Papworth Everard, United Kingdom
Papworth Everard, United Kingdom

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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2013.2.3.1-2 | Award Amount: 7.84M | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the most significant challenge facing the EU health care system. The unnecessary use of antibiotics is a key driver in the development of antibiotic resistance. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) represents a unique disease model to study bacterial resistance and to explore therapeutic strategies for same, as chronic lung infection overlaps with acute lung exacerbations caused by a multitude of organisms that traditionally evolve various mechanisms of resistance. With time, chronic polymicrobial infection develops, with the most dominant infecting organism being Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is also important in other infections including wounds, burns and patients with medical devices, making it an important clinical target for the EU. In CF infections, empiric intravenous antibiotics are usually given for two weeks. Recurrent infections and treatments result in increasing antimicrobial resistance, and alterations in pathogen host interactions in the lung and gut flora. Next-generation DNA sequencing technology now offers DNA-based personalised diagnostics and treatment strategies. Enhancing our knowledge of the microbiome allows the use of stratified targeted antibacterial therapy that can be compared with standard empirical antibacterial therapy currently used. We believe this will reduce antibiotic usage, optimize dosage and duration startegies as the therapy will be tailored to the actual individual patient needs. Cystic Fibrosis Microbiome-determined Antimicrobial Therapy Trial in Exacerbations: Results Stratified (CF MATTERS) will provide a randomized multi-centre controlled trial of microbiome-derived antimicrobial treatments versus current empirical therapy. Simultaneously parallel human host-pathogen interaction studies in sputa, human gut microflora analysis and evaluation of murine exacerbation models will be performed. This will improve prescription practice and decrease antimicrobial usage and resistance.


News Article | November 4, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

The Victor Dahdaleh Foundation has this week made a £5million donation to the British Lung Foundation to fund vital research into mesothelioma, matching UK government funding announced in March. The donation is the largest ever made to the BLF. The landmark gift from the charitable organisation of Canadian philanthropist Victor Dahdaleh will support the research teams at the University of Leicester and Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in Cambridge, both of which will join forces with the government-funded National Mesothelioma Research Centre at Imperial College to develop new treatments for the disease. In a further boost to mesothelioma research and to maximise patient benefit, the British Lung Foundation will also establish a Mesothelioma Research Network, to include the research programmes at Leicester, Papworth and Imperial together with other specialist mesothelioma centres across the UK. Speaking at the announcement on Tuesday, Victor Dahdaleh said: "The Foundation is delighted to be working with the British Lung Foundation and the teams at Leicester, Papworth and Imperial to support this vital research, ultimately to find a cure for mesothelioma. "While the UK already has world leading expertise in studying and treating mesothelioma, we hope that our donation, matching the government funding announced earlier this year, will enhance research programmes and enable closer collaboration between all those working hard to bring tangible benefits to patients affected by this dreadful disease. "The professionalism and commitment already shown by all the teams involved give us confidence that together we can make a real difference over the next four years." Mesothelioma is a type of cancer which affects the chest or abdomen, and is particularly associated with exposure to asbestos fibres. There are more than 5,400 sufferers in the UK, and numbers have increased over the last four decades. With no cure, 2,500 people die in Britain each year from the disease, often with frightening speed - the average survival time after diagnosis is just 11 months. Dr Penny Woods, chief executive of the British Lung Foundation said: "This unprecedented and generous donation from the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation means we can co-ordinate a network of researchers into mesothelioma and ensure that the number and scope of research projects and clinical trials can be greatly increased. This investment will help to speed up much needed progress in finding better treatments and, eventually, a cure for this awful killer disease. "We will continue to pursue further funding from individuals and industry, including insurers and businesses to secure the long-term future of the Mesothelioma Research Network. We won't stop until a cure is found." The donation from the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation is the latest in a long history of support for health-related issues around the world. In Canada last year, the Foundation funded the Dahdaleh Institute for Global Health, a state-of-the art research facility at York University in Toronto. The institute, which was funded by a record $20million donation to the university, will seek to reframe the ways in which high- and low-income countries collaborate on global health challenges. At McGill University in Montreal, the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation this year funded the establishment of a new chair in neurosciences, which will integrate the university's neurology, psychiatry and rehabilitation science expertise. The Foundation also doubled an existing scholarship endowment, which gives overseas students the opportunity to study at the university. Back in the UK, the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation supports efforts to find new treatments for a range of cardiovascular diseases, and has funded research at Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital in London and Middlesex. Alongside health and wellness, the Foundation is committed to giving young disadvantaged people opportunities for higher education at some of the world's top universities. Through Victor Dahdaleh's strong affiliations with a number of leading academic institutions, his charitable organisation has set up several scholarship programmes aimed at students from lower income countries. Victor Dahdaleh is the owner and chairman of Dadco, a privately owned investment, manufacturing and trading group established in 1915. A lifelong promoter of closer collaboration between Canada and the UK, he served as president of the Canada-United Kingdom Chamber of Commerce from 2004 to 2009. For more information on the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation, visit victordahdalehfoundation.com


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

A multi-drug resistant infection that can cause life-threatening illness in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can spread from patient to patient has spread globally and is becoming increasingly virulent, according to new research published today in the journal Science. The study, led by the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, also suggests that conventional cleaning will not be sufficient to eliminate the pathogen, which can be transmitted through contaminated surfaces or in the air. Mycobacterium abscessus, a species of multidrug resistant mycobacteria, has recently emerged as a significant global threat to individuals with cystic fibrosis and other lung diseases. It can cause a severe pneumonia leading to accelerated inflammatory damage to the lungs, and may prevent safe lung transplantation. It is also extremely difficult to treat - fewer than one in three cases is treated successfully. It was previously thought that patients acquired the infection from the environment and that transmission between patients never occurred. The research team had previously studied one specialist CF centre in the UK and identified genetic and epidemiological evidence suggesting person-to-person transmission of M. abscessus but it was unclear whether this was a one off incident. Now, by sequencing the whole genomes of over 1,000 isolates of mycobacteria from 517 individuals attending CF specialist centres in Europe, the US and Australia, researchers have demonstrated that the majority of CF patients have acquired transmissible forms of M. abscessus that have spread globally. Further analysis suggests that the infection may be transmitted within hospitals via contaminated surfaces and through airborne transmission. This presents a potentially serious challenge to infection control practices in hospitals. Using a combination of cell-based and mouse models, the researchers showed that the recently-evolved mycobacteria were more virulent, likely to cause more serious disease in patients. "This mycobacterium can cause very serious infections that are extremely challenging to treat, requiring combination treatment with multiple antibiotics for 18 months or longer, " says Professor Andres Floto from the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, and the Cambridge Centre for Lung Infection at Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. "The bug initially seems to have entered the patient population from the environment, but we think it has recently evolved to become capable of jumping from patient to patient, getting more virulent as it does so." Professor Julian Parkhill from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute at Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, adds: "Our research should provide a degree of hope: now that we know the extent of the problem and are beginning to understand how the infection spreads, we can start to respond. Our work has already helped inform infection control policies and provides the means to monitor the effectiveness of these." The Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, has led the development and implementation of new infection control policies to reduce the risk of transmission, now adopted across the UK and elsewhere. This study has also influenced the design of a new CF unit, due to open within the New Papworth Hospital on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus in 2018, which will incorporate a state-of-the-art air handling system. One question that the researchers will now aim to answer is how the pathogen manages to spread globally. Their current study has shown that not only can it spread between individuals within specialist centres, but it has also been able to spread from continent to continent. The mechanism for this is unclear, but the researchers speculate that healthy individuals may be unwittingly carrying the mycobacteria between countries. The sequencing data has also revealed potential new drug targets, and the team is now focused on working with other groups at the University of Cambridge and Colorado State University to develop these further. Dr Janet Allen, Director of Strategic Innovation at the CF Trust, said: "This paper highlights the risks posed through transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms between people with cystic fibrosis. The team in Cambridge are a world authority in this area. This work demonstrates the global threat of this infection, the risks of cross-infection within and between CF centres, and the need for improved surveillance. This study exemplifies the enormous impact of CF Trust-funded Strategic Research Centres, which were designed to generate world-class research with the very highest impact. Without the support of the CF community, this landmark study would not have been possible." Around one in 2,500 children in the UK is born with cystic fibrosis, a hereditary condition that causes the lungs to become clogged up with thick, sticky mucus. The condition tends to decrease life expectancy among patients. The research was funded by the Wellcome Trust and the UK Cystic Fibrosis Trust. Bryant, JM et al. Emergence and spread of a human transmissible multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterium. Science; 11 Nov 2016


News Article | November 11, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A multi-drug resistant infection that can cause life-threatening illness in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and can spread from patient to patient has spread globally and is becoming increasingly virulent, according to new research published today in the journal Science. The study, led by the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, also suggests that conventional cleaning will not be sufficient to eliminate the pathogen, which can be transmitted through contaminated surfaces or in the air. Mycobacterium abscessus, a species of multidrug resistant mycobacteria, has recently emerged as a significant global threat to individuals with cystic fibrosis and other lung diseases. It can cause a severe pneumonia leading to accelerated inflammatory damage to the lungs, and may prevent safe lung transplantation. It is also extremely difficult to treat -- fewer than one in three cases is treated successfully. It was previously thought that patients acquired the infection from the environment and that transmission between patients never occurred. The research team had previously studied one specialist CF centre in the UK and identified genetic and epidemiological evidence suggesting person-to-person transmission of M. abscessus but it was unclear whether this was a one off incident. Now, by sequencing the whole genomes of over 1,000 isolates of mycobacteria from 517 individuals attending CF specialist centres in Europe, the US and Australia, researchers have demonstrated that the majority of CF patients have acquired transmissible forms of M. abscessus that have spread globally. Further analysis suggests that the infection may be transmitted within hospitals via contaminated surfaces and through airborne transmission. This presents a potentially serious challenge to infection control practices in hospitals. Using a combination of cell-based and mouse models, the researchers showed that the recently-evolved mycobacteria were more virulent, likely to cause more serious disease in patients. "This mycobacterium can cause very serious infections that are extremely challenging to treat, requiring combination treatment with multiple antibiotics for 18 months or longer," says Professor Andres Floto from the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, and the Cambridge Centre for Lung Infection at Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. "The bug initially seems to have entered the patient population from the environment, but we think it has recently evolved to become capable of jumping from patient to patient, getting more virulent as it does so." Professor Julian Parkhill from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute at Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, adds: "Our research should provide a degree of hope: now that we know the extent of the problem and are beginning to understand how the infection spreads, we can start to respond. Our work has already helped inform infection control policies and provides the means to monitor the effectiveness of these." The Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire, has led the development and implementation of new infection control policies to reduce the risk of transmission, now adopted across the UK and elsewhere. This study has also influenced the design of a new CF unit, due to open within the New Papworth Hospital on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus in 2018, which will incorporate a state-of-the-art air handling system. One question that the researchers will now aim to answer is how the pathogen manages to spread globally. Their current study has shown that not only can it spread between individuals within specialist centres, but it has also been able to spread from continent to continent. The mechanism for this is unclear, but the researchers speculate that healthy individuals may be unwittingly carrying the mycobacteria between countries. The sequencing data has also revealed potential new drug targets, and the team is now focused on working with other groups at the University of Cambridge and Colorado State University to develop these further. Dr Janet Allen, Director of Strategic Innovation at the CF Trust, said: "This paper highlights the risks posed through transmission of multi-drug resistant organisms between people with cystic fibrosis. The team in Cambridge are a world authority in this area. This work demonstrates the global threat of this infection, the risks of cross-infection within and between CF centres, and the need for improved surveillance. This study exemplifies the enormous impact of CF Trust-funded Strategic Research Centres, which were designed to generate world-class research with the very highest impact. Without the support of the CF community, this landmark study would not have been possible." Around one in 2,500 children in the UK is born with cystic fibrosis, a hereditary condition that causes the lungs to become clogged up with thick, sticky mucus. The condition tends to decrease life expectancy among patients. The research was funded by the Wellcome Trust and the UK Cystic Fibrosis Trust.


News Article | November 14, 2016
Site: www.rdmag.com

A multi-drug resistant infection that impacts patients with cystic fibrosis has spread globally. According to a study led by the University of Cambridge and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, the infection can spread patient to patient and is becoming increasingly harmful and life-threatening. The study suggests that conventional cleaning will not sufficiently eliminate the pathogen, which can be transmitted through contaminated surfaces or in the air. “This mycobacterium can cause very serious infections that are extremely challenging to treat, requiring combination treatment with multiple antibiotics for 18 months or longer,” Prof. Andres Floto from the Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge and the Cambridge Centre for Lung Infection at Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, said in a statement. “The bug initially seems to have entered the patient population from the environment, but we think it has recently evolved to become capable of jumping from patient to patient, getting more virulent as it does so.” The pathogen, Mycobacterium abscessus, is a species of multidrug resistant mycobacteria and has recently emerged as a significant global threat to individuals with CF and other lung diseases. The symptoms include severe pneumonia, which leads to accelerated inflammatory damage to the lungs and may prevent safe lung transplantation. The infection is deemed extremely difficult to treat with fewer than one in three cases treated successfully. It was previously believed that patients acquired the infection from the environment and that transmission between patients never occurred. However, one U.K. specialist identified genetic and epidemiological evidence suggesting person-to-person transmission of M. abscessus, but it was unclear whether this was a one-off incident. By sequencing the whole genomes of more than 1,000 isolates of mycobacteria from 517 individuals attending CF specialist centers in Europe, the U.S. and Australia, researchers have demonstrated that the majority of CF patients have acquired the infection in transmissible forms that may have spread within hospitals via contaminated surfaces and through airborne transmission. The researchers used a combination of cell-based and mouse models to show that the recently-evolved mycobacteria were more virulent, likely to cause more serious disease in patients. Because of the infection the U.K. and other countries have adopted infection-control policies developed by the Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridgeshire. Researchers will now study how the pathogen managed to spread globally and potential new drug targets. About one in 2,500 children in the U.K. is born with cystic fibrosis, a hereditary condition that causes the lungs to become clogged up with thick, sticky mucus. The condition tends to decrease life expectancy among patients.


News Article | February 23, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.co.uk

The Victor Dahdaleh Foundation - the charitable organisation of Canadian entrepreneur and philanthropist Victor Dahdaleh - has signed a formal agreement to donate £5 million to the British Lung Foundation to fund mesothelioma research in the UK. The donation, which matches government funding announced last year, was made official at a signing ceremony in the House of Lords today. It is the largest ever made to the BLF. The funding will support the development of new treatments for the disease by a combined research team from the University of Leicester, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in Cambridge, and the government-funded National Mesothelioma Research Centre at Imperial College in London. Today's ceremony was attended by a number of eminent peers and academics, including the sociologist Lord Giddens; entrepreneur Lord Borwick; and Professor Stephen Spiro, formerly head of respiratory medicine at UCLH. Speaking at the ceremony, Victor Dahdaleh said the Foundation was confident that the team would be able to deliver tangible benefits for patients. "We are delighted to be working in coordination with the British Lung Foundation, the UK Department of Health, and the research team to support the quest for new treatments for this terrible disease. "The UK already has leading expertise in mesothelioma research, and we believe that by working together in this way we can do even more. The professionalism we have already seen from everyone involved has been second-to-none." In an additional move towards greater collaboration between research centres, the British Lung Foundation has formed a Mesothelioma Research Network, involving the programmes at Leicester, Papworth and Imperial together with other specialist mesothelioma centres across the UK. Mesothelioma, a type of cancer commonly affecting the chest or abdomen, is on the rise in the UK, with 2,500 people dying from it each year. The disease is most closely associated with asbestos exposure and often kills with alarming speed. Dr Penny Woods, chief executive of the British Lung Foundation, said: "It is hugely exciting for all of us here to be officially marking the start of a new chapter in research into mesothelioma. Along with the government funding announced last year, this generous support from the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation will enable us to coordinate a network of highly skilled researchers and greatly increase the size and scope of clinical trials. "We are also confident that this donation will prompt further funding and allow us to continue to expand the programme. We will not rest until we find a cure." The Victor Dahdaleh Foundation has a long history of supporting health-related causes around the world. In 2015, the organisation funded the Dahdaleh Institute for Global Health - a state-of-the-art research facility at York University in Toronto, Canada. Also in Canada, the Foundation last year financed neuroscientific research at McGill University in Montreal into diseases including multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's. In the UK, the Foundation is a long-standing supporter of research into cardiovascular disease, and has backed a range of studies carried out by teams at Imperial College and Royal Brompton Hospital. As well as healthcare, the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation promotes access to education by funding scholarships programmes that give young people from disadvantaged backgrounds the opportunity to study at top universities around the world. Victor Dahdaleh is the owner and chairman of Dadco, a privately owned investment, manufacturing and trading group established in 1915. A lifelong champion of close ties between Canada and the UK, he served as president of the Canada-United Kingdom Chamber of Commerce from 2004 to 2009. For more information on the Victor Dahdaleh Foundation, visit victordahdalehfoundation.com.


Slade M.,Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Pneumothorax refers to the presence of air within the pleural cavity, which may arise from a spontaneous defect in the visceral pleural surface, or through iatrogenic or other thoracic trauma. The most common cause in the developed world is iatrogenic pneumothorax. Most frequently, it can be managed conservatively or through simple pleural aspiration or drainage. A persistent air leak, >2 days' duration, develops in one-third of patients. When patients are managed with chest drainage alone, the median time for resolution of air leak is longer in patients with a pneumothorax secondary to an underlying lung disease (11 vs. 7 days). Interventional pulmonology is not usually required for the resolution of simple pneumothorax, but offers important minimally invasive techniques for treating persistent air leak and bronchopleural fistula. Following assessment of the site of the air leak within the bronchial tree, techniques are described for the sealing of leak using tissue or fibrin glues, endobronchial devices of various kinds, and combination approaches. Bronchoscopic sealing of air leaks can often avoid the requirement for thoracic surgical intervention. They may prove life-saving in patients who are difficult to wean from mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation because of catastrophic air leaks. Copyright © 2014 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.


Fynn S.P.,Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Current cardiology reviews | Year: 2015

Focal atrial tachycardias arise preferentially from specific locations within the atria. Careful analysis of the P wave can provide useful information about the chamber and likely site of origin within that chamber. Macro-reentrant atrial flutter also tends to occur over a limited number of potential circuits. In this case, the ECG usually gives a guide to the chamber of origin, but unless it shows a specific morphology it is less useful in delineating the circuit involved. Nonetheless, prior knowledge of the likely chamber of origin helps to plan the ablation strategy.


Patent
Papworth Hospital Nhs Foundation Trust | Date: 2010-01-21

An apparatus provides short-term cardiac support after cardiac surgery using a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) pump (or heart-lung machine) having a pump coupled to a pump controller for pumping oxygenated blood through a cannula into the patient The pump controller controls the pump in a first mode to generate pulsatile flow of the oxygenated blood to the patient, and in a second mode to provide counter-pulsatile flow of blood through the cannula synchronized with the heart of the patient, whereby, when the heart of the patient is in diastole, the pump forces blood from the cannula into the patient, and when the heart is in systole, the pump removes blood from the patient via the cannula.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: ERC-POC | Phase: ERC-PoC-2015 | Award Amount: 149.40K | Year: 2016

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The best current therapy reduces CV risk by only 25-30% and remains ineffective in reducing the excess risk associated with several co-morbidities. Therefore, there is considerable need for new therapies to limit the burden of CVD. Based on a current ERC Starting Grant project, the applicants group proposed and validated the concept that mature B lymphocytes are instrumental in the orchestration of the inflammatory response after ischemic myocardial injury, in part through production of CCL7 chemokine and mobilisation/recruitment of inflammatory monocytes to the infarction site (Zouggari Y et al., Nat Med 2013). Our goal now is to translate this ground-breaking discovery and novel therapeutic concept into benefit for patients. The overall objective of the RITA-MI project is to develop a new and cost-effective therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) based on selective targeting of the B cell immune response, with the ultimate aim to substantially reduce the high risk of death and major cardiovascular events associated with the disease. Interestingly, the drug, CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab, is readily available for testing in a re-purposing scheme, allowing for rapid initiation of this proof-of-concept clinical trial. Working Hypothesis: A single infusion of rituximab at the acute phase of MI is safe, substantially depletes circulating B cells, and has the potential to limit infarction size and improves myocardial heart function. Overall objective: Does a fire and forget approach with rituximab (a single intravenous infusion) reduce infarct size and/or improve heart function in patients with acute STEMI? The overall aim will be pursued through a series of specific objectives, which will correspond to a first step of a dose-finding proof-of-concept study (the present RITA-MI project), followed (if successful) by a phase II clinical efficacy trial.

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