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Umuarama, Brazil

Giolo M.P.,Paranaense University
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial | Year: 2010

Candidemia is a bloodstream infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida spp. The most commonly isolated species in venous blood samples of hospitalized patients are: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsiolosis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. This study aimed at providing a review of candidemia, showing some important aspects of etio-epidemiology, fungus/host relation, and laboratorial diagnosis of this emerging systemic infection. During the onset of candidemia, yeasts play a major role on several virulence factors, which ultimately promote its pathogenesis. Among them, it may be highlighted the extracellular enzyme production, dimorphism, hemolysin synthesis, adhesion ability and biofilm development. In infected patients, medicines must be administered in the early stages to minimize the risks of complications and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, an efficient laboratory diagnosis is required. The study of these factors associated with genotype analysis may contribute decisively to the discovery of new substances that may have a preventive and/or therapeutic effect on patients with candidemia or prone to develop it. Source

Phytotherapy and the use of medicinal plants are part of the practice of folk medicine, which complements treatment traditionally employed for the lower income population. This work analyzed the knowledge of health managers and professionals who work in primary health care (PHC) about phytotherapy in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu in the State of Paraná. An exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study using a structured questionnaire was conducted between February and July 2009. A health manager manifested interest in introducing the program. The other professionals interviewed did not receive training during undergraduate studies or within the Basic Health Units (BHU) where they work. Six professionals (60%) reported having access to information on phytoterapy through folk wisdom, one (10%) via training in a BHU, two (20%) from journals, four (40%) from the media and four mentioned more than one source. In Foz do Iguaçu, in the BHU where the therapy is deployed, the professionals were not consulted before its implementation. To include phytotherapy in the BHUs of these two cities, it is necessary to train the professionals on the topic, including cultivation and prescription, thereby enhancing the rational use of these medicines. Source

Schuster I.,Paranaense University
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Although thousands of scientific articles have been published on the subject of marker-assisted selection (MAS) and quantitative trait loci (QTL), the application of MAS for QTL in plant breeding has been restricted. Among the main causes for this limited use are the low accuracy of QTL mapping and the high costs of genotyping thousands of plants with tens or hundreds of molecular markers in routine breeding programs. Recently, new large-scale genotyping technologies have resulted in a cost reduction. Nevertheless, the MAS for QTL has so far been limited to selection programs using several generations per year, where phenotypic selection cannot be performed in all generations, mainly in recurrent selection programs. Methods of MAS for QTL in breeding programs using self-pollination have been developed. Source

Guarido K.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Goncalves R.P.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gasparotto Jr. A.,Paranaense University | Da Silva-Santos J.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the role of the renal vascular system and the Rho-A/Rho-kinase pathway in the maintenance of the pressor effects of vasopressin in endotoxemic rats. DESIGN: In vitro and in vivo animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Wistar rats (200-300 g). INTERVENTION: Rats received either saline or lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 6 or 24 hours before the experiments. The effects of vasopressin on isolated aortic rings, cardiac function, mean arterial pressure, and both the renal vascular perfusion pressure of perfused kidneys in vitro and renal blood flow in situ were evaluated. The role of Rho-kinase in the renal and systemic effects of vasopressin was investigated through administration of the selective inhibitor Y-27632 and Western blot analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The effect of vasopressin on mean arterial pressure was unaltered and that on renal vascular perfusion pressure enhanced in endotoxemic rats at both 6 and 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide, despite reduced contractile responses in aortic rings and the lack of effect on cardiac function. Vasopressin (3, 10, and 30 pmol/kg, IV) produced increased reduction in renal blood flow in endotoxemic rats. In perfused kidneys from lipopolysaccharide groups, administration of Y-27632 reverted the hyperreactivity to vasopressin. Treatment with Y-27632 partially inhibited the effects of vasopressin on mean arterial pressure and significantly reduced the effects of vasopressin on renal blood flow in control but not in endotoxemic rats. Although the protein levels of Rho-A and Rho-kinase I and II had not been impaired, the levels of phosphorylated myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1, the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase that is inhibited by Rho-kinase, were increased in both the renal cortex and the renal medulla of endotoxemic rats. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that activation of Rho-kinase potentiates the vascular effects of vasopressin in the kidneys, contributing to the maintenance of the hypertensive effects of this agent during septic shock. © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Bolson M.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Hefler S.R.,Grande Rio University | Dall'Oglio Chaves E.I.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Gasparotto Junior A.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | Cardozo Junior E.L.,Paranaense University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro", a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forests. This vegetation is intensely fragmented and disturbed; despite its importance there are few records of the traditional knowledge of medicinal species. Material and methods Twenty-four residents in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro" were interviewed. The residents were questioned about preparation techniques, recommended doses, ways of administration and healing properties of various parts of the plants and were invited to walk through the park to collect in situ some species of plants. The recognized medicinal species were identified and traditional knowledge was systematized. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC and Use Value - UV) were calculated. Results 115 species of medicinal plants belonging to 54 botanical families were cited. Asteraceae (n=14), Fabaceae (n=11), Myrtaceae (n=6), Bignoniaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (n=5) were the most species-rich. The highest use values were calculated for Achyrocline satureioides, Aristolochia triangularis and Bauhinia forficata (0.63). Moreover, the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.024 to 0.663, which shows high level of agreements among the informants for gastro-intestinal and respiratory system diseases. Furthermore, for the first time, new traditional medicinal uses of Asteraceae (Chromolaena pedunculosa Hook. & Arn.), Commelinaceae (Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.) and Polypodiaceae (Microgramma vacciniifolia Langsd. & Fisch.) species were reported. Conclusions Present study revealed that the residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná are rich in ethno-medicinal knowledge and rely on plant-based remedies for common health problems. As in many parts of Brazil knowledge of the past is combined with new knowledge that has recently been incorporated emphasizing the cultural changes that this area is experiencing. Despite the use of different species of plants are crucial to their way of life, there is concern that these rich popular knowledge may disappear in the future as a result of a possible modernization of this area. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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