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Papworth Everard, United Kingdom

Kirmani B.H.,Papworth Hospital
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

Lung cancer staging has improved in recent years. Assuming that contemporary detailed preoperative staging may yield a lower rate of stage change after surgery, we were interested to determine the impact of our lymph node dissections performed at the time of surgical resection. We retrospectively analysed a database in our surgical unit that prospectively captured information on all patients assessed and treated for lung cancer. We reviewed the data on patients who underwent lung cancer surgery with curative intent between January 2006 and August 2010 so as to reflect contemporary practice. Prior to potentially curative treatment, patients systematically underwent staging computerized tomography (CT), integrated positron emission tomography (PET) with CT and brain imaging. Enlarged and/or PET-positive nodes were subject to invasive evaluation to establish the nodal status in line with the current guidelines. This was performed by needle aspiration or biopsy usually with ultrasound guidance, endobronchial or endo-oesophageal ultrasound with needle biopsy; mediastinoscopy; mediastinotomy; video-assisted or open surgery. Three hundred and twelve lung cancer resections were performed (a mean age of 68 years [range 42-86] and a male-to-female ratio of 1.14:1). Despite thorough preoperative evaluations, 25.3% of patients had a change in nodal status after lung resection and lymph node dissection; of which 20.8% of patients had a nodal status upstaging. Occult N2 disease was identified in 31 (9.9%) of 312 patients. Patients with cT1 tumours showed a nodal upstaging of 12.3% compared with 25.3% in cT2 tumours. There was no difference in the rate of N2 disease for different tumour histological types. Despite systematic preoperative staging, there continues to be a high rate of nodal status change following surgical resection and lymph node dissection. If considering non-surgical treatments for the early stage lung cancer, the impact of this discrepancy should be considered. If not, errors in prognosis and in determining correct adjuvant treatment may arise. Source

Mahesh B.,Papworth Hospital
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is frequently present in patients undergoing aortic, and particularly mitral valve, surgery. Untreated FTR may lead to right heart failure. Reoperative cardiac surgery for late FTR is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, severe FTR has emerged as a Class I indication for concomitant tricuspid valve surgery in patients undergoing left valve surgery. Concomitant tricuspid valve surgery during left heart valve surgery to address moderate and mild FTR is controversial. This review addresses this issue and proposes an algorithm for the treatment of FTR in patients undergoing left heart valve surgery. Source

Haworth C.S.,Cambridge Center for Lung Infection | Foweraker J.E.,Papworth Hospital | Kenyon R.F.,Profile Pharma Ltd. | Bilton D.,Host Defence Unit
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2014

Rationale: Chronic infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with an increased exacerbation frequency, a more rapid decline in lung function, and increased mortality in patients with bronchiectasis. Objectives: To perform a randomized placebo-controlled study assessing the efficacy and safety of inhaled colistin in patients with bronchiectasis and chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Methods: Patients with bronchiectasis and chronic P. aeruginosa infection were enrolled within 21 days of completing a course of antipseudomonal antibiotics for an exacerbation. Participants were randomized to receive colistin (1 million IU; n = 73) or placebo (0.45% saline; n = 71) via the I-neb twice a day, for up to 6 months. Measurements and Main Results: The primary endpoint was time to exacerbation. Secondary endpoints included time to exacerbation based on adherence recorded by the I-neb, P. aeruginosa bacterial density, quality of life, and safety parameters. All analyses were on the intention-to-treat population. Median time (25% quartile) to exacerbation was 165 (42) versus 111 (52) days in the colistin and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.11). In adherent patients (adherence quartiles 2-4), the median time to exacerbation was 168 (65) versus 103 (37) days in the colistin and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.038). P. aeruginosa density was reduced after 4 (P = 0.001) and 12 weeks (P = 0.008) and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score was improved after 26 weeks (P = 0.006) in the colistin versus placebo patients, respectively. There were no safety concerns. Conclusions: Although the primary endpoint was not reached, this study shows that inhaled colistin is a safe and effective treatment in adherent patients with bronchiectasis and chronic P. aeruginosa infection. Clinical trial registered with http://www.isrctn.org/ (ISRCTN49790596). Copyright © 2014 by the American Thoracic Society. Source

Screaton N.,Papworth Hospital
European Radiology | Year: 2010

Cardiomegaly (and left ventricular size in particular) is well recognized to have cardiovascular prognostic significance. Cardiac assessment should be routinely performed when evaluating imaging studies encompassing the thorax, whether cross sectional or projectional. However, such measurements should be robust, readily available and practical. In this issue of European Radiology, Schlett et al. describe such a technique based on single level area and transverse diameter measurements on transverse CT and projection digitally acquired radiographs. This paper is significant as it makes a simple tool for left ventricular assessment readily available to all cross-sectional imagers and highlights the established limitation of cardiothoracic ratio on the chest radiograph. © European Society of Radiology 2010. Source

Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is the treatment of choice to relieve pulmonary artery obstruction in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). It is a complex surgical procedure with a simple principle: removal of obstructive thromboembolic material from the pulmonary arteries in order to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, relieve pulmonary hypertension (PH) and alleviate right ventricular dysfunction. In the majority of patients there is symptomatic and prognostic benefit. However, not all patients with CTEPH are suitable for treatment with PEA. Operability assessment is not always easy, being largely subjective and based on experience. It is therefore important that all patients are referred to an experienced CTEPH centre for careful evaluation of suitability for surgery. The most common reason for inoperability is distal vasculopathy accounting for a high proportion of the vascular resistance. Surgery requires cardiopulmonary bypass and periods of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Complications include reperfusion lung injury and persistent PH. However, with careful patient selection, surgical technique and post-operative management, PEA is a highly effective treatment with mortality rates <5% at experienced centres. Patients who are unsuitable for surgery may be candidates for medical therapy. © ERS 2015. Source

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