Paramount Farming Company

Bakersfield, CA, United States

Paramount Farming Company

Bakersfield, CA, United States
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Mahoney N.E.,Albany Research Center | Gee W.S.,Albany Research Center | Higbee B.S.,Paramount Farming Company | Beck J.J.,Albany Research Center
Phytochemistry Letters | Year: 2014

The spiroketal conophthorin has recently been implicated as an important semiochemical of the navel orangeworm moth (Amyelois transitella), a major insect pest to California tree nuts. Additionally, new evidence demonstrates that fungal spores in the presence of linoleic acid produce conophthorin. Numerous investigations have analyzed the volatile emissions of almonds and pistachios under varying conditions, yet there are few reports of conophthorin as a volatile component. Previous studies by our laboratories have suggested almond hulls may be a source of conophthorin production. Accordingly, the volatile emissions of ex situ almond and pistachio ground hulls were surveyed at several developmental stages. Each ground sample was analyzed at various intervals to determine if conophthorin was produced. The almond and pistachio samples were presumed to have a natural fungal bouquet present. Additionally, the fatty acid composition, water content, and water activity of the hulls were analyzed for each sample. Conophthorin and the structurally similar compound chalcogran were detected from almond hulls and shells, but not from the pistachio samples. The almond and pistachio hulls were investigated for four fatty acid components - palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic. The fatty acid composition of almond hulls varied greatly throughout the growing season, whereas the composition of pistachio hulls remained relatively constant. Both water content and activity were constant in early stages of almond growth then dropped in the later stages of hull split. Spiroketal emission along with other associated volatiles is discussed. This is the first report of the fatty acid composition, water content, and water activity of developing almond and pistachio hulls.


Burks C.S.,San Joaquin Valley Agricultural science Center | Higbee B.S.,Paramount Farming Company
Environmental Entomology | Year: 2013

The sampling range of pheromone traps for the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its association with abundance was investigated by examining mutual interference within cross-shaped arrays of nine wing traps baited with virgin females and placed at 400-m intervals in three 256-ha blocks of almonds (Prunus dulcis [Miller] D. A. Webb), and three of pistachios (Pistacia vera L.). The proportions of males captured in the different positions were compared with the mean males for all traps, used as an index for abundance. For means between zero and 50 males per trap per week, the distribution was unequal between trap positions and the greatest proportion of males were captured in the northern-most trap (i.e., the within-row direction). Between 50 and 100 males per trap per week, most males were captured in the western-most traps and fewest in the center, and proportions were equal in other trap positions. Above 100 males per trap per week, the proportion of males captured was more nearly equal for all trap positions. These results demonstrate that the sampling range of pheromone traps for navel orangeworm is density dependent and, at low densities, is >400 m. They also indicate that abundance affects the impact of direction (orientation) of trap interference. At low density, female-strength pheromone traps sample males from beyond the block in which they are placed for orchard blocks of <50 ha. © 2013 Entomological Society of America.


Girling R.D.,University of Southampton | Higbee B.S.,Paramount Farming Company | Carde R.T.,University of California at Riverside
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2013

The trajectories of pheromone plumes in canopied habitats, such as orchards, have been little studied. We documented the capture of male navel orangeworm moths, Amyelois transitella, in female-baited traps positioned at 5 levels, from ground level to the canopy top, at approximately 6 m above ground, in almond orchards. Males were captured in similar proportions at all levels, suggesting that they do not favor a particular height during ranging flight. A 3-D sonic anemometer was used to establish patterns of wind flow and temperature at 6 heights from 2.08 to 6.65 m in an almond orchard with a 5 m high canopy, every 3 h over 72 h. The horizontal velocity of wind flow was highest above the canopy, where its directionality also was the most consistent. During the time of A. transitella mating (0300-0600), there was a net vertical displacement upward. Vertical buoyancy combined with only minor reductions in the distance that plumes will travel in the lower compared to the upper canopy suggest that the optimal height for release of pheromone from high-release-rate sources, such as aerosol dispensers ("puffers"), that are deployed at low densities (e.g., 3 per ha.) would be at mid or low in the canopy, thereby facilitating dispersion of disruptant throughout the canopy. Optimal placement of aerosol dispensers will vary with the behavioral ecology of the target pest; however, our results suggest that current protocols, which generally propose dispenser placement in the upper third of the canopy, should be reevaluated. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Higbee B.S.,Paramount Farming Company | Siegel J.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Large-scale field efficacy trials of methoxyfenozide (Intrepid), a reduced-risk molting agonist insecticide, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in an orchard containing 'Nonpareil' and 'Sonora' almonds [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] located in Kern County, CA. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, the organophosphate phosmet (Imidan) alone or in combination with methoxyfenozide, or the pyrethroid permethrin (Perm-Up) were tested for efficacy against the primary lepidopteran pest navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and three other lepidopteran pests of almond: oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Two or three applications of methoxyfenozide (bracketing hull split or spring plus bracketing hull split) were more effective than a single hull split application of phosmet, phosmet combined with permethrin, or methoxyfenozide. In these trials, a spring application followed by a posthull split application was as effective as the applications bracketing hull split. Navel orangeworm accounted for >60% of the total damage, whereas oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer were the dominant secondary pests. In experiments conducted in 2010 to assess the direct toxicity of methoxyfenozide to navel orangeworm eggs under field conditions, exposure to methoxyfenozide reduced survival by 9699%. We conclude that this reduced-risk insecticide is effective, although its efficacy is maximized with more than one well-timed application. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Beck J.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Higbee B.S.,Paramount Farming Company
ACS Symposium Series | Year: 2013

The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) is a major insect pest that inflicts serious economic damage to the California tree nut industry. Feeding by navel orangeworm larvae causes physical damage resulting in lower kernel quality; more importantly larvae are purported to vector the aflatoxigenic fungi. Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites produced by aspergilli and represent a major food safety concern. Over the years volatile natural products have played a large role in efforts to control or monitor navel orangeworm moths. The two most important sources of relevant natural products have been female navel orangeworm, which produce a complex sex pheromone blend; and, the almond host plant, which has recently been described as the source of a blend of volatiles that attract both male and female navel orangeworm. Provided herein is an overview of natural products and their role in efforts to control or monitor navel orangeworm moths in California almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Egg traps are the primary tool for monitoring egg deposition of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and for timing treatments for this pest in almonds, Prunus amygdalus Batsch, and pistachios, Pistacia vera L. We compared, in almond and pistachio orchards, the number of eggs per trap in traps baited with almond meal, pistachio meal, or the current standard commercial bait. When considering cumulative eggs captured over an extended period, traps baited with pistachio meal prepared from previous-crop nuts generally captured a similar number of eggs compared with the commercial bait, and more eggs than those baited with almond meal prepared from previous-crop nuts. However, differences in eggs per trap between bait formulations were not as evident when examining individual weeks, particularly in weeks with few eggs per trap, as is typical when treatment decisions are made. The variance in eggs per trap was generally greater than the mean and increased with the mean and, when mean eggs per trap was low, most traps did not have eggs. We discuss implications of these findings for the relative importance of bait type and trap numbers for monitoring, and for experiments comparing egg trap performance.


Patent
Paramount Farming Company | Date: 2013-12-04

A new and distinct variety of pistachio tree characterized by producing large leaves, reddish-green new foliage, and dark green mature foliage. The new variety is useful as a rootstock for commercial nut bearing pistachio varieties.


Patent
Paramount Farming Company | Date: 2013-12-04

A new and distinct variety of pistachio tree characterized by producing large leaves, reddish-green new foliage, and dark green mature foliage. The new variety is useful as a rootstock for commercial nut bearing pistachio varieties.


Patent
The United States Of America and Paramount Farming LLC | Date: 2015-09-18

The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on the navel orangeworm moth (NOW). In some embodiments, the blends of volatile organic compounds attract navel orangeworm moths. In other embodiments, the blends disrupt ovipositional activity of the female NOW. The invention also relates to traps baited with any one or more of the disclosed volatile blends, which are effective for controlling NOW.


Artz D.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Allan M.J.,Pacific Pollination LLC | Wardell G.I.,Paramount Farming Company | Pitts-Singer T.L.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Insect Conservation and Diversity | Year: 2013

The potential of commercially managed, native blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, to augment honey bees in orchard pollination depends on various factors, particularly how to enhance O. lignaria retention while optimising even pollination throughout orchards by varying their stocking density and nesting site distribution. In 2011, we investigated how artificial nest box density and the number of cavities within nest boxes influenced O. lignaria retention and reproduction in a 61 ha almond orchard pollinated by a mixture of O. lignaria and Apis mellifera in the southern Central Valley of California. We assessed how localised O. lignaria nesting affected total nut yield. Retention of O. lignaria females was significantly greater in orchard areas with high density nest boxes compared with areas with low density nest boxes. Females preferred to nest in high density (low cavity) nest boxes compared to low density (high cavity) nest boxes. All measures of O. lignaria reproductive success were greater in orchard areas with high density nest boxes than areas with low density nest boxes. Localised O. lignaria foraging and nesting activity influenced nut yield by producing more nuts in orchard areas with high density nest boxes compared with low density nest boxes, although differences in nut yield just failed to meet statistical significance. Results of this study show that the density and distribution of nest boxes for nesting O. lignaria females can strongly influence the reproductive success of an alternative, managed bee pollinator in a large production orchard. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

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