Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases

Rome, Italy

Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases

Rome, Italy
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Boufana B.,University of Salford | Lett W.S.,University of Salford | Lahmar S.,Parasitology Laboratory | Buishi I.,University of Liberia | And 8 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2015

Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (. cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions. © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc.


Chen Y.-L.,National Taiwan University | De Bernardis F.,Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases | Yu S.-J.,National Taiwan University | Sandini S.,Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

ScOpi1p is a well-characterized transcriptional repressor and master regulator of inositol and phospholipid biosynthetic genes in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An ortholog has been shown to perform a similar function in the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata, but with the distinction that CgOpi1p is essential for growth in this organism. However, in the more distantly related yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the OPI1 homolog was not found to regulate inositol biosynthesis, but alkane oxidation. In Candida albicans, the most common cause of human candidiasis, its Opi1p homolog, CaOpi1p, has been shown to complement a S. cerevisiae opi1Δ mutant for inositol biosynthesis regulation when heterologously expressed, suggesting it might serve a similar role in this pathogen. This was tested in the pathogen directly in this report by disrupting the OPI1 homolog and examining its phenotypes. It was discovered that the OPI1 homolog does not regulate INO1 expression in C. albicans, but it does control SAP2 expression in response to bovine serum albumin containing media. Meanwhile, we found that CaOpi1 represses filamentous growth at lower temperatures (30°C) on agar, but not in liquid media. Although, the mutant does not affect virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection, it does affect virulence in a rat model of vaginitis. This may be because Opi1p regulates expression of the SAP2 protease, which is required for rat vaginal infections. Copyright: © 2015 Chen et al.


De Bernardis F.,Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases | Amacker M.,Pevion Biotech AG | Arancia S.,Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases | Sandini S.,Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases | And 6 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

A novel vaccine (PEV7) consisting of a truncated, recombinant aspartyl proteinase-2 of Candida albicans incorporated into influenza virosomes was studied. This vaccine candidate generated a potent serum antibody response in mouse and rat following intramuscular immunization. Anti-Sap2 IgG and IgA were also detected in the vaginal fluid of rats following intravaginal or intramuscular plus intravaginal administration. In a rat model of candidal vaginitis, PEV7 induced significant, long-lasting, likely antibody-mediated, protection following intravaginal route of immunization. PEV7 was also found to be safe in a repeated-dose toxicological study in rats. Overall, these data provide a sound basis to envisage the clinical development of this new candidate vaccine against candidal vaginitis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


David E.B.,São Paulo State University | Guimaraes S.,São Paulo State University | De Oliveira A.P.,São Paulo State University | De Oliveira-Sequeira T.C.G.,São Paulo State University | And 9 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Several species of protozoa cause acute or chronic gastroenteritis in humans, worldwide. The burden of disease is particularly high among children living in developing areas of the world, where transmission is favored by lower hygienic standards and scarce availability of safe water. However, asymptomatic infection and polyparasitism are also commonly observed in poor settings. Here, we investigated the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in two small fishing villages, Porto Said (PS) and Santa Maria da Serra (SM), situated along the river Tietê in the State of São Paolo, Brazil. The villages lack basic public infrastructure and services, such as roads, public water supply, electricity and public health services. Methods: Multiple fecal samples were collected from 88 individuals in PS and from 38 individuals in SM, who were asymptomatic at the time of sampling and had no recent history of diarrheal disease. To gain insights into potential transmission routes, 49 dog fecal samples (38 from PS and 11 from SM) and 28 river water samples were also collected. All samples were tested by microscopy and PCR was used to genotype Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., Dientamoeba fragilis and Cryptosporidium spp. Results: By molecular methods, the most common human parasite was Blastocystis sp. (prevalence, 45% in PS and 71% in SM), followed by D. fragilis (13.6% in PS, and 18.4% in SM) and G. duodenalis (18.2% in PS and 7.9% in SM); Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected. Sequence analysis revealed large genetic variation among Blastocystis samples, with subtypes (STs) 1 and 3 being predominant, and with the notable absence of ST4. Among G. duodenalis samples, assemblages A and B were detected in humans, whereas assemblages A, C and D were found in dogs. Finally, all D. fragilis samples from humans were genotype 1. A single dog was found infected with Cryptosporidium canis. River water samples were negative for the investigated parasites. Conclusions: This study showed a high carriage of intestinal parasites in asymptomatic individuals from two poor Brazilian villages, and highlighted a large genetic variability of Blastocystis spp. and G. duodenalis. © 2015 David et al; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2012

A novel vaccine (PEV7) consisting of a truncated, recombinant aspartyl proteinase-2 of Candida albicans incorporated into influenza virosomes was studied. This vaccine candidate generated a potent serum antibody response in mouse and rat following intramuscular immunization. Anti-Sap2 IgG and IgA were also detected in the vaginal fluid of rats following intravaginal or intramuscular plus intravaginal administration. In a rat model of candidal vaginitis, PEV7 induced significant, long-lasting, likely antibody-mediated, protection following intravaginal route of immunization. PEV7 was also found to be safe in a repeated-dose toxicological study in rats. Overall, these data provide a sound basis to envisage the clinical development of this new candidate vaccine against candidal vaginitis.


PubMed | Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, São Paulo State University and University of Campinas
Type: | Journal: Parasites & vectors | Year: 2015

Several species of protozoa cause acute or chronic gastroenteritis in humans, worldwide. The burden of disease is particularly high among children living in developing areas of the world, where transmission is favored by lower hygienic standards and scarce availability of safe water. However, asymptomatic infection and polyparasitism are also commonly observed in poor settings. Here, we investigated the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in two small fishing villages, Porto Said (PS) and Santa Maria da Serra (SM), situated along the river Tiet in the State of So Paolo, Brazil. The villages lack basic public infrastructure and services, such as roads, public water supply, electricity and public health services.Multiple fecal samples were collected from 88 individuals in PS and from 38 individuals in SM, who were asymptomatic at the time of sampling and had no recent history of diarrheal disease. To gain insights into potential transmission routes, 49 dog fecal samples (38 from PS and 11 from SM) and 28 river water samples were also collected. All samples were tested by microscopy and PCR was used to genotype Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis sp., Dientamoeba fragilis and Cryptosporidium spp.By molecular methods, the most common human parasite was Blastocystis sp. (prevalence, 45% in PS and 71% in SM), followed by D. fragilis (13.6% in PS, and 18.4% in SM) and G. duodenalis (18.2% in PS and 7.9% in SM); Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected. Sequence analysis revealed large genetic variation among Blastocystis samples, with subtypes (STs) 1 and 3 being predominant, and with the notable absence of ST4. Among G. duodenalis samples, assemblages A and B were detected in humans, whereas assemblages A, C and D were found in dogs. Finally, all D. fragilis samples from humans were genotype 1. A single dog was found infected with Cryptosporidium canis. River water samples were negative for the investigated parasites.This study showed a high carriage of intestinal parasites in asymptomatic individuals from two poor Brazilian villages, and highlighted a large genetic variability of Blastocystis spp. and G. duodenalis.

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