Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute

Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute

Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Dom M.T.,Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute | Dom M.T.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | Ayalew W.K.,Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute | Glatz P.C.,South Australian Research And Development Institute | And 4 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2017

Blending sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) with a protein concentrate for pig feed is a common strategy used by small-scale livestock farmers across Africa, Asia and the Pacific. However, high dietary fibre in sweet potato (SP) forage may reduce nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism and reduce the growth rate of young pigs. A 32-day metabolic trial with grower pigs using a 4 × 4 Latin square design tested the hypothesis that there would be no difference in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, energy and nitrogen (N) balance in 25 kg grower pigs (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) fed diets based on a blend of 43-40% protein supplement with 57-60% of DM as SP roots either boiled (BR43) or ensiled alone (ER43) or ensiled with vines (ERV40). Blended SP diets provided ∼14-15% crude protein (CP), 16.1-16.3 MJ digestible energy (DE)/kg DM and 0.54-0.58 g lysine/MJ DE. The control diet (STD) contained 16.5% CP, 14.8 MJ DE/kg DM, 0.58 g lysine/MJ DE. The major findings were as follows: (1) DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for BR43 than ER43, ERV40 and STD diets, which were similar; (2) DM ATTD and energy utilisation were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed SP diets; (3) carbohydrate (N-free extracts) ATTD was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed BR43 and ER43 diets, while CP ATTD of both these diets was similar to that of STD and higher than that of ERV40; (4) ATTD of fats (ether extracts), CP, carbohydrates (N-free extracts) and total phosphorus was lower (P < 0.05) on ERV40, but fibre ATTD was higher; (5) N intake and N retained were similar (P > 0.05) for pigs fed BR43, ER43 and STD diets but lower for ERV40 (P < 0.05). Boiled or ensiled SP roots provided high nutrient and energy utilisation in growing pigs, but the inclusion of SP vines lowered ATTD, energy utilisation and N retained from the mixed diet (ERV40). It is concluded that boiled or ensiled SP root are equally valuable as blended feed for grower pigs. However, at 30%DM, ensiled SP vine in blended feed led to reduced grower-pig performance. © CSIRO 2017.


Shigaki T.,Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute
Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition and Agriculture | Year: 2014

The Pacific countries are small in land mass and therefore represent one of the most fragile ecosystems. Due to the isolation of these island counties, these are home to unique species of plants and animals as well as crop varieties and landraces. Biosafety issues in the Pacific countries, therefore, require special attention to take these factors into account. The issues are shared with other small island nations such as the Caribbean countries. Although most Pacific countries do not have scientific capacity to develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), they are inadvertently introduced from the developed world. As the countries do not have appropriate capacity to monitor the introduction and commerce of GMO's, it is imperative to establish biosafety legislation and capacity by pooling the resources within the Pacific countries. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Manohar M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Manohar M.,Texas A&M University | Shigaki T.,Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute | Hirschi K.D.,Baylor College of Medicine | Hirschi K.D.,Texas A&M University
Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Inorganic cations play decisive roles in many cellular and physiological processes and are essential components of plant nutrition. Therefore, the uptake of cations and their redistribution must be precisely controlled. Vacuolar antiporters are important elements in mediating the intracellular sequestration of these cations. These antiporters are energized by the proton gradient across the vacuolar membrane and allow the rapid transport of cations into the vacuole. CAXs (for CAtion eXchanger) are members of a multigene family and appear to predominately reside on vacuoles. Defining CAX regulation and substrate specificity have been aided by utilising yeast as an experimental tool. Studies in plants suggest CAXs regulate apoplastic Ca 2+ levels in order to optimise cell wall expansion, photosynthesis, transpiration and plant productivity. CAX studies provide the basis for making designer transporters that have been used to develop nutrient enhanced crops and plants for remediating toxic soils. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.


Wu Q.,Kansas State University | Wu Q.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory | Shigaki T.,Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute | Han J.-S.,Kyungpook National University | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

Deregulated expression of an Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ antiporter (sCAX1) in agricultural crops increases total calcium (Ca2+) but may result in yield losses due to Ca2+ deficiency-like symptoms. Here we demonstrate that co-expression of a maize calreticulin (CRT, a Ca2+ binding protein located at endoplasmic reticulum) in sCAX1-expressing tobacco and tomato plants mitigated these adverse effects while maintaining enhanced Ca2+ content. Co-expression of CRT and sCAX1 could alleviate the hypersensitivity to ion imbalance in tobacco plants. Furthermore, blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato may be linked to changes in CAX activity and enhanced CRT expression mitigated BER in sCAX1 expressing lines. These findings suggest that co-expressing Ca2+ transporters and binding proteins at different intracellular compartments can alter the content and distribution of Ca2+ within the plant matrix. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Manohar M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Manohar M.,Texas A&M University | Shigaki T.,Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute | Mei H.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Plant calcium (Ca 2+) gradients, millimolar levels in the vacuole and micromolar levels in the cytoplasm, are regulated in part by high-capacity vacuolar cation/H + exchangers (CAXs). Several CAX transporters, including CAX1, appear to contain an approximately 40-amino acid N-terminal regulatory region (NRR) that modulates transport through N-terminal autoinhibition. Deletion of the NRR from several CAXs (sCAX) enhances function in plant and yeast expression assays; however, to date, there are no functional assays for CAX3 (or sCAX3), which is 77% identical and 91% similar in sequence to CAX1. In this report, we create a series of truncations in the CAX3 NRR and demonstrate activation of CAX3 in both yeast and plants by truncating a large portion (up to 90 amino acids) of the NRR. Experiments with endomembrane- enriched vesicles isolated from yeast expressing activated CAX3 demonstrate that the gene encodes Ca 2+/H + exchange with properties distinct from those of CAX1. The phenotypes produced by activated CAX3-expressing in transgenic tobacco lines are also distinct from those produced by sCAX1-expressing plants. These studies demonstrate shared and unique aspects of CAX1 and CAX3 transport and regulation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Recent patents on food, nutrition & agriculture | Year: 2015

The Pacific countries are small in land mass and therefore represent one of the most fragile ecosystems. Due to the isolation of these island counties, these are home to unique species of plants and animals as well as crop varieties and landraces. Biosafety issues in the Pacific countries, therefore, require special attention to take these factors into account. The issues are shared with other small island nations such as the Caribbean countries. Although most Pacific countries do not have scientific capacity to develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), they are inadvertently introduced from the developed world. As the countries do not have appropriate capacity to monitor the introduction and commerce of GMOs, it is imperative to establish biosafety legislation and capacity by pooling the resources within the Pacific countries.

Loading Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute collaborators
Loading Papua New Guinea National Agricultural Research Institute collaborators