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Papeete, French Polynesia

Maillard S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Maillard S.,University Paris - Sud | Damiola F.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC | Damiola F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: French Polynesia has one of the highest incidence rates of thyroid cancer worldwide. Relationships with the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and other environmental, biological, or behavioral factors have already been reported, but genetic susceptibility has yet to be investigated. We assessed the contribution of polymorphisms at the 9q22.33 and 14q13.3 loci identified by GWAS, and within the DNA repair gene ATM, to the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in 177 cases and 275 matched controls from the native population. Principal Findings: For the GWAS SNP rs965513 near FOXE1, an association was found between genotypes G/A and A/A, and risk of DTC. A multiplicative effect of allele A was even noted. An excess risk was also observed in individuals carrying two long alleles of the poly-alanine tract expansion in FOXE1, while no association was observed with rs1867277 falling in the promoter region of the gene. In contrast, the GWAS SNP rs944289 (NKX2-1) did not show any significant association. Although the missense substitution D1853N (rs1801516) in ATM was rare in the population, carriers of the minor allele (A) also showed an excess risk. The relationships between these five polymorphisms and the risk of DTC were not contingent on the body surface area, body mass index, ethnicity or dietary iodine intake. However, an interaction was evidenced between the thyroid radiation dose and rs944289. Significance: A clear link could not be established between the high incidence in French Polynesia and the studied polymorphisms, involved in susceptibility to DTC in other populations. Important variation in allele frequencies was observed in the Polynesian population as compared to the European populations. For FOXE1 rs965513, the direction of association and the effect size was similar to that observed in other populations, whereas for ATM rs1801516, the minor allele was associated to an increased risk in the Polynesian population and with a decreased risk in the European population. © 2015 Maillard et al. Source

Brindel P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Brindel P.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Brindel P.,1018 University Paris | Doyon F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 15 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2010

Background: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is considered to be the nonhereditary cancer for which familial inheritance is the highest. To date, no familial aggregation analysis of this cancer has been performed in Maohi populations, which exhibit a very high incidence rate. Therefore, we evaluate the risk of differentiated thyroid cancer associated with a family history of thyroid cancer in natives of French Polynesia. Methods: We investigated thyroid cancer incidence in the first-degree relatives of 225 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinomas diagnosed between 1979 and 2004 in patients born in French Polynesia, and 368 randomly selected population controls matched for sex and age, born and residing in French Polynesia. All but five thyroid cancers declared among relatives were validated. Results: Twenty-four cases declared a family history of thyroid cancer, when compared with 11 controls. Individuals with an affected first-degree relative had a 4.5-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-10.6) increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer. This odds ratio (OR) was not significantly higher when a male first-degree relative was affected (OR, 10.0; 95% CI, 1.3-74.8) compared with a female (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.3) and was not different for patients who had a nonaggressive thyroid microcarcinoma (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 0.6-16.4) than those who had a larger cancer (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.8-20.5). This OR was borderline significantly (p, 0.07) higher in Maohis (OR, 11.0; 95% CI, 2.4-48.8) than in individuals of mixed origin (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9). Conclusion: Our study shows that the familial inheritance of differentiated thyroid cancer is particularly high in Maohi populations. © 2010 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010. Source

Clero I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Clero I.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Clero I.,University Paris - Sud | Doyon F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 18 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2012

Background: French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. Iodine is suspected to play a role in this high incidence. The objective of this study was to assess whether low dietary iodine is related to a higher risk of thyroid cancer in the French Polynesian population. Methods: A case-control study was performed among native residents of French Polynesia. It included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004 (203 women, 26 men) matched with 371 population controls (324 women, 47 men) on the date of birth. The current study is focused on dietary iodine intake and fish consumption (food rich in iodine) and analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Results: Daily dietary iodine intake was insufficient (<150μg/day) in 60% of both cases and controls. A decreased risk of thyroid cancer was observed with a higher consumption of fish (p trend=0.008) and shellfish (p trend=0.002), and also with a higher dietary iodine intake (p trend=0.03). There was no significant interaction between the effects of the thyroid radiation dose and the dietary iodine intake (p=0.2). Conclusion: French Polynesia is a mild iodine deficiency area in which a higher consumption of food from the sea and a higher dietary iodine intake are significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. The quantification of this reduction requires specific investigation of iodine intake in traditional Polynesian food. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012. Source

Clero E.,InstitutGustave Roussy | Clero E.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Clero E.,University Paris - Sud | Doyon F.,InstitutGustave Roussy | And 15 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer | Year: 2012

French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ren Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ren Y.,CNRS Gustave Roussy Institute | Ren Y.,University Paris - Sud | Kitahara C.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 27 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Numerous studies have suggested that selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk for several types of cancer, but few have focused on thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: We examined the association between post-diagnostic fingernail selenium levels and differentiated thyroid cancer risk in a French Polynesian matched case-control study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: The median selenium concentration among controls was 0.76 μg/g. Significantly, we found no association between fingernail selenium levels and thyroid cancer risk after conditioning on year of birth and sex and additionally adjusting for date of birth (highest versus lowest quartile: odds-ratio=1.12, 95% confidence interval: 0.66-1.90; p-trend=0.30). After additional adjustment for other covariates, this association remained non-significant (p-trend=0.60). When restricting the analysis to thyroid cancer of 10 mm or more, selenium in nails was non-significantly positively linked to thyroid cancer risk (p-trend=0.09). Although no significant interaction was evidenced between iodine in nails and selenium in nails effect (p=0.70), a non-significant (p-trend =0.10) positive association between selenium and thyroid cancer risk was seen in patients with less than 3 ppm of iodine in nails. The highest fingernail selenium concentration in French Polynesia was in the Marquises Islands (M=0.87 μg/g) and in the Tuamotu-Gambier Archipelago (M=0.86 μg/g). Conclusions: Our results do not support, among individuals with sufficient levels of selenium, that greater long-term exposure to selenium may reduce thyroid cancer risk. Because these findings are based on post-diagnostic measures, studies with prediagnostic selenium are needed for corroboration. Source

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