Umuarama, Brazil

Paranaense University
Umuarama, Brazil
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Boschen S.L.,Federal University of Paraná | Wietzikoski E.C.,Federal University of Paraná | Wietzikoski E.C.,Paranaense University | Winn P.,University of Strathclyde | Cunha C.D.,Federal University of Paraná
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory | Year: 2011

The role of dopamine (DA) in rewarding motivated actions is well established but its role in learning how to avoid aversive events is still controversial. Here we tested the role of D2-like DA receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) of rats in the learning and performance of conditioned avoidance responses (CAR). Adult male Wistar rats received systemic, intra-NAc or intra-DLS (pre- or post-training) administration of a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole) or antagonist ((-)sulpiride) and were given two sessions in the two-way active avoidance task. The main effects observed were: (i) sulpiride and lower (likely pre-synaptic) doses of quinpirole decreased the number of CARs and increased the number of escape failures; (ii) higher doses of quinpirole (likely post-synaptic) increased inter-trial crossings and failures; (iii) pre-training administration of sulpiride decreased the number of CARs in both training and test sessions when infused into the NAc, but this effect was observed only in the test session when it was infused into the DLS; (iv) post-training administration of sulpiride decreased CARs in the test session when infused into the NAc but not DLS. These findings suggest that activation of D2 receptors in the NAc is critical for fast adaptation to responding to unconditioned and conditioned aversive stimuli while activation of these receptors in the DLS is needed for a slower learning of how to respond to the same stimuli based on previous experiences. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Cardozo Junior E.L.,Paranaense University | Morand C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Functional Foods | Year: 2016

Mate or yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) is a native plant from South America regionally highly consumed. Different traditional products (mate, mate tea, chimarrao, tereré) are obtained from the yerba-mate leaves and consumed as herbal tea. Mate is a rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds, mainly caffeoylquinic acids. The wealth of different mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids is a peculiarity of products derived from mate. However, in contrast to other plant-based beverages rich in polyphenols like tea or coffee, the research and the industry have yet little explored the potential interest of mate product to promote human health. To face the burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) a growing interest is assigned to the development of healthier foods, especially those naturally rich in bioactive phenolic compounds with protective effects against the development of chronic diseases. In this respect, this review summarizes the available data on the use of mate, its phytochemical composition and scientific findings from pre-clinical and clinical studies related to cardiovascular health. These studies suggest that consumption of mate and its phenolic compounds may contribute to minimizing some cardiovascular risk factors. In addition to the scientific information produced to date, the current limitations and possibilities to consider the mate as a raw material for functional foods are discussed. Thus, based on the analysis of the limits of available knowledge, new avenues are proposed for future research in the field of mate, functional aspects and cardiovascular health. © 2015.Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Bolson M.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Hefler S.R.,Grande Rio University | Dall'Oglio Chaves E.I.,Pontifical Catholic University of Parana | Gasparotto Junior A.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | Cardozo Junior E.L.,Paranaense University
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro", a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forests. This vegetation is intensely fragmented and disturbed; despite its importance there are few records of the traditional knowledge of medicinal species. Material and methods Twenty-four residents in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro" were interviewed. The residents were questioned about preparation techniques, recommended doses, ways of administration and healing properties of various parts of the plants and were invited to walk through the park to collect in situ some species of plants. The recognized medicinal species were identified and traditional knowledge was systematized. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC and Use Value - UV) were calculated. Results 115 species of medicinal plants belonging to 54 botanical families were cited. Asteraceae (n=14), Fabaceae (n=11), Myrtaceae (n=6), Bignoniaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (n=5) were the most species-rich. The highest use values were calculated for Achyrocline satureioides, Aristolochia triangularis and Bauhinia forficata (0.63). Moreover, the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.024 to 0.663, which shows high level of agreements among the informants for gastro-intestinal and respiratory system diseases. Furthermore, for the first time, new traditional medicinal uses of Asteraceae (Chromolaena pedunculosa Hook. & Arn.), Commelinaceae (Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.) and Polypodiaceae (Microgramma vacciniifolia Langsd. & Fisch.) species were reported. Conclusions Present study revealed that the residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná are rich in ethno-medicinal knowledge and rely on plant-based remedies for common health problems. As in many parts of Brazil knowledge of the past is combined with new knowledge that has recently been incorporated emphasizing the cultural changes that this area is experiencing. Despite the use of different species of plants are crucial to their way of life, there is concern that these rich popular knowledge may disappear in the future as a result of a possible modernization of this area. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Phytotherapy and the use of medicinal plants are part of the practice of folk medicine, which complements treatment traditionally employed for the lower income population. This work analyzed the knowledge of health managers and professionals who work in primary health care (PHC) about phytotherapy in the cities of Cascavel and Foz do Iguaçu in the State of Paraná. An exploratory, descriptive, and qualitative study using a structured questionnaire was conducted between February and July 2009. A health manager manifested interest in introducing the program. The other professionals interviewed did not receive training during undergraduate studies or within the Basic Health Units (BHU) where they work. Six professionals (60%) reported having access to information on phytoterapy through folk wisdom, one (10%) via training in a BHU, two (20%) from journals, four (40%) from the media and four mentioned more than one source. In Foz do Iguaçu, in the BHU where the therapy is deployed, the professionals were not consulted before its implementation. To include phytotherapy in the BHUs of these two cities, it is necessary to train the professionals on the topic, including cultivation and prescription, thereby enhancing the rational use of these medicines.

Kaschuk G.,Paranaense University | Alberton O.,Paranaense University | Hungria M.,Embrapa Soja
Plant and Soil | Year: 2011

Maintenance of soil quality is a key component of agriculture sustainability and a main goal of most farmers, environmentalists and government policymakers. However, as there are no parameters or methods to evaluate soil quality directly, some attributes of relevant soil functions are taken as indicators; lately, an increase in the use of soil microbial parameters has occurred, and their viability as indicators of proper land use has been highlighted. In this study we performed a meta-analysis of the response ratios of several microbial and chemical parameters to soil disturbance by different land uses in the Brazilian biomes. The studies included native forests, pastures and perennial and annual cropping systems. The introduction of agricultural practices in all biomes covered previously with natural vegetation profoundly affected microbial biomass-C (MB-C)-with an overall decrease of 31%. Annual crops most severely reduced microbial biomass and soil organic C, with an average decrease of 53% in the MB-C. In addition, the MB-C/TSOC (total soil organic carbon) ratio was significantly decreased with the transformation of forests to perennial plantation (25%), pastures (26%), and annual cropping (20%). However, each biome reacted differently to soil disturbance, i. e., decreases in MB-C followed the order of Cerrado>Amazon>Caatinga>Atlantic Forest. In addition, the Cerrado appeared to have the most fragile soil ecosystem because of lower MB-C/TSOC and higher qCO2. Unfortunately, the Cerrado and the Amazon, demonstrated by our study as the most fragile biomes, have been subjected to the highest agronomic pressure. The results reported here may help to infer the best land-use strategies to improve soil quality and achieve agriculture sustainability. The approach can also be very useful to monitor soil quality in other tropical and subtropical biomes. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Guarido K.L.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Goncalves R.P.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Gasparotto Jr. A.,Paranaense University | Da Silva-Santos J.E.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the role of the renal vascular system and the Rho-A/Rho-kinase pathway in the maintenance of the pressor effects of vasopressin in endotoxemic rats. DESIGN: In vitro and in vivo animal study. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male Wistar rats (200-300 g). INTERVENTION: Rats received either saline or lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) 6 or 24 hours before the experiments. The effects of vasopressin on isolated aortic rings, cardiac function, mean arterial pressure, and both the renal vascular perfusion pressure of perfused kidneys in vitro and renal blood flow in situ were evaluated. The role of Rho-kinase in the renal and systemic effects of vasopressin was investigated through administration of the selective inhibitor Y-27632 and Western blot analysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The effect of vasopressin on mean arterial pressure was unaltered and that on renal vascular perfusion pressure enhanced in endotoxemic rats at both 6 and 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide, despite reduced contractile responses in aortic rings and the lack of effect on cardiac function. Vasopressin (3, 10, and 30 pmol/kg, IV) produced increased reduction in renal blood flow in endotoxemic rats. In perfused kidneys from lipopolysaccharide groups, administration of Y-27632 reverted the hyperreactivity to vasopressin. Treatment with Y-27632 partially inhibited the effects of vasopressin on mean arterial pressure and significantly reduced the effects of vasopressin on renal blood flow in control but not in endotoxemic rats. Although the protein levels of Rho-A and Rho-kinase I and II had not been impaired, the levels of phosphorylated myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1, the regulatory subunit of myosin phosphatase that is inhibited by Rho-kinase, were increased in both the renal cortex and the renal medulla of endotoxemic rats. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that activation of Rho-kinase potentiates the vascular effects of vasopressin in the kidneys, contributing to the maintenance of the hypertensive effects of this agent during septic shock. © 2014 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

dos Santos S.A.,Paranaense University | Merlini L.S.,Paranaense University
Ciencia e Saude Coletiva | Year: 2010

The epidemiological study on intestinal parasites has the purpose of determining the main diseases and their respective etiologic agents, which are endemically or epidemically spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasitosis infection prevalence, in which age group they prevail, relating the infection with age, gender, and the region in which the person lives, in the city of Maria Helena - PR. Data collection was performed from June of 2004 to May of 2006. 431 samples of feces were analyzed through the spontaneous sedimentation and centrifugal fluctuation methods. The enteroparasitosis prevalence was of 16%, being the most frequent enteroparasitosis: Endolimax nana (6.5%), Entamoeba coli (3.5%), Giardia lamblia (6.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%), Entrobius vermicularis (0.7%), Anchylostomiasis (0.2%), En-tamoeba hystolitica and Taenia sp (0.2%). Poly-parasitism was found in 3.2% of the samples. The age group from 0 to 9 years presented the highest prevalence, however there was no statistical difference among the analyzed factors since p>0.05. From these results, it was possible to conclude that the city presents similar characteristics both in rural and urban zones.

Colauto N.B.,Paranaense University | Silveira A.R.d.,São Paulo State University | Eira A.F.d.,São Paulo State University | Linde G.A.,Paranaense University
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

Casing layer is one of the most important components of Agaricus spp. production and it directly affects mushroom productivity, size and mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential raw materials as a casing layer and their effect on Agaricus brasiliensis productivity. Raw materials from Brazil with potential use were selected and characterized, and the most promising ones were tested as casing layers for mushroom yield. Evaluated raw materials included lime schist, vermiculite, eucalyptus sawdust, sand, São Paulo peat, Santa Catarina peat, subsoil and charcoal. Particle size, porosity and water absorption in relation to mushroom yield for casing layers were determined. Lime schist, an alternate casing layer to peat, is presented and the effects of the casing layer on the mushroom yield are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Schuster I.,Paranaense University
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Although thousands of scientific articles have been published on the subject of marker-assisted selection (MAS) and quantitative trait loci (QTL), the application of MAS for QTL in plant breeding has been restricted. Among the main causes for this limited use are the low accuracy of QTL mapping and the high costs of genotyping thousands of plants with tens or hundreds of molecular markers in routine breeding programs. Recently, new large-scale genotyping technologies have resulted in a cost reduction. Nevertheless, the MAS for QTL has so far been limited to selection programs using several generations per year, where phenotypic selection cannot be performed in all generations, mainly in recurrent selection programs. Methods of MAS for QTL in breeding programs using self-pollination have been developed.

Colauto N.B.,Paranaense University | da Eira A.F.,São Paulo State University | Linde G.A.,Paranaense University
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The preservation of Agaricus blazei is generally done by mycelial subculturing, but this technique may cause genetic degenerations. Despite this, there is not an efficient protocol established to preserve this fungus and cryopreservation could be an alternative. This study aimed to evaluate two freezing protocols for cryopreservation at -80°C of A. blazei strains. Five fungus strains grown on rice grains with husk and were transferred to glycerol (10%) in cryovials. Next, the cryovials were submitted to two freezing temperature protocols: (1) cryopreservation starting at 25°C, then at 8°C for 30 min and kept at -80°C; (2) cryopreservation starting at 25°C, then 8°C for 30 min, -196°C for 15 min and kept at -80°C. After 1 year of cryopreservation, the cryovials were thawed in a water bath at 30°C for 15 min and transferred to malt extract agar medium. It was concluded that the one-year cryopreservation process of A. blazei, grown on rice grains and cryopreserved at -80°C in glycerol 10%, is viable. The slow freezing, from 8 to -80°C, is effective whereas the fast freezing, from 8 to -196°C and then to -80°C, is ineffective. The different genetic characteristics among the strains of this fungus do not interfere in the cryopreservation process. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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