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Ome M.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | Wangnapi R.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | Hamura N.,Modilon General Hospital | Umbers A.J.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | And 5 more authors.
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Background: Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown aetiology and is characterised by abnormalities of the urinary tract, a deficiency of abdominal musculature and bilateral cryptorchidism in males. We report a case of prune belly syndrome from Papua New Guinea, which was suspected on pregnancy ultrasound scan and confirmed upon delivery.Case presentation: A 26-year-old married woman, Gravida 3 Para 2, presented to antenatal clinic in Madang, Papua New Guinea, at 21+5 weeks' gestation by dates. She was well with no past medical or family history of note. She gave consent to participate in a clinical trial on prevention of malaria in pregnancy and underwent repeated ultrasound examinations which revealed a live fetus with persistent megacystis and anhydramnios. Both mother and clinicians agreed on conservative management of the congenital abnormality. The mother spontaneously delivered a male fetus weighing 2010 grams at 34 weeks' gestation with grossly abnormal genitalia including cryptorchidism, penile aplasia and an absent urethral meatus, absent abdominal muscles and hypoplastic lungs. The infant passed away two hours after delivery. This report discusses the implications of prenatal detection of severe congenital abnormalities in PNG.Conclusion: This first, formally reported, case of prune belly syndrome from a resource-limited setting in the Oceania region highlights the importance of identifying and documenting congenital abnormalities. Women undergoing antenatal ultrasound examinations must be carefully counseled on the purpose and the limitations of the scan. The increasing use of obstetric ultrasound in PNG will inevitably result in a rise in prenatal detection of congenital abnormalities. This will need to be met with adequate training, referral mechanisms and better knowledge of women's attitudes and beliefs on birth defects and ultrasound. National medicolegal guidance regarding induced abortion and resuscitation of a fetus with severe congenital abnormalities may be required. © 2013 Ome et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ome-Kaius M.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | Unger H.W.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Singirok D.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | Wangnapi R.A.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | And 7 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2015

Background: Chewing areca nut (AN), also known as betel nut, is common in Asia and the South Pacific and the habit has been linked to a number of serious health problems including oral cancer. Use of AN in pregnancy has been associated with a reduction in mean birthweight in some studies, but this association and the relationship between AN chewing and other adverse pregnancy outcomes remain poorly understood. Methods: We assessed the impact of AN chewing on adverse outcomes including stillbirth, low birthweight (LBW, <2,500 g) and anaemia at delivery (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL) in a longitudinal cohort of 2,700 pregnant women residing in rural lowland Papua New Guinea (PNG) from November 2009 until February 2013. Chewing habits and participant characteristics were evaluated at first antenatal visit and women were followed until delivery. Results: 83.3 % [2249/2700] of pregnant women used AN, and most chewed on a daily basis (86.2 % [1939/2249]. Smoking and alcohol use was reported by 18.9 % (511/2700) and 5.0 % (135/2688) of women, respectively. AN use was not associated with pregnancy loss or congenital abnormalities amongst women with a known pregnancy outcome (n=2215). Analysis of 1769 birthweights did not demonstrate an association between AN and LBW (chewers: 13.7 % [200/1459] vs. non-chewers: 14.5 % [45/310], P=0.87) or reduced mean birthweight (2957 g vs. 2966 g; P=0.76). Women using AN were more likely to be anaemic (haemoglobin <11 g/dL) at delivery (75.2 % [998/1314] vs. 63.9 % [182/285], adjusted odds ratio [95 % CI]: 1.67 [1.27, 2.20], P<0.001). Chewers more commonly had male babies than non-chewers (46.1 % [670/1455] vs. 39.8 % [123/309], P=0.045). Conclusions: AN chewing may contribute to anaemia. Although not associated with other adverse pregnancy outcome in this cohort gestational AN use should be discouraged, given the potential adverse effects on haemoglobin and well-established long-term health risk including oral cancer. Future research evaluating the potential association of AN use and anaemia may be warranted. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01136850(06 April 2010). © 2015 Ome-Kaius et al. Source

Karl S.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Karl S.,University of Melbourne | Li Wai Suen C.S.N.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Li Wai Suen C.S.N.,University of Melbourne | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: Knowledge of accurate gestational age is required for comprehensive pregnancy care and is an essential component of research evaluating causes of preterm birth. In industrialised countries gestational age is determined with the help of fetal biometry in early pregnancy. Lack of ultrasound and late presentation to antenatal clinic limits this practice in lowresource settings. Instead, clinical estimators of gestational age are used, but their accuracy remains a matter of debate. Methods: In a cohort of 688 singleton pregnancies from rural Papua New Guinea, delivery gestational age was calculated from Ballard score, last menstrual period, symphysis-pubis fundal height at first visit and quickening as well as mid- and late pregnancy fetal biometry. Published models using sequential fundal height measurements and corrected last menstrual period to estimate gestational age were also tested. Novel linear models that combined clinical measurements for gestational age estimation were developed. Predictions were compared with the reference early pregnancy ultrasound (<25 gestational weeks) using correlation, regression and Bland-Altman analyses and ranked for their capability to predict preterm birth using the harmonic mean of recall and precision (F-measure). Results: Average bias between reference ultrasound and clinical methods ranged from 0-11 days (95% confidence levels: 14-42 days). Preterm birth was best predicted by mid-pregnancy ultrasound (F-measure: 0.72), and neuromuscular Ballard score provided the least reliable preterm birth prediction (F-measure: 0.17). The best clinical methods to predict gestational age and preterm birth were last menstrual period and fundal height (F-measures 0.35). A linear model combining both measures improved prediction of preterm birth (F-measure: 0.58). Conclusions: Estimation of gestational age without ultrasound is prone to significant error. In the absence of ultrasound facilities, last menstrual period and fundal height are among the more reliable clinical measures. This study underlines the importance of strengthening ultrasound facilities and developing novel ways to estimate gestational age. © 2015 Karl et al. Source

Tynan A.,University of Queensland | Vallely A.,University of New South Wales | Vallely A.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | Kelly A.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | And 6 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Background: Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among heterosexual men, with WHO recommending MC as an essential component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs in high prevalence settings since 2007. While Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a current prevalence of only 1%, the high rates of sexually transmissible diseases and the extensive, but unregulated, practice of penile cutting in PNG have led the National Department of Health (NDoH) to consider introducing a MC program. Given public interest in circumcision even without active promotion by the NDoH, examining the potential health systems implications for MC without raising unrealistic expectations presents a number of methodological issues. In this study we examined health systems lessons learned from a national no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) program, and their implications for a future MC program in PNG. Methods: Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with frontline health workers and key government officials involved in NSV programs in PNG over a 3-week period in February and March 2011. Documentary, organizational and policy analysis of HIV and vasectomy services was conducted and triangulated with the interviews. All interviews were digitally recorded and later transcribed. Application of the WHO six building blocks of a health system was applied and further thematic analysis was conducted on the data with assistance from the analysis software MAXQDA. Results: Obstacles in funding pathways, inconsistent support by government departments, difficulties with staff retention and erratic delivery of training programs have resulted in mixed success of the national NSV program. Conclusions: In an already vulnerable health system significant investment in training, resources and negotiation of clinical space will be required for an effective MC program. Focused leadership and open communication between provincial and national government, NGOs and community is necessary to assist in service sustainability. Ensuring clear policy and guidance across the entire sexual and reproductive health sector will provide opportunities to strengthen key areas of the health system. © 2012 Tynan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Tynan A.,University of Queensland | Hill P.S.,University of Queensland | Kelly A.,Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research PNG IMR | Kelly A.,University of New South Wales | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: The success of health programs is influenced not only by their acceptability but also their ability to meet and respond to community expectations of service delivery. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) have recommended medical male circumcision (MC) as an essential component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs in high burden settings. This study investigated community-level perceptions of MC for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG), a setting where diverse traditional and contemporary forms of penile foreskin cutting practices have been described. Methods. A multi-method qualitative study was undertaken in four provinces in two stages from 2009 to 2011. A total of 82 in-depth interviews, and 45 focus group discussions were completed during Stage 1. Stage 2 incorporated eight participatory workshops that were an integral part of the research dissemination process to communities. The workshops also provided opportunity to review key themes and consolidate earlier findings as part of the research process. Qualitative data analysis used a grounded theory approach and was facilitated using qualitative data management software. Results: A number of diverse considerations for the delivery of MC for HIV prevention in PNG were described, with conflicting views both between and within communities. Key issues included: location of the service, service provider, age eligibility, type of cut, community awareness and potential shame amongst youth. Key to developing appropriate health service delivery models was an appreciation of the differences in expectations and traditions of unique cultural groups in PNG. Establishing strong community coalitions, raising awareness and building trust were seen as integral to success. Conclusions: Difficulties exist in the implementation of new programs in a pluralistic society such as PNG, particularly if tensions arise between biomedical knowledge and medico-legal requirements, compared to existing socio-cultural interests. Community participatory approaches offer important opportunities to explore and design culturally safe, specific and accessible programs. © 2013 Tynan et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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