the company's proprietary, global email telemetry network and patent-pending, predictive Agari Trust Analytics to identify and stop phishing attacks. The platform powers Agari Enterprise Protect, which help organizations protect themselves from advanced spear phishing attacks, and Agari Customer Protect, which protects consumers from email attacks that spoof enterprise brands. Agari, a recipient of the JPMorgan Chase Hall of Innovation Award and recognized as a Gartner Cool Vendor in Security, is backed by Alloy Ventures, Battery Ventures, First Round Capital, Greylock Partners, Norwest Venture Partners and Scale Venture Partners. Learn more at http://www.agari.com and follow us on Twitter @AgariInc. Agari, Agari Email Trust Network and the Agari logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Agari Data. All other marks are the property of their respective companies.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: cerncourier.com

At a ceremony held on 19 December at IPN Orsay, the French Physical Society awarded the 2015 Prix Joliot Curie for experimental particle physics to Marteen Boonekamp of the Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l̉Univers (IRFU) at Saclay. The prize, awarded every two years, recognised Boonekamp’s contributions to the measurement of the W mass at the LHC’s ATLAS experiment, of which he has been a member since 2001. The event also saw the French Physical Society present the Paul Langevin Prize, which recognises distinguished theorists and has not been awarded for the past few years. The winners of the 2015 Langevin Prize are François Gelis of the Institut de Physique Théorique Saclay, for his work on quantum field theory in the strong-field regime and its applications to the non-equilibrium evolution of quark–gluon plasma, and Ubirajara van Kolck of the Institut de Physique Nucléaire Orsay, for his formulation of effective field theories in nuclear physics. The 2017 Wolf Prize in Physics has been awarded to Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva, for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star. The pair made the discovery of “51 Pegasi b” in 1995 following continuous improvement of cross-correlation spectrographs over a period of 20 years. The prize citation says that the team led by Mayor and Queloz, who is also at the University of Cambridge in the UK, contributed to the discovery of more than 250 additional exoplanets and sparked a revolution in the theory of planetary systems. Giovanni Passaleva of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Firenze, Italy, has been appointed as the next spokesperson of the LHCb experiment, taking over from Guy Wilkinson. Passaleva, who will become the new spokesperson in July, completed his PhD on the L3 experiment at LEP in 1995 and has been a member of the LHCb collaboration since 2000. His research interests include electroweak and flavour physics, as well as solid-state and gaseous tracking detectors, while his detector responsibilities include project leader of the LHCb muon system. On 20 January, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti took part in a panel discussion at the 2017 World Economic Forum in Davos, at which delegates addressed the top issues on the global science agenda. Gianotti reinforced the importance of fundamental research in driving technology and as a force for peaceful collaboration, and emphasised the need for open science. “Scientists have made good progress over the last years to engage the public, but we have to do more to reach out to people at all levels using the tools we have,” she said. “Knowledge belongs to mankind, it does not belong to the scientists.” On 19 January, the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble marked 50 years of providing beams of neutrons for scientific users across a range of disciplines. The ILL was founded by the governments of France and Germany in 1967 with the aim of creating an intense, continuous source of neutrons devoted exclusively to civil fundamental research. Its first neutron beams were produced in 1971, and two years later the UK joined as the ILL’s third associate member. Today, the institute has 10 scientific members: Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Italy, the Czech Republic, Sweden, Belgium, Slovakia, Denmark and Poland. Research at the ILL covers fundamental physics to materials science and biology. The facility, which has an annual budget of around €100 million and almost 2000 user visits per year, has played a role in 21,000 scientific publications so far during its lifetime and is expected to operate well into the 2020s. Boris Johnson, secretary of state for foreign and commonwealth affairs, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, visited CERN on 13 January, during which he took in the ATLAS control room and the LHC tunnel. Following the formal ascension of India as an associate Member State of CERN, Indian ambassador Amandeep Singh Gill visited CERN on 16 January. Here he is pictured with CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti holding the signed documents that will enable greater collaboration between India and CERN. Bernard Bigot, director-general of the ITER Organisation, which is responsible for the international fusion experiment under construction in France, visited CERN on 16 January. Bigot, who has a PhD in chemistry and has held several senior scientific roles in the French government, toured both CMS and ATLAS in addition to the LHC tunnel. Here he is pictured signing the guestbook with Frédérick Bordry, CERN’s director for accelerators and technology. Chief scientist of Quebec in Canada, Rémi Quirion, visited CERN on 22 January, during which he toured the LHC tunnel and experiments. Quirion received a PhD in pharmacology from Université de Sherbrooke in 1980 and was previously a professor at McGill University and scientific director of the Douglas Hospital Research Centre. On 23–26 January, more than 230 members of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration met at CERN to discuss the project’s status and plans. A main focus of the meeting was to coordinate the assembly of prototype modules for the vast DUNE detector, which are being constructed in a new facility on the CERN site (see "ProtoDUNE revealed"). DUNE will comprise four detector modules with a total of 68,000 tonnes of liquid argon to detect neutrinos and look for rare subatomic phenomena such as proton decay. It will be situated 1.5 km underground at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota, US. The experiment will be the target for intense beams of neutrinos and antineutrinos produced by a new facility to be built at Fermilab 1300 km away, and will address specific puzzles such as the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the neutrino sector. CERN is playing a significant role in the DUNE programme via its recently established neutrino platform (CERN Courier July/August 2016 p21). A collaboration agreement was signed between CERN and the US in December 2015, in which CERN committed to the construction of prototype DUNE detectors and the delivery of one cryostat for the experiment in the US. Two large “protoDUNE” detectors are now taking shape in a new building in the north area of the CERN site. DUNE aims to be for the neutrino what the LHC is for the Higgs boson, and enormous progress has been made in the past two years. Formed in early 2015, the collaboration now comprises 945 scientists and engineers from 161 institutions in 30 nations and is still growing, with about 60% of the collaborating institutions located outside the US. In September 2016, the US Department of Energy approved the excavation of the first caverns for DUNE, with preparatory work expected to begin at SURF this summer. A small, 3 × 1 × 1 m3 dual-phase demonstrator module constructed at CERN is also ready for filling and operation. One of the highlights of the CERN meeting was a tour of the construction site for the large protoDUNE detectors. The vessel for the cryostat of the 6 × 6 × 6 m3 single-phase liquid-argon prototype module is almost complete, and the construction of an identical cryostat for a dual-phase detector will start soon. Preparing for the installation of liquid-argon time-projection-chamber (TPC) detector components, which will start this summer, was one of the main focuses of the meeting. Both single- and dual-phase protoDUNE detectors are scheduled to be operational and take data with the tertiary charged-particle beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron in 2018. The DUNE collaboration is also starting to prepare a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the large underground detectors at SURF, and is working on the conceptual design for the DUNE near detector that will be placed about 55 m underground at the Fermilab site to measure neutrino interactions close to the source before the neutrinos start to oscillate. Discussions about the responsibilities for building the vast number of detector components for the DUNE far detectors have begun, and additional scientists and institutions are welcome to join the collaboration. The goal is to finish the TDR for review in 2019 and to begin the construction of the far-detector components in 2021, with the first detector modules at SURF operational in 2024. From 24 to 27 October 2016, accelerator experts from around the world gathered in Daresbury, UK, to discuss the status, challenges and future of circular high-luminosity electron-positron factories. Organised under ICFA and co-sponsored by the EuCARD-2 accelerator network, the “eeFACT2016” workshop attracted 75 participants from China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, the UK and the US. Circular colliders have been a frontier technology of particle physics for half a century, providing more than a factor 10 increase in luminosity every 10 years. Several lower-energy factories are in operation: BEPC-II at IHEP Beijing, DAFNE at INFN Frascati and VEPP-2000 at BINP Novosibirsk. The SuperKEKB facility currently under commission in Japan (CERN Courier September 2016 p32) will mark the next step up in luminosity. Among other future projects, a super-charm-tau factory is being developed in Russia, while two ambitious high-energy circular Higgs-Z-W (and top) factories are being designed: the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) in China and the electron-positron version of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) at CERN. Despite 50 years of experience and development of the e+e– landscape, in the past couple of years several game-changing schemes have been introduced, such as colliding beams with a crab waist, large Piwinski angle and extremely low emittance. The crab-waist concept has already demonstrated its great merits at DAFNE. Other novel concepts include: the use of a double ring or partial double ring; magnet tapering; top-up injection; cost-effective two-in-one magnets; ultra-low beta function; “virtual crab waist”; and asymmetric interaction-region optics. Upcoming colliders like SuperKEKB and the upgraded VEPP-2000 collider will test the limits of these new schemes. In parallel, much progress is being made in the design and operation of storage-ring light sources, which exhibit numerous topics of common interest with the collider world. There is also a powerful synergy between a future large circular high-energy lepton collider such as CEPC or FCC-ee and a subsequent hadron collider installed in the same tunnel, called SPPC and FCC-hh, respectively. The projected performance of the future factories is further lifted by dramatic progress in accelerator technology such as superconducting radiofrequency (RF) systems, the efficiency of which have been revolutionised by novel production schemes such as nitrogen doping and thin-film Nb Sn coating. Several novel klystron concepts are on track to boost the power-conversion efficiency of RF power generators, which will make the next generation of colliders truly green facilities. With the performance of future factories being pushed so hard, subtleties that were unimportant in the past now arise – in particular concerning beam–beam effects. Large future collider concepts such as FCC-ee and CEPC build on recent innovations and would greatly advance progress in fundamental physics at the precision frontier. At the same time new ideas for compact low-energy crab-waist colliders are emerging, which might offer attractive alternative paths for research and science. The first international workshop on Hadronic Contributions to New Physics Searches (HC2NP 2016) was held on 25–30 September 2016 in Tenerife, Spain, inaugurating a new series aimed at hadronic effects that interfere in beyond-the-Standard-Model (SM) searches. A multidisciplinary group of 50 physicists attended the event to review four timely topics: muon g-2, flavour anomalies, sigma-terms in dark-matter searches, and the proton radius puzzle. The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (g-2) provides one of the most precise tests of the SM, and theory currently stands at 3.3 standard deviations from the experimental measurements. Updates on the new measurements starting in 2017 at Fermilab and J-PARC were presented, with prospects to reduce the current experimental uncertainties by a factor of four within the next few years. Several ways to improve the theoretical uncertainty, especially on the hadronic side, were discussed – including new lattice-QCD calculations of the vacuum polarization contribution – and prospects for new experimental measurements at BESIII were also reviewed. Anomalies in weak flavour transitions in hadrons are a hot topic, especially the B-meson decay anomalies measured at LHCb and the tantalising hints of lepton-universality violation in the so-called RK and RD* ratios. These signals should be validated by other B-decay modes, which requires new lattice calculations of form factors. Since new physics might not constrain itself to one flavour sector, decays of other mesons such as pions, kaons and baryons are also being scrutinized. Regarding dark matter, the sigma terms (nucleon form factors of fundamental interest) are one of the main uncertainties when interpreting direct searches. Old tensions in the values of these quantities persist, as seen in the mild discrepancy between the results of lattice QCD and those obtained using effective field theory or dispersive methods from experimental data. Recent developments in effective field theories now enable the subsequent bounds from the direct searches to be interpreted in the context of dark-matter searches at ATLAS and CMS. Finally, HC2NP addressed the proton charge radius puzzle – the five-standard-deviation discrepancy between the value measured for muonic versus normal hydrogen (CERN Courier October 2016 p7). Results from electron–proton scattering have become controversial because different values of the radius are extracted from different fits to the same data, while lattice calculations of the proton charge radius so far do not provide the required accuracy. Recent chiral perturbation theory calculations of proton polarisability effects in muonic hydrogen show that this effect is relatively small, and new experiments on muonic deuterium and helium show that the same discrepancy exists for the deuterium but not the helium. With PSI due to perform a new experiment on the ground-state hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen, we require a factor 10 improvement in our understanding of proton-structure effects. Given the success of the meeting, a new edition of HC2NP covering a selection of timely subtopics will be organised in Tenerife during 2018. Some 400 theorists and experimentalists convened in Thessaloniki, Greece, from 29 August to 3 September 2016 for the 12th Quark Confinement and the Hadron Spectrum conference. Initiated in 1994, the series has become one of the most important and well attended forums in strong-interaction physics. The event (which this year included 40 plenary talks, 267 parallel talks and 33 posters) is organised in eight parallel sections: vacuum structure and confinement; emergent gauge fields and chiral fermions; light quarks; heavy quarks; deconfinement; QCD and new physics; nuclear and astroparticle physics; and strongly coupled theories. Two additional parallel sessions devoted to statistical methods and instrumentation were also included this year. The event brought together physicists working on approaches ranging from lattice field theory to higher-order perturbative and resummation methods; from phenomenology to experiments; from the mechanisms of confinement to deconfinement in heavy-ion physics; and from effective field theories of QCD to physics beyond the Standard Model. Only a brief summary of the wealth of results presented can be mentioned here. Of particular interest was a talk exploring the connections between gravitational-wave results from LIGO and hadron physics: the gravitational-wave signature for neutron-star mergers depends strongly on the QCD equation of state (EOS) and different assumptions about the EOS lead to uncertainties on the merger time, wave amplitude, peak frequency and radiated energy. Fortunately, there are other ways of exploring the QCD EOS at high density, such as upcoming experiments at the new FAIR facility in Germany, RHIC in the US and NICA in Russia, which also complement studies of the low-density regime of the EOS with heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. Several talks placed an emphasis on anomalies with respect to the Standard Model. The chiral anomaly in the background magnetic field of heavy-ion collisions, for example, has also been observed in condensed-matter physics in “Dirac semimetals”. Other talks addressed flavour anomalies and whether they could be a signal of new physics or be described by standard QCD effects. The status of heavy-flavour production from protons to ions was presented and the quarkonium production mechanism was emphasised, including the production of charmonium-like exotics. A number of talks were dedicated to physics on the scale of the nucleon rather than the nucleus, including new approaches to the parton distributions in the proton from lattice QCD, field theories and global analyses, incorporating results from JLab and the LHC. The status of the proton radius puzzle also generated lively discussions. The conference was followed by a satellite workshop on new accelerator-based facilities that will provide precision measurements of confinement and deconfinement physics, demonstrating the health of the field.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: cerncourier.com

Shinichiro Michizono from KEK has been appointed as associate director for the International Linear Collider (ILC), taking over from Mike Harrison, while Jim Brau of the University of Oregon has replaced Hitoshi Yamamoto as associate director for physics and detectors. The Linear Collider collaboration, which encompasses the ILC and CLIC, has recently been granted a further three-year mandate by the International Committee for Future Accelerators. The council of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which builds and operates some of the world’s most powerful ground-based telescopes, has appointed Xavier Barcons as its next director general. The 57 year-old astronomer will take up his new position on 1 September 2017, when the current director general Tim de Zeeuw completes his mandate. He began his career as a physicist, completing a PhD on hot plasmas. In October 2016, Jianwei Qiu joined the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility as its new associate director for theoretical and computational physics. Qiu, whose research focus is QCD and its applications in both high-energy particle and nuclear physics, will oversee a broad programme of theoretical research in support of the physics studied with the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). Rende Steerenberg has been appointed head of operations in CERN’s Beams Department, effective from 1 January 2017. He takes over from Mike Lamont, who has been in the role since 2009 and oversaw operations from the LHC’s rollercoaster start-up to its latest record performance. Lamont remains deputy group leader of the Beams Department. Former CERN Director-General Rolf-Dieter Heuer has been appointed Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur (Knight of the Legion of Honour), one of the highest recognitions of achievement in France. Heuer, who is currently president of the German Physical Society (DPG) and president-elect of the SESAME Council, among other roles, was presented with the medal on 22 November at the residence of the French permanent representative in Geneva. The 2017 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics has been awarded to Joseph Polchinski, University of California at Santa Barbara, and Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa of Harvard University. The three winners, who received the $3 million award at a glitzy ceremony in San Francisco on 4 December, have made important contributions to fundamental physics including quantum gravity and string theory. Polchinski was recognised in particular for his discovery of D-branes, while the citation for Strominger and Vafa included their derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking area-entropy relation, which unified the laws of thermodynamics and black-hole dynamics. Recipients of the previously announced Special Prize in Fundamental Physics – Ronald Drever and Kip Thorne of Caltech and Rainer Weiss of MIT, who were recognised in May along with the entire LIGO team for the discovery of gravitational waves – were also present. A further prize, the $100,000 New Horizons in Physics Prize, went to six early-career physicists: Asimina Arvanitaki (Perimeter Institute), Peter Graham (Stanford University) and Surjeet Rajendran (University of California, Berkeley); Simone Giombi (Princeton University) and Xi Yin (Harvard University); and Frans Pretorius (Princeton). This year’s Breakthrough Prize, which was founded in 2012 by Sergey Brin, Anne Wojcicki, Yuri and Julia Milner, Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan, saw $25 million in prizes awarded for achievements in the life sciences, fundamental physics and mathematics. On 30 November, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Bonn, Germany, granted a Humboldt Research Award to Raju Venugopalan, a senior physicist at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University. The €60,000 award recognises Venugopalan’s achievements in theoretical nuclear physics, and comes with the opportunity to collaborate with German researchers at Heidelberg University and elsewhere. US physicist and science policy adviser to the US government, Richard Garwin, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom at a White House ceremony on 22 November. The award is the highest honour that the US government can confer to civilians. Garwin was recognised for his long career in research and invention, which saw him play a leading role in the development of the hydrogen bomb, and for his advice to policy makers. Introducing Garwin, President Obama remarked: “Dick’s not only an architect of the atomic age. Reconnaissance satellites, the MRI, GPS technology, the touchscreen all bear his fingerprints – he even patented a mussel washer for shellfish. Dick has advised nearly every president since Eisenhower, often rather bluntly. Enrico Fermi, also a pretty smart guy, is said to have called Dick the only true genius he ever met.” Fumihiko Suekane of Tohoku University, Japan, has been awarded a 2016 Blaise Pascal Chair to further his research into neutrinos. Established in 1996, and named after the 17th-century French polymath Blaise Pascal, the €200,000 grant allows researchers from abroad to work on a scientific project in an institution in the Ile-de-France region. Suekane will spend a year working at the Astroparticle and Cosmology Laboratory in Paris, where he will focus on R&D for novel neutrino detectors and measurements of reactor neutrinos. In late 2016, theorists Mikhail Danilov, from the Lebedev Institute in Moscow, Sergio Ferrara from CERN and David Gross from the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and the University of California in Santa Barbara were elected as members of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Established in 1724, the body has more than 2000 members. President of the Republic of Poland, Andrzej Duda, visited CERN on 15 November and toured the CERN Control Centre. Chi-­Chang Kao, signed the guestbook with CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti on 23 November. From 28 November to 2 December, more than 200 flavour physicists gathered at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai for the 9th International Workshop on the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa Unitarity Triangle (CKM2016). The workshop focuses on weak transitions of quarks from one flavour to another, as described by the CKM matrix, and on the charge–parity (CP) violation present in these transitions, as visualised by the unitarity triangle (UT). Input from theory, particularly lattice QCD, is vital to fully leverage the power of such measurements. It is an exciting time for flavour physics. The mass scales potentially involved in such weak processes are much higher than those that can be directly probed at the LHC, due to the presence of quantum loops that mediate many of the processes of interest, such as B0 – B0 mixing. Compared with the absence of new particles so far at the energy frontier, LHCb and other B factories already have significant hints of deviations between measurements and Standard Model (SM) predictions. An example is the persistent discrepancy in the measured differential distributions of the decay products of the rare flavour-changing neutral-current process B0 → K*0 μ+ μ–, first reported by the LHCb collaboration in 2015. A highlight of CKM2016 was the presentation of first results of the same distributions from the Belle experiment in Japan, which also included the related but previously unmeasured process B0 → K*0 e+ e–. The Belle results are more compatible with those of LHCb than the SM, further supporting the idea that new physics may be manifesting itself, via interference effects, in these observables. Progress on measuring CP violation in B decays was also reported, with LHCb presenting the first evidence for time-dependent CP violation in the decay of B0 mesons in two separate final states, D+ K– and K+ K–. The latter involves loop diagrams allowing a new-physics-sensitive determination of a UT angle (γ) that can be compared to a tree-level SM determination in the decay B– → D0 K–. For the first time, LHCb also presented results with data from LHC Run 2, which is ultimately expected to increase the size of the LHCb data samples by approximately a factor four. Longer term, the Belle II experiment based at the SuperKEKB collider recently enjoyed its first beam, and will begin its full physics programme in 2018. By 2024, Belle II should have collected 50 times more data than Belle, allowing unprecedented tests of rare B-meson decays and precision CP-violation measurements. On the same timescale, the LHCb upgrade will also be in full swing, with the goal of increasing the data size by least a factor 10 compared to Run 1 and Run 2. Plans for a second LHCb upgrade presented at the meeting would allow LHCb, given the long-term future of the LHC, to run at much higher instantaneous luminosities to yield an enormous data set by 2035. With more data the puzzles of flavour physics will be resolved thanks to the ongoing programme of LHCb, imminent results from rare-kaon-decay experiments (KOTO and NA62), and the Belle II/LHCb upgrade projects. No doubt there will be more revealing results by the time of the next CKM workshop, to be held in Heidelberg in September 2018. While there are many conferences focusing on physics at the high-energy frontier, the triennial PSI workshop at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland concerns searches for new phenomena at non-collider experiments. These are complementary to direct searches at the LHC and often cover a parameter space that is beyond the reach of the LHC or even future colliders. The fourth workshop in this series, PSI2016, took place from 16–21 October and attracted more than 170 physicists. Theoretical overviews covered: precision QED calculations; beyond-the-Standard-Model implications of electric-dipole-moment (EDM) searches; axions and other light exotic particles; flavour symmetries; the muon g-2 problem; NLO calculations of the rare muon decay μ → eeeνν; and possible models to explain the exciting flavour anomalies presently seen in B decays. On the experimental side, several new results were presented. Fundamental neutron physics featured prominently, ranging from cold-neutron-beam experiments to those with stored ultracold neutrons at facilities such as ILL, PSI, LANL, TRIUMF and Mainz. Key experiments are measurements of the neutron lifetime, searches for a permanent EDM, measurements of beta-decay correlations and searches for exotic interactions. The future European Spallation Source in Sweden will also allow a new and much improved search for neutron–antineutron oscillations. Atomic physics and related methods offer unprecedented sensitivity to fundamental-physics aspects ranging from QED tests, parity violation in weak interactions, EDM and exotic physics to dark-matter (DM) and dark-energy searches. With the absence of signals from direct DM searches so far, light and ultralight DM is a focus of several upcoming experiments. Atomic physics also comprises precision spectroscopy of exotic atoms, and several highlight talks included the ongoing efforts at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator with antihydrogen and with light muonic atoms at J-PARC and at PSI. For antiprotons and nuclei, impressive results from recent Penning-trap mass and g-factor measurements were presented with impacts on CPT tests, bound-state QED tests and more. Major international efforts are under way at PSI (μ → eγ, μ → eee), FNAL and J-PARC (μ → e conversion) devoted to muons and their lepton-flavour violating decays, and the upcoming muon g-2 experiments at FNAL and J-PARC have reported impressive progress. Last but not least, rare kaon decays (at CERN and J-PARC), new long-baseline neutrino oscillation results, developments towards direct neutrino-mass measurements, and CP and CPT tests with B mesons were reported. The field of low-energy precision physics has grown fast over the past few years, and participants plan to meet again at PSI in 2019. The fields of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are quickly evolving, with discoveries frequently reported across a wide range of applications including nanoelectronics, sensor technologies, drug delivery and robotics, in addition to the energy and healthcare sectors. At an academia–industry event on 20–21 October at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, co-organised by the technology-transfer network HEPTech, delegates explored novel connections between nanotechnology and high-energy physics (HEP). The forum included an overview of the recent experiments at DESY’s hard X-ray source PETRA III, which allows the investigation of physical and chemical processes in situ and under working conditions and serves a large user community in many fields including nanotechnology. Thermal-scanning probe lithography, an increasingly reliable method for rapid and low-cost prototyping of 2D and quasi-3D structures, was also discussed. Much attention was paid to the production and application of nanostructures, where the achievements of the Ion Beam Center at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf in surface nanostructuring and nanopatterning were introduced. UK firm Hardide Coatings Ltd presented its advanced surface-coating technology, the core of which are nano-structured tungsten-carbide-based coatings that have promising applications in HEP and vacuum engineering. Industry also presented ion-track technology, which is being used to synthesise 3D interconnected nanowire networks in micro-batteries or gas sensors, among other applications. Neutron-research infrastructures and large-scale synchrotrons are emerging as highly suitable platforms for the advanced characterisation of micro- and nano-electronic devices, and the audience heard the latest developments from the IRT Nanoelec Platform for Advanced Characterisation of Grenoble. The meeting addressed how collaboration between academia and industry in the nanotechnology arena can best serve the needs of HEP, with CERN presenting applications in gaseous detectors using the charge-transfer properties of graphene. The technology-transfer office at DESY also shared its experience in developing a marketing strategy for promoting the services of the DESY NanoLab to companies. Both academia and industry representatives left the event with a set of contacts and collaboration arrangements. On 24–25 November, academics and leading companies in the field of superconductivity met in Madrid, Spain, to explore the technical challenges of applying new accelerator technology to medicine. Organised by CIEMAT in collaboration with HEPTech, EUCARD2, CDTI, GSI and the Enterprise Europe Network, the event brought together 120 participants from 19 countries to focus on radioisotope production, particle therapy and gantries. Superconductivity has a range of applications in energy, medicine, fusion and high-energy physics (HEP). The latter are illustrated by CERN’s high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), now near construction with superconducting magnets made from advanced Nb Sn technology capable of 12 T fields. The HL-LHC demands greatly advanced superconducting cavities with more efficient and higher-gradient RF systems, plus the development of new devices such as crab cavities that can deflect or rotate single bunches of protons. On the industry side, new superconducting technology is ready to go into production for medical applications. A dedicated session presented novel developments in cyclotron production, illustrated by the AMIT project of CIEMAT (based on a cyclotron with a compact superconducting design that will be able to produce low-to-moderate rates of dose-on-demand 11C and 18F) and the French industry–academia LOTUS project system, which features a compact 12 MeV superconducting helium-free magnet cyclotron suitable for the production of these isotopes in addition to 68Ga. Antaya Science and Technology, meanwhile, reported on the development of a portable high-field superconducting cyclotron for the production of ammonia-13N in near proximity to the PET cameras. The meeting also heard from MEDICIS, the new facility under construction at CERN that will extend the capabilities of the ISOLDE radioactive ion-beam facility for production of radiopharmaceuticals and develop new accelerator technologies for medical applications (CERN Courier October 2016 p28). Concerning particle therapy, industry presented medical accelerators such as the MEVION S250 – a proton-therapy system based on a gantry-mounted 250 MeV superconducting synchrocyclotron that weighs less than 15 tonnes and generates magnetic fields in excess of 10 T. Global medical-technology company IBA described its two main superconducting cyclotrons for particle therapy: the Cyclone 400 for proton/carbon therapy and the S2C2 dedicated to proton therapy, with a particular emphasis on their superconducting coil systems. IBA also introduced the latest developments concerning ProteusONE – a single-room system that delivers the most clinically advanced form of proton-radiation therapy. Researchers from MIT in the US presented a novel compact superconducting synchrocyclotron based on an ironless magnet with a much reduced weight, while the TERA Foundation in Italy is developing superconducting technology for “cyclinacs” – accelerators that combine a cyclotron injector and a linac booster. Finally, the session on gantries covered developments such as a superconducting bending-magnet section for future compact isocentric gantries by researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute, and a superconducting rotating gantry for carbon radiotherapy designed by the Japanese National Institute of Radiological Sciences. With demand for medical isotopes and advanced cancer therapy rising, we can look forward to rich collaborations between accelerator physics and the medical community in the coming years. The fifth in the series of Higgs Couplings workshops, which began just after the Higgs-boson discovery in 2012 to bring together theorists and experimentalists, was held at SLAC on 9–12 November and drew 148 participants from five continents. Discussions focused on lessons from the current round of LHC analyses that could be applied to future data. Modelling of signal and background is already limiting for some measurements, and new theoretical results and strategies were presented. Other key issues were the use of vector-boson fusion production as a tool, and the power and complementarity of diverse searches for heavy Higgs bosons. Two new themes emerged at the meeting. The first was the possibility of exotic decays of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. These include not only Higgs decays to invisible particles but also decays to lighter Higgs particles, light quarks and leptons (possibly with flavour violation) and new, long-lived particles. A number of searches from ATLAS and CMS reported their first results. The workshop also debated the application of effective field theory as a framework for parametrising precise Higgs measurements. The 6th Higgs Couplings meeting will be held in Heidelberg on 6–10 November 2017. We look forward to new ideas for the creative use of the large data samples of Higgs bosons that will become available as the LHC programme continues. The 8th International Conference on Hard and Electromagnetic Probes of High-energy Nuclear Collisions (Hard Probes 2016) was held in Wuhan, China, on 23–27 September. Hard and electromagnetic probes are powerful tools for the study of the novel properties of hot and dense QCD matter created in high-energy nucleus–nucleus collisions, and have provided much important evidence for the formation of quark–gluon plasma (QGP) in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. Hard Probe 2016 attracted close to 300 participants from 28 countries. The main topics discussed were: jet production and modification in QCD matter; high transverse-momentum hadron spectra and correlations; jet-induced medium excitations; jet properties in small systems; heavy flavour hadrons and quarkonia; photons and dileptons and initial states and related topics. The most recent experimental progress on hard and electromagnetic probes from the ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, PHENIX and STAR collaborations, together with many new exciting theoretical and phenomenological developments, were discussed. The next Hard Probe conference will be held in Aix Les Bains, France, in 2018. The International Symposium on EXOtic Nuclei (EXON-2016), took place from 5–9 September in Kazan, Russia, attracting around 170 nuclear experts from 20 countries. The scientific programme focused on recent experiments on the synthesis and study of new super-heavy elements, the discovery of which demonstrates the efficiency of international co-operation. Interesting results were obtained in joint experiments on chemical identification of elements 112 and 114 performed at JINR (Russia), the GSI (Germany) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). A vivid example of co-operation with US scientists is an experiment on the synthesis of element 117 held at the cyclotron of JINR. Recently, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry approved the discovery of the new elements with atomic numbers 113 (“nihonian”), 115 (“moscovium”), 117 (“tennessine”) and 118 (“oganesson”). Five laboratories, which are the co-founders of the symposium, are now creating a new generation of accelerators for the synthesis and study of new exotic nuclei. Projects such as SPIRAL2, RIKEN RI Beam Factory, FAIR, DRIBs, NICA and FRIB will allow us to delve further into the upper limits of the periodic table. The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Wigner Research Centre for Physics jointly organised an introduction-to-accelerator-physics course in Budapest, Hungary, from 2–14 October, attended by more than 120 participants spanning 28 nationalities. This year, CAS will organise a specialised course on beam injection, extraction and transfer (to be held in Erice, Sicily, from 10–19 March) and a second specialised course on vacuum for particle accelerators (near Lund, Sweden, from 6–16 June). The next course on advanced-accelerator physics will be held in the UK in early September, and a Joint International Accelerator School on RF technology will be held in Hayama, Japan, from 16–26 October (www.cern.ch/schools/CAS).


News Article | March 1, 2017
Site: www.technologyreview.com

Eric Rohlfing, acting director of the moonshot investment arm of the Department of Energy, kicked off the conference near Washington, D.C., by announcing that 74 of the agency's projects have raised $1.8 billion in private sector funding and 56 have formed new companies. He was followed on the main stage by MIT president L. Rafael Reif, who stressed that government support is crucial for enabling the big, hard ideas in science to make the leap from academia to industry. He added that federal investments in early research are required to maintain the country’s competitive advantage in technology and science, and create future jobs. "This is not a conservative or liberal point of view,” Reif said. “This is about the future of our nation." Hanging over all the sessions was the looming question of whether this summit, or ARPA-E itself, will exist by this time next year. The Trump administration reportedly hopes to redirect $54 billion from most federal agencies to defense spending, and anything related to clean energy and climate change are obvious targets. ARPA-E staffers surely feel particularly threatened, as a 2016 Heritage Foundation report that's proven influential within Trump's circle called for eliminating the agency outright. The fate of ARPA-E and federal energy funding in general was a common topic of discussion in the hallways of the conference. No one who spoke to MIT Technology Review was ready to definitively predict the agency's demise, in part because the Trump administration has proven so wildly unpredictable. But there is considerable concern about what will happen in the months ahead, and what it will mean for the pace of clean energy research. Energy is now the biggest single research area at PARC, the famed Silicon Valley-based technology research institute, thanks to ARPA-E funding for a series of projects. "It's vital, it's critical," says Scott Elrod, director of PARC's Hardware Systems Laboratory. "We wouldn't have been able to go from our historical roots to energy without the support of this funding." Deborah Stine, an associate director at the Scott Institute for Energy Innovation at Carnegie Mellon, thinks this may well be the last year for the summit, simply because it's a conspicuous event dedicated to clean energy. But she ultimately believes the agency will survive because it's proven crucial to the private sector, by providing earlier stage financing than companies are generally able or willing to. "In order for it to survive, the industry that's here at the APRA-E event, that has been supporting it for all this time, needs to stand up and say, 'Look, we care about this,'" Stine says.


DUBLIN--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Stretchable Electronics Market - Forecasts from 2016 to 2021" report to their offering. The Stretchable Electronics Market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 106.18% during the forecast period to reach the market size from US$4.687 billion in 2015 to US$360.069 billion by 2021. Stretchable electronics are the combination of electronic devices and the circuit that are stretchable in nature while retaining their functionality intact. Growth in the consumer electronics market, increased utilization of organic solar cells, extensive research to increase stretchability of material and miniaturization of electronic products for better operational speed are some of the key factors driving the growth of the market. Advantages such as light weight, high performance, and low manufacturing cost also contribute to market growth. Wearable communication devices, bio-integrated circuits, and robotic sensory skin are some of the applications of these electronics. The Stretchable Electronics market has been segmented on the basis of the type of component and end user industry. Under component: Circuit, Polymer, Battery and others have been covered. Whereas under application, the market is segmented into: consumer electronics, healthcare, aerospace and defense, communication and technology, and automotive, among others. A detailed comprehensive forecast with analysis has also been covered as part of this section. Key industry players profiled as part of this section are DuPont, Philips, Adidas AG, 3M, PARC, Cambrios, Bodymedia, and MC10. For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/xxbkdt/stretchable.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: globenewswire.com

Washington DC, Feb. 22, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: PARC, a Xerox company, today announced its presence at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) Innovation Summit to be held in Washington, D.C. February 27-March 1. Visit PARC’s Booth 615 to see demonstrations of the ARPA-E-funded technologies and discuss the implications with the researchers who are developing them. “We’ve seen great strides in the number and types of technologies supported by ARPA-E since we launched our Energy Program in 2006,” said Scott Elrod, VP responsible for PARC’s Energy Program. “ARPA-E showcases the most advanced and revolutionary technologies that can truly change the world, and we see a wide range of high-impact applications for the technologies we’re showing at the Summit. Government funding and support of long-term fundamental and applied research is critical, and PARC is honored to be an integral part of the work that ARPA-E continues to accomplish.” Metamaterials-Enhanced Passive Radiative Cooling Panels (ARPA-E Program: ARID): PARC is developing a low-cost, passive radiative cooling panel for hydronic cooling on rooftops for air conditioning. Simulations show that this can offset HVAC energy usage by as much as 50%.. Collaborative Optimization and Planning for Transportation Energy Reduction (COPTER) (ARPA-E Program: TRANSNET): PARC is developing its COPTER system to identify the energy-efficient itinerary modifications most likely to be adopted by travelers. COPTER will send recommendations for energy-efficient trips before departure, and provide real-time guidance to users to account for traffic or other interruptions. The technology aims to improve energy efficiency without requiring monetary incentives. Micro-Chiplet Printer (ARPA-E Program: MOSAIC): PARC is developing a prototype printer with the potential to enable economical, high-volume manufacturing of micro-PV cell arrays. PARC intends to create a printer demonstration that uses micro-CPV cells or "chiplets" as the "ink" and arranges the chiplets in a precise, predefined location and orientation, similar to how a document printer places ink on a page. Smart Embedded Network of Sensors with Optical Readout (SENSOR) (ARPA-E Program: AMPED): PARC has developed a low-cost embedded fiber optic sensing system for batteries to monitor key internal cell parameters during charge and discharge cycles. These advanced fiber optic sensing technologies have shown potential to dramatically improve the safety, performance, and lifetime of batteries and other critical systems. This systems is currently being tested for automotive batteries by GM. System of Printed Hybrid Intelligent Nano-Chemical Sensors (SPHINCS) (ARPA-E Program: MONITOR): PARC is working with BP and NASA Ames to combine low-cost print manufacturing and NASA's gas-sensing technologies to develop printable sensing arrays that will be integrated into a cost-effective, highly sensitive methane detection system. By using low-cost printing techniques, the system offers an affordable alternative to more expensive optical methane detectors on the market today. Scalable Transparent Thermal Barriers for Single-Pane Window Retrofits (ARPA-E Program: SHIELD): PARC and its partners are developing a new windowpane that incorporates a transparent polymer aerogel to prevent thermal losses. The new windowpane will be of similar weight and thickness and could replace existing windowpanes. Flexible Large-Area Thermoelectric Generators (ARPA-E Program: LATEGs): PARC is developing high-performance, low-cost thermoelectric devices on flexible materials to capture low-temperature waste heat, an abundant and difficult-to-harness energy resource. If successful, development and deployment of efficient flexible thermoelectric technologies would recapture wasted energy. About PARC PARC, a Xerox company, is in the Business of Breakthroughs®. Practicing open innovation, we provide custom R&D services, technology, expertise, best practices, and intellectual property to Fortune 500 and Global 1000 companies, startups, and government agencies and partners. We create new business options, accelerate time to market, augment internal capabilities, and reduce risk for our clients. Since its inception, PARC has pioneered many technology platforms – from the Ethernet and laser printing to the GUI and ubiquitous computing – and has enabled the creation of many industries. Incorporated as an independent, wholly owned subsidiary of Xerox in 2002, PARC today continues the research that enables breakthroughs for our clients' businesses. To learn more about PARC, visit www.parc.com or contact engage@parc.com.


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

ALBUQUERQUE, N.M.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Optomec, a leading global supplier of production grade additive manufacturing systems for 3D printed metals and 3D printed electronics, today announced that its President and CEO, Dave Ramahi, will participate in a NextFlex forum titled “Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE) Impact on Health and Safety of the Future” to be held March 1-2, 2017 at the PARC facility in Palo Alto, Calif. The forum will feature speakers from organizations including GE Healthcare, Boeing, Jabil, Airforce Research Lab and several others. The discussion and presentations will focus on how the cost and effectiveness of healthcare and the safety of aging infrastructure are significant challenges facing America. Flexible Hybrid Electronics (FHE) holds the promise to improve healthcare comfort and costs through solutions such as telemedicine and remote monitoring. Additionally, FHE has the potential to improve the safety of transportation, transit infrastructure, and utility infrastructure in a cost-effective manner through data-based structural health assessment, maintenance and replacement. Ramahi will contribute to the forum with a presentation titled “Printing 3D Sensors and Antennas Directly onto Products.” Ramahi will discuss how Optomec’s Aerosol Jet system can directly print 3D sensors and antennas onto existing structures, or be used to more tightly package traditional discrete sensors and antenna in a 3D setting. The enables production of Smart Products that are an essential building block for the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet. Optomec’s direct 3D printing approach compares with legacy discrete sensor & antenna production, which is generally 2D, and fails to optimize for cost, size, weight and performance when adapted to 3D products. Ramahi will also share how Optomec is developing sets of generic sensor and antenna reference libraries to help speed the adoption of Smart Product solutions. NextFlex is a public-private consortium of companies, academic institutions, nonprofits and governments with a mission to advance U.S. manufacturing of flexible hybrid electronics. NextFlex encourages investment in the manufacturing ecosystem for this exciting technology, in return for receiving intellectual property, new product ideas and partnering opportunities. For more information on the event, click here. Optomec is a privately held, rapidly growing supplier of Additive Manufacturing systems. Optomec’s patented Aerosol Jet Systems for printed electronics and LENS 3D Printers for metal components are used by industry to reduce product cost and improve performance. Together, these unique printing solutions work with the broadest spectrum of functional materials, ranging from electronic inks to structural metals and even biological matter. Optomec has more than 200 marquee customers around the world, targeting production applications in the Electronics, Energy, Life Sciences and Aerospace industries. LENS (Laser Engineered Net Shaping) is a registered trademark of Sandia National Laboratories. Aerosol Jet and Optomec are registered trademarks of Optomec Inc.


News Article | February 27, 2017
Site: www.cnet.com

Between Microsoft and Apple, who really copied whom when it came to the companies' original graphical interface? Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates attempted to put an end to the debate on Monday, when he said neither. Instead, Gates said, both of those companies copied Xerox. "The main 'copying' that went on relative to Steve [Jobs] and me is that we both benefited from the work that Xerox PARC did in creating graphical interface -- it wasn't just them but they did the best work," Gates said in a Reddit Ask Me Anything on Monday. "We didn't violate any IP rights Xerox had but their work showed the way that led to the Mac and Windows." Gates is something of a celebrity Reddit user, regularly participating in the site's Secret Santa gift exchanges and AMAs. Since his first AMA in 2013, he's netted more than 71,000 comments. Besides his views on Xerox being the graphical interface pioneer, Gates answered questions about some of his favorite TV shows ("Silicon Valley," "The Crown" and "Downtown Abbey") and how he wears a hat in public for disguise. The Microsoft co-founder also said that the next technological advancement he'd like to see in his lifetime is computers to become a bit more like humans. "The big milestone is when computers can read and understand information like humans do," Gates said. "Right now computers don't know how to represent knowledge so they can't read a text book and pass a test." Solving for XX: The industry seeks to overcome outdated ideas about "women in tech."

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