Saint-Germain-du-Bois, France

Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Saint-Germain-du-Bois, France

Panthéon-Assas University , is a public research university in Paris, France. It was established so as to succeed the faculty of law and economics of the University of Paris, as the latter was divided into thirteen autonomous universities, following the events of May 1968.The majority of the nineteen campuses of Panthéon-Assas are located in the Latin Quarter, with the main campus on place du Panthéon. The university is composed of four departments specializing in law, economics, public and private management, and political science, and hosts twenty-four research centres and five specialized doctoral schools. The faculty of law of Panthéon-Assas is regarded as the most prestigious in France. Every year, the university enrolls approximately 18,000 students, including 3,000 international students.Since its founding, Panthéon-Assas has produced one president, four prime ministers and the holders of thirty-seven other ministerships around the world. Forty alumni of the university have been members of various parliaments as well. Faculty members of Panthéon-Assas have included eminent jurists and politicians. Wikipedia.

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Felix E.C.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Proceedings of the 2016 ITU Kaleidoscope Academic Conference: ICTs for a Sustainable World, ITU WT 2016 | Year: 2016

In the actual network configuration, content providers are not involved in the universal service programs with a corresponding participation being taxes, funds or compensations. We propose a regulated Internet contract with a free or very small economic participation to access into a limited version of the service with content providers financing participation to broadcast their high bandwidth content. We study a minimum quality of a service as a strategy of public policy over a broadband telecommunication services to create better absorption of technological benefits as a welfare measure for the users. As results we show a positive effect to propose universal service by quality as complement of universal service obligation, the conditions to determine the prices have to be ruled ex-ante by authorities and finally the best market scenario for welfare superior is determined by competition. © 2016 International Telecommunication Union.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-5.1.1. | Award Amount: 1.74M | Year: 2010

In this proposal, we suggest a comparative European research project on media accountability systems in EU member states as indicators for media pluralism in Europe. The project will analyze the development and impact of established media accountability systems (i.e. press councils, ethics codes) as well as new media accountability systems emerging in the Internet (i.e. media criticism in blogs). The main goals of this research project are to investigate the quantity and quality of media accountability systems as prerequisites for pluralistic debates about media independence in times of growing media concentration, to compare the impact of established and innovative media accountability systems online on different media systems and journalism cultures in Europe and beyond, to develop policy recommendation for EU media lawmakers, as well as incentives for media professionals and media users alike to actively engage in media accountability systems. The project will be a joint interdisciplinary effort of a team of 11 partners form Eastern and Western Europe as well as one partner from the Arab World (members of the European-Mediterranean partnership), using a multi-method approach (survey, desk studies and expert interviews) for the analysis. Since the project aims at analyzing the potential of media accountability systems for media accountability and transparency, it will carry the acronym MediaAcT.

Crettez B.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Theory and Decision | Year: 2017

Hobbes’s state of nature is often analyzed in two-person two-action non-cooperative games. By definition, this literature only focuses on duels. Yet, if we consider general games, i.e., with more than two agents, analyzing Hobbes’s state of nature in terms of duel is not completely satisfactory, since it is a very specific interpretation of the war of all against all. Therefore, we propose a definition of the state of nature for games with an arbitrary number of players. We show that this definition coincides with the strategy profile considered as the state of nature in two-person games. Furthermore, we study what we call rational states of nature (that is, strategy profiles which are both states of nature and Nash equilibria). We show that in rational states of nature, the utility level of any agent is equal to his maximin payoff. We also show that rational states of nature always exist in inessential games. Finally, we prove the existence of states of nature in a class of (not necessarily inessential) symmetric games. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-4.2-02 | Award Amount: 1.44M | Year: 2008

The goal of the research project is to assess the impact of the extensive use of private military and security companies in situations of armed conflict and to discuss the regulatory framework at national, European and international levels, to assure compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights. Though this is not a new phenomenon, the fear motivating commentators and activists was that private companies operate in a legal vacuum. Although there is growing consensus now in the literature that the situation actually resembles more a complex patchwork of norms, the key question still remains whether and how these existing norms can be effectively applied and whether they need to be supplemented with new norms. Specific objectives are: to promote a better understanding of the phenomenon of the privatisation of war; to clarify the legal status of PMCs/PSCs employees under international humanitarian law; to foster knowledge on the impact of private military activities on the enjoyment of human rights; to analyse international responsibility and accountability of the corporations; to examine the existing regulation at national and EU levels, to explore the ways the EU could regulate PMCs/PSCs. The current proposal seeks to highlight the crucial role of the EU in three respects, which to date have not received much attention in the literature. First, the proposal will seek to offer insights into how the EU can and should develop a unified position on the international regulation of PMCs/PSCs. Second, the work to be undertaken will assess the need for and potential of harmonization of the EU member states domestic approaches towards PMCs/PSCs. Lastly, the present proposal will offer advice to policymakers on the development of a regulation scheme at the supranational level. To date, the existing literature on such schemes has largely neglected the role of the EU could and should play in this regard.

Baltagi B.H.,Syracuse University | Bresson G.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University | Pirotte A.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University | Pirotte A.,INRETS
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2012

Various forecasts using panel data with spatial error correlation are compared using Monte Carlo experiments. The true data generating process is assumed to be a simple error component regression model with spatial remainder disturbances of the autoregressive or moving average type. The best linear unbiased predictor is compared with other forecasts ignoring spatial correlation, or ignoring heterogeneity due to the individual effects. In addition, the root mean squared error performance of these forecasts is examined under misspecification of the spatial error process, various spatial weight matrices, and heterogeneous rather than homogeneous panel data models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bentata P.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Journal of Risk Research | Year: 2014

The aim of this article is to analyze the precise role of environmental civil liability in France. We do so by focusing on data from France, and claim that judges in fact seize hold of the possibility of combining regulation and civil liability. In other words, civil liability and regulation are complementary because they promote a duty of care in different ways. Moreover, judges and regulators interact; they provide each other with relevant information that is mutually beneficial for the maintenance of standards. Based on a unique database - that gathers all the litigations concerning environmental accidents judged by the French Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation) from 1956 to 2010 - we conclude that judges heavily rely on prior regulation, especially in cases of causal uncertainty. We argue that particularly in those cases where liability would traditionally be weak, courts tend to rely on breaches of regulation as evidence of increased risk of an activity by the perpetrator. On the other hand, judges can hold regulators liable when regulators did not monitor a regulated plant and this threat provides regulators with incentives to design and to apply stringent standards over risky activities. For these reasons, we conclude that regulation and civil liability should be jointly used to promote smart interdependencies that mitigate civil liability and regulatory failures. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Quirico O.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Review of European Community and International Environmental Law | Year: 2012

Climate change is by definition a global problem that is subject to a variety of regulatory initiatives. Besides the comprehensive framework established under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, as strengthened by the recent Durban negotiations, a wide array of regulatory measures have been set up by public and private actors, either alone or via partnerships. This article aims to provide a brief overview and legal assessment of transnational regulatory networks for climate change, including both established regulators and rules. Indeed, the 'regulatory proliferation' in the field pushes to disentangle not only the reciprocal relationship between rules directly targeting climate change, but also the relationship between them and 'external' rules only indirectly relating to climate change. Mapping the existing climate change regulatory framework is essential for spotting potential loopholes and inconsistencies, correctly interpreting existing norms and eventually undertaking further regulatory action. Overall, the article concludes that within the context of a generally 'complex' regulatory regime, a gap currently exists between primary rules which gather an array of intertwined public-private regulatory initiatives and enforced secondary rules which encompass mainly obligations established by public actors only indirectly targeting climate change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Choi B.-J.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University
Journal of Applied Business Research | Year: 2016

Drawing on the cultural priming paradigm, the purpose of this research is to investigate how cultural differences in cognition affect consumers’ hierarchical cognitive structures underlying wine purchase decision-making process. Means-end chain analyses of French and Korean wine consumers were conducted both at a chronic cultural difference level and at an experimental level in which either analytic or holistic thinking tendency is primed. The results show that the holistic thinking-primed consumers consider broader connections between the key perceptual elements of the means-end chain, resulting in more complex structures of interconnected motives than the analytic thinking-primed consumers. This study provides support for the dynamics of culture-specific thinking styles as the driver of cultural variations in wine consumers’ cognitive complexity in the decision-making process. Important practical implications for international food marketing managers stem from our cross-cultural findings. © by author(s); CC-BY.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IEF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IEF | Award Amount: 158.94K | Year: 2010

Business entities play an important role in contemporary world, especially within the context of globalisation. Private security companies (PSCs) are entities that exchange security services for financial gain; their activity is constantly increasing and is relevant under both the law of peace and war. The present research studies the criminal regulatory network currently in place for PSCs. The analysis focuses on the interconnected liabilities of PSCs as legal entities and their personnel. The regulatory network is inspected from the EU viewpoint, within the framework of international law. The EU regulation is analysed in the light of the common foreign and security policy as well as cooperation in justice and home affairs. At the national level, the regulation of EU member states is compared to the legslation of non-European countries. The international implications of the EU regulation are studied by taking into account customary and treaty law, both inside and outside international humanitarian law. The research aims to: (1) understand what criminal rules apply to PSCs and their personnel; (2) investigate the crimes likely to be committed by PSCs and their personnel, the subjective scope of criminal liability, exceptions to liability, criminal procedures and sanctions; (3) evaluate the coherence and completeness of the regulatory network and show possible reform perspectives. The Project is relevant to the priorities of the FP7 Programme. It is specifically related to the areas Socio-Economic Sciences and Humanities and Security.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IEF | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IEF | Award Amount: 158.94K | Year: 2010

The proposed research aims to examine the way in which networks, resulting from the cooperation of public and/or private actors, are increasingly established under European Law. The research project analyzes the networks from both the institutional and the functional perspectives and, specifically, considers the networks established for the enforcement and the harmonization of European Law. This goal will be pursued by adopting a methodology that relies on a transdisciplinary approach to the study of Law (e.g. an approach that crossed over the traditional boundaries of private and public laws), and the suggestions coming from other disciplines (e.g. political sciences, sociology), especially with respect to the possibility to apply methods for research (e.g. the interviews) well known in certain disciplines, but not so often used in approaching EU Law. In particular, this research will concentrate on the following two case-studies. The first case-study regards the networks of public authorities and courts adopted to enforce Consumer Law and Competition Law (i.e. the Consumer Cooperation Regulation Network and the European Competition Network, CPC and ECN). The second case-study concerns the private-based networks that have been introduced to harmonize product safety standards and that are now under development within the New Legislative Framework (i.e. the European Standardization Organizations, ESOs). The research project will also examine the role played by these European networks in the international arena, and, precisely, the role of the CPC and the ECN in the transnational enforcement of Consumer Law and Competition Law as well as the tasks of the ESOs in the processes managed by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). The goals of this research consist in framing the emerging European experience in network governance within the wider theoretical framework provided for by the network theory.

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