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Chanda P.,Ministry of Health Headquarters | Hamainza B.,Operational Research Unit | Moonga H.B.,Parasitology Unit | Chalwe V.,Tropical Diseases Research Center | Pagnoni F.,World Health Organization
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Access to prompt and effective treatment is a cornerstone of the current malaria control strategy. Delays in starting appropriate treatment is a major contributor to malaria mortality. WHO recommends home management of malaria using artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT) and Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs) as one of the strategies for improving access to prompt and efective malaria case management. Methods. A prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of using community health workers (CHWs) as delivery points for ACT and RDTs in the home management of malaria in two districts in Zambia. Results: CHWs were able to manage malaria fevers by correctly interpreting RDT results and appropriately prescribing antimalarials. All severe malaria cases and febrile non-malaria fevers were referred to a health facility for further management. There were variations in malaria prevalence between the two districts and among the villages in each district. 100% and 99.4% of the patients with a negative RDT result were not prescribed an antimalarial in the two districts respectively. No cases progressed to severe malaria and no deaths were recorded during the study period. Community perceptions were positive. Conclusion: CHWs are effective delivery points for prompt and effective malaria case management at community level. Adherence to test results is the best ever reported in Zambia. Further areas of implementation research are discussed. © 2011 Chanda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Chanda P.,Ministry of Health Headquarters | Hamainza B.,Operational Research Unit | Moonga H.B.,Parasitology Unit | Chalwe V.,Tropical Diseases Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM). However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method. Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers' perspective. The sample included 16 community health workers (CHWs) and 15 health facilities. The outcome measure was the cost per case appropriately diagnosed and treated. Costs of scaling-up HMM nationwide were estimated based on the CHW utilisation rates observed in the study. Results: HMM was more cost effective than facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria. The cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was USD 4.22 for HMM and USD 6.12 for facility level. Utilization and adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines was higher in HMM than at a health facility. Conclusion: HMM using ACT and RDTs was more efficient at appropriately diagnosing and treating malaria than the health facility level. Scaling up this intervention requires significant investments. © 2011 Chanda et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sadeghi H.,Parasitology Unit | Borji H.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

Objective: To study the distribution of intestinal parasites in a population in Qazvin city in north of Iran. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Qazvin, north of Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2009 to October 20, 2012. A total of 5 739 stool specimens from 4 053 (70.6%) males and 1 686 (29.3%) females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mounting, formol-ether concentration and modified acid-fast staining techniques. Results: The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 5.8% (3.7% in males and 2.1% in females). The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 116 (2.0%) Entamoeba coli, 110 (1.9%) Giardia lamblia, 49 (0.85%) Blastocystis hominis, 30 (0.5%) Enodolimax nana, 12 (0.2%) Iodamoeba butschlii, 2 (0.03%) Trichomonas hominis, 9 (0.1%) Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.01%) Strongyloides stercoralis, 1 (0.01%) Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and 1 (0.01%) Trichuris trichura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 5 (0.08%) Enterobius vermicularis. Conclusions: In this regard, findings of this study can be used as a basis to develop strategies and preventive programs for targeting groups at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. © 2015 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. Source

Di Girolamo F.,Laboratory Medicine | Lante I.,Laboratory Medicine | Muraca M.,Laboratory Medicine | Putignani L.,Parasitology Unit | Putignani L.,Metagenomics Unit
Current Organic Chemistry | Year: 2013

Mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the key analytical technology on which the emerging "-omics" approaches are based. It may provide detection and quantization of thousands of proteins and biologically active metabolites from a tissue, body fluid or cell culture working in a "global" or "targeted" manner, down to ultra-trace levels. It can be expected that the high performance of MS technology, coupled to routine data handling, will soon bring fruit in the request for a better understanding of human diseases, leading to new molecular biomarkers, hence affecting drug targets and therapies. In this review, we focus on the main advances in the MS technologies, influencing genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics fields, up to the most recent MS applications to meta-omic studies. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Putignani L.,Parasitology Unit | Massa O.,Laboratory of Mendelian Diabetes | Alisi A.,Liver Research Unit
Food Research International | Year: 2013

During the last two decades, the engineered biosynthesis of several natural products by microbial sources has made enormous progresses. Noteworthy, Escherichia coli has been used as microbial power plant for the artificial biosynthesis of different types of molecules for both biological and clinical applications. Among natural products, especially flavonoids and terpenoids are particularly attractive because of the high variety of their biochemical activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity and anti-cancer properties.Here we are reviewing the characteristics of E. coli engineering and its "cell factory" properties to synthesize natural products. This review focuses on the exploitation of E. coli biochemical networking for the specific synthesis of flavonoids and terpenoids. © 2013. Source

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