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Growing evidences put B lymphocytes on a central stage in multiple sclerosis (MS) immunopathology. While investigating the effects of interferon-β (IFN-β) therapy, one of the most used first-line disease-modifying drugs for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS, in circulating B-cell sub-populations, we found a specific and marked decrease of CD27+ memory B cells. Interestingly, memory B cells are considered a population with a great disease-driving relevance in MS and resulted to be also target of B-cell depleting therapies. In addition, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), associated with MS etiopathogenesis, harbors in this cell type and an IFN-β-induced reduction of the memory B-cell compartment, in turn, resulted in a decreased expression of the EBV gene latent membrane protein 2A in treated patients. We found that in vivo IFN-β therapy specifically and highly induced apoptosis in memory B cells, in accordance with a strong increase of the apoptotic markers Annexin-V and active caspase-3, via a mechanism requiring the FAS-receptor/TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor) signaling. Thus, efficacy of IFN-β therapy in MS may rely not only on its recognized anti-inflammatory activities but also on the specific depletion of memory B cells, considered to be a pathogenic cell subset, reducing their inflammatory impact in target organs.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 5 July 2016; doi:10.1038/icb.2016.55. © 2016 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc. Source


Imperi M.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Disease | Pittiglio V.,Army Medical and Veterinary Research Center | D'Avenio G.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita | Gherardi G.,Biomedical University of Rome | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2016

A newly developed MLVA seven-loci scheme for Streptococcus pyogenes is described. The method can be successfully applied by using both agarose gel with visual inspections of bands and Lab on Chip technology. The potential of the present MLVA has been tested on a collection of 100 clinical GAS strains representing the most common emm types found in high-income countries plus 18 published gap-free genomes, in comparison to PFGE and MLST. The MLVA analysis defined 30 MLVA types with ten out of the considered 15 emm types exhibiting multiple and specific MLVA types. In only one occasion the same MLVA profile was shared between isolates belonging to two different emm types. A robust congruency between the methods was observed, with MLVA discriminating within clonal complexes as defined by PFGE or MLST. This new MLVA scheme can be adopted as a quick, low-cost and reliable typing method to track the short-term diffusion of GAS clones in inter-laboratory-based surveillance. © 2016. Source


Schiavi E.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Disease | Barletta B.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Disease | Butteroni C.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Disease | Corinti S.,Parasitic and Immune mediated Disease | And 2 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011

Background: No effective treatment is available for food allergy and its primary management still consists of avoiding relevant allergens. Probiotics are claimed to beneficially affect the immune system. We sought to investigate the therapeutic potential of VSL#3 probiotic mixture on specific immune responses and anaphylactic reaction induced in mice by the major food allergen shrimp tropomyosin (ST). Methods: The cytokine production by spleen cell from ST-sensitized mice upon allergen re-stimulation in the presence of VSL#3 was analysed. Next, the effects of oral administration of VSL#3 on allergen-induced anaphylaxis and Th2 response in the murine model of food allergy to ST was investigated by evaluating symptom score and histamine content in the faeces after allergen challenge, antibody response in serum and faeces, and cytokine and transcription factor expression in the jejunum. Results: The in vitro studies on mouse spleen cells indicates that the VSL#3 preparation has the capacity to shift a polarized Th2 response to a Th1/T regulatory-type profile. Oral therapeutic administration of VSL#3 to ST-sensitized mice significantly reduces symptom score and histamine release in the faeces following allergen challenge, as well as specific IgE response. In the jejunum, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 tissue content was significantly reduced, whereas FOXP3 and IL-27 mRNA expression, IL-10, TGF-β and IFN-γ tissue content were up-regulated. Conclusions: Oral therapeutic treatment with the probiotic mixture VSL#3 is effective in redirecting allergen-specific Th2-polarized immune responses towards Th1-T regulatory responses and in the protection against anaphylactic reactions induced by the allergen in a murine model of food allergy. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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