Trondheim, Norway

The Paper and Fibre Research Institute ) is a centre of expertise for wood fibres, pulp and paper, new biobased materials and sustainable biorefining.PFI was established in Kristiania in 1923 as the Norwegian Pulp and Paper Research Institute. PFI moved to Trondheim in 1997/98, and established a close cooperation with the Department of Chemical Engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In 2004 PFI changed name to the Paper and Fibre Research Institute and became a subsidiary of Innventia in Stockholm, Sweden. Wikipedia.


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Chinga-Carrasco G.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Syverud K.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2010

Films made of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are most interesting for use in packaging applications. However, in order to understand the film-forming capabilities of NFC and their properties, new advanced methods for characterizing the different scales of the structures are necessary. In this study, we perform a comprehensive characterisation of NFC-films, based on desktop scanner analysis, scanning electron microscopy in backscatter electron imaging mode (SEM-BEI), laser profilometry (LP) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy in secondary electron imaging mode (FE-SEM-SEI). Objective quantification is performed for assessing the (i) film thicknesses, (ii) fibril diameters and (iii) fibril orientations, based on computer-assisted electron microscopy. The most frequent fibril diameter is 20-30 nm in diameter. A method for acquiring FESEM images of NFC surfaces without a conductive metallic layer is introduced. Having appropriate characterisation tools, the structural and mechanical properties of the films upon moisture were quantified.


Rodionova G.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lenes M.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Eriksen O.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Gregersen O.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Cellulose | Year: 2011

Heterogeneous acetylation of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was carried out to modify its physical properties and at the same time to preserve the morphology of cellulose fibrils. The overall reaction success was assessed by FTIR together with the degree of substitution (DS) defined by titration and the degree of surface substitution (DSS) evaluated by means of XPS. Dynamic contact angle measurements confirmed the hydrophobicity improvement relative to non-modified samples. The increase of contact angle upon reaching a certain reaction time and some decrease following the further acetylation was confirmed. Mechanical properties of MFC films made from chemically modified material were evaluated using tensile strength tests which showed no significant reduction of tensile strength. According to SEM images, dimension analysis and tensile strength data, the acetylation seemed not to affect the morphology of cellulose fibrils. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Chinga-Carrasco G.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Syverud K.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute
Journal of Biomaterials Applications | Year: 2014

Nanocellulose from wood is a promising material with potential in various technological areas. Within biomedical applications, nanocellulose has been proposed as a suitable nano-material for wound dressings. This is based on the capability of the material to self-assemble into 3D micro-porous structures, which among others have an excellent capacity of maintaining a moist environment. In addition, the surface chemistry of nanocellulose is suitable for various applications. First, OH-groups are abundant in nanocellulose materials, making the material strongly hydrophilic. Second, the surface chemistry can be modified, introducing aldehyde and carboxyl groups, which have major potential for surface functionalization. In this study, we demonstrate the production of nanocellulose with tailor-made surface chemistry, by pre-treating the raw cellulose fibres with carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The pre-treatments yielded a highly nanofibrillated material, with significant amounts of aldehyde and carboxyl groups. Importantly, the poly-anionic surface of the oxidized nanocellulose opens up for novel applications, i.e. micro-porous materials with pH-responsive characteristics. This is due to the swelling capacity of the 3D micro-porous structures, which have ionisable functional groups. In this study, we demonstrated that nanocellulose gels have a significantly higher swelling degree in neutral and alkaline conditions, compared to an acid environment (pH 3). Such a capability can potentially be applied in chronic wounds for controlled and intelligent release of antibacterial components into biofilms. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Ghose A.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Chinga-Carrasco G.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of the Norwegian pulp and paper industry, considering the production of pulp fibres and printing paper. The pulp fibres included in this study are thermo-mechanical pulp and kraft pulp fibres, which differ with respect to the energy consumption and chemicals used during production. The assessed paper grades were super-calendered paper and newsprint. The study was a cradle to gate approach, and corresponds to an attributional life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA was based on data collected from main pulp and paper producers in Norway. Importantly, aspects related to the increasing use of mineral fillers in the production of newsprints were assessed. The results showed that a reduction of more than 18% climate change impact (kg CO2 eq.) was achieved by increasing the fraction of fillers, in the newsprint furnish. Furthermore, the total climate change impact reduction depended on the applied energy mix. Assuming that the production of printing paper was based only on Norwegian energy mix, yielded a reduction of the climate change impact by more than 44% in 2011, compared to the production based on Scandinavian and European energy mix. Additionally, the input and output transport contributed to more than 20% impact in several cases. We thus concluded that the estimated environmental impacts were affected by; i) the furnish composition of a given paper quality, ii) the input and output transport and iii) the use of different primary grid energy sources.


Syverud K.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Chinga-Carrasco G.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Toledo J.,University of Concepción | Toledo P.G.,University of Concepción
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

This work comprises a comparison between Eucalyptus and Pinus radiata pulp fibres, as raw materials for producing nanofibrils. The cellulose nanofibrils were produced mechanically and chemi-mechanically. Series of the fibres were subjected to a TEMPO mediated oxidation to facilitate the homogenization. The contents of carboxyl acids after the pre-treatment indicated a favourable situation for producing nanofibrils using Eucalyptus pulp fibres as raw material. However, films made of P. radiata-based nanofibrils evidenced less shrinkage and higher transparency levels, which were related to a higher fibrillation of the pulp fibres. The energy consumption during homogenization was quantified. The results demonstrated that for a given number of passes through the homogenizator, TEMPO pre-treatment will facilitate the homogeneous fibrillation of a given fibre. This implies that less energy is required for producing nanofibrils with homogeneous sizes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Chinga-Carrasco G.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute
Micron | Year: 2013

In this study, the suitability of optical devices for quantification of the fibrillation degree of bleached microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) materials has been assessed. The techniques for optical assessment include optical scanner, UV-vis spectrophotometry, turbidity, quantification of the fiber fraction and a camera system for dynamic measurements. The results show that the assessed optical devices are most adequate for quantification of the light transmittance of bleached MFC materials. Such quantification yields an estimation of the fibrillation degree. Films made of poorly fibrillated materials are opaque, while films made of highly fibrillated materials containing a major fraction of nanofibrils are translucent, with light transmittance larger than 90%. Finally, the concept of using images acquired with a CCD camera system, for estimating the fibrillation degree in dynamic conditions was exemplified. Such systems are most interesting as this will widen the applicability of optical methods for quantification of fibrillation degree online in production lines, which is expected to appear in the years to come. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


During the last decade, major efforts have been made to develop adequate and commercially viable processes for disintegrating cellulose fibres into their structural components. Homogenisation of cellulose fibres has been one of the principal applied procedures. Homogenisation has produced materials which may be inhomogeneous, containing fibres, fibres fragments, fibrillar fines and nanofibrils. The material has been denominated microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). In addition, terms relating to the nano-scale have been given to the MFC material. Several modern and high-tech nano-applications have been envisaged for MFC. However, is MFC a nano-structure? It is concluded that MFC materials may be composed of (1) nanofibrils, (2) fibrillar fines, (3) fibre fragments and (4) fibres. This implies that MFC is not necessarily synonymous with nanofibrils, microfibrils or any other cellulose nano-structure. However, properly produced MFC materials contain nano-structures as a main component, i.e. nanofibrils. © 2011 Chinga-Carrasco.


Chinga-Carrasco G.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Syverud K.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute
Nanoscale Research Letters | Year: 2012

Cellulose nanofibrils have been proposed for novel barrier concepts, based on their capability to form smooth, strong and transparent films, with high oxygen barrier properties. A series of cellulose-based films were manufactured and tested with respect to their oxygen transmission rate (OTR) capabilities. The obtained OTR levels were considerably better than the levels recommended for packaging applications. Part of the nanofibrillated material applied in this study was produced with 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO) mediated oxidation as pretreatment. Films made of TEMPO-pretreated samples yielded lower OTR values. The minimum obtained OTR value was 3.0 mL m -2day -1atm -1with a corresponding oxygen permeability of 0.04 mL mm m -2day -1atm -1, tested at 50% relative humidity. The good barrier properties are due to the compact and dense structure of the films, as revealed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. A relationship between OTR and the structure of the corresponding nanofibril-based films was confirmed. © 2012 Chinga-Carrasco and Syverud.


Hult E.-L.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Iotti M.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lenes M.,Paper And Fibre Research Institute
Cellulose | Year: 2010

This paper presents an investigation on the enhancement of the barrier properties of paperboard and paper. Microfibrillar cellulose (MFC) and shellac were deposited on the fibre based substrates using a bar coater or a spray coating technique. The air, oxygen and water vapour permeability properties were measured to quantify the barrier effect of the applied coatings. In addition, the mechanical properties were determined and image analysis of the structure was performed to examine the coating adhesion. The air permeance of the paperboard and papers was substantially decreased with a multilayer coating of MFC and shellac. Furthermore, for the MFC and shellac coated papers, the oxygen transmission rate decreased several logarithmic units and the water vapour transmission rate reached values considered as high barrier in food packaging (6.5 g/m2 24 h). The analysis of mechanical and morphological properties indicated good adhesion between the coating and the base substrate. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Patent
Paper And Fibre Research Institute | Date: 2013-09-24

The invention relates to an aqueous coating composition of nano cellulose (e.g., microfibrillated cellulose), characterized in that has a dry matter concentration of 2%-12% of nano cellulose and comprises at least one cationic surfactant, which may be chosen among Hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, Octadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, Hexadecylpyridinium chloride and Tetradecyl trimethyl-ammonium bromide, Dodecyl pyridinium chloride. The invention also pertains to use of the composition as a coating layer and as an oxygen barrier layer. Further it relates to substrates, e.g., board, cardboard or paper coated with the composition. Moreover, the invention pertains to a process for preparing the coating composition.

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