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Watson S.J.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Langat P.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Reid S.M.,Animal and Plant Health Agency | Lam T.T.,University of Oxford | And 28 more authors.
Journal of Virology | Year: 2015

The emergence in humans of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, a complex reassortant virus of swine origin, highlighted the importance of worldwide influenza virus surveillance in swine. To date, large-scale surveillance studies have been reported for southern China and North America, but such data have not yet been described for Europe. We report the first large-scale genomic characterization of 290 swine influenza viruses collected from 14 European countries between 2009 and 2013. A total of 23 distinct genotypes were identified, with the 7 most common comprising 82% of the incidence. Contrasting epidemiological dynamics were observed for two of these genotypes, H1huN2 and H3N2, with the former showing multiple long-lived geographically isolated lineages, while the latter had short-lived geographically diffuse lineages. At least 32 human-swine transmission events have resulted in A(H1N1)pdm09 becoming established at a mean frequency of 8% across European countries. Notably, swine in the United Kingdom have largely had a replacement of the endemic Eurasian avian virus-like ("avian-like") genotypes with A(H1N1)pdm09-derived genotypes. The high number of reassortant genotypes observed in European swine, combined with the identification of a genotype similar to the A(H3N2)v genotype in North America, underlines the importance of continued swine surveillance in Europe for the purposes of maintaining public health. This report further reveals that the emergences and drivers of virus evolution in swine differ at the global level. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.

Truszczynski M.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Wijaszka T.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Zmudzinski J.F.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Jazdzewski K.,Glwny Inspektorat Weterynarii
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2011

The 79th General Session of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) was held in Paris from May 22 to 26, 2011 under the chairmanship of Dr. Carlos A. Correa Messuti (Uruguay), president of the OIE and Dr. Bernard Vallat, Director General of the OIE, who participated in sessions in a consultative capacity. Delegations from 153 member countries, observers from two non-member countries and representatives of 25 international or regional institutions and federations participated in this meeting. Dr. Dominique Martinez (INRA) and Dr. Joseph Domenech (OIE) participated in the General Session as reporters plenary lectures. The title of the first lecture was: The Contribution of Veterinary Activities to Global Food Security for Food derived from Terrestrial and Aquatic Animals, and of the second lecture: Implementation of a Global Strategy for FMD Control. Among the participants were presidents of the OIE specialist Commissions and representatives of the Working Groups and some ad hoc Groups. They presented data concerning annual activity. Dr. Romano Marabelli and Dr. Barry O'Neil, Honorary Presidents of the OIE, participated in the General Session. Governments of Member Countries were represented by one Head of State and 16 Members of Governments. The presidents of the following international organizations attended the General Session: World Health Organization, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, World Trade Organization, The World Bank, World Veterinary Association, International Committee of Military Medicine. They also presented reports. The Annual Report of the Director General of the activities of the OIE in 2010 included, among others, presentation of the draft text, related to the Fifth Strategic Programme for 2011-2013, to the OIE Delegates for approval. In the report the extension of the premises of the OIE Headquarters was mentioned. At the beginning of 2011 the 178th country acceded to the OIE. The OIE continued its efforts to modernize the tools for the collection, transmission and communication of animal health information. More than 100 countries had undergone an evaluation of their activity's compliance with OIE quality standards concerning Veterinary Services. The Report on Animal Disease status Worldwide in 2010 and Early 2011 contained the most significant epidemiological events. They will be discussed in a separate future publication. However it has to be underlined, also here, that rinderpest has been, according to the official statement during the 79th General Session, eradicated in the global scale and African Swine Fever, occurring in Russia, creates a serious risk for Europe.

Paluszak Z.,University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz | Lipowski A.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Ligocka A.,University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences | Year: 2010

The effect of composting and anaerobic fermentations under meso- and thermophylic conditions (37° and 55°C) on the survival of bovine parvovirus (BPV) and Aujeszky's disease viruse (ADV) in meat wastes has been examined in this study. Viruses were adsorbed on filters and introduced into carriers which were made of meat fragments of different sizes and bones or in the form of suspension they were introduced into the biomass in the course of processes of waste treatment. Carriers were removed at appropriate time intervals and virus titres were determined. The thermoresistant parvovirus survived for the longest time during mesophylic fermentation (almost 70 days), slightly shorter during composting (7-9.5 days depending on the type of carrier) and for the shortest time - at 55°C (46-76 hours). Its inactivation rate was the fastest in a suspension, slower in meat and bone carriers. ADV inactivation proceeded considerably faster, as compared with BPV. Its active particles were not detected as early as in the 30th minute of thermophylic fermentation, the 6th hour of mesophylic fermentation and at the first sampling time during composting (at the 72nd hour). Total survival time ranged from 50 min to 13 hours. All the tested technologies enabled the effective elimination of ADV and on average twofold decrease in BPV titre. From the study conducted it follows that of both -viruses, the BPV should be applied for validation processes of methods used in meat waste processing, particularly if this refers to methods where higher temperature is the factor inactivating pathogens.

Truszczynski M.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Wijaszka T.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Zmudzinski J.F.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Jazdzewski K.,Gtowny Inspektorat Weterynarii
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2010

The 78th General Session of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) was held in Paris from May 23 to 28, 2010 under the chairmanship of Dr. Carlos A. Correa Messuti (Uruguay), president of the OIE and Dr. Bernard Vallat, Director General of the OIE, who participated in sessions in a consultative capacity. Delegations from 157 member countries and representatives from 50 international or regional organizations, j institutions and federations participated in this meeting. Dr. Michael C. Robach and Dr. Frank Alleweldt took part in the General Session as reporters of plenary lectures. Among the present were presidents of inter-national organizations (among others: World Trade Organization, World Bank, FAO, WHO, Codex Alimentarius, World Veterinary Association) and the presidents of OIE specialist commissions as well as chairmen of working groups and ad hoc groups. Other participants included honorary former presidents of the OIE and ministers or deputies of governments of 14 member countries. Dr. Emerio Serrano Ramirez (Cuba) received the Gold Medal of the OIE, and three other experts were awarded Silver Medals. Dr. Bernard Vallat was reelected Director General for the third term, starting from January 1, 2011. The annual report of the Director General on the activities of the OIE in 2009 and partly 2010 referred to the work on a new Strategic Plan for 2011-2015, the up-dating of the documents related to the management of the OIE, and the extension of the OIE Head-Quarters. Dr. Vallat mentioned intensive activities concerning the effectiveness of veterinary services in the member countries in the areas of prophylaxis and control of infectious diseases of animals, zoonotic diseases as well as food and feed safety. Plenary lectures were entitled: "Private Sector's Í Point of View on the Use of Public and Private Standards" and "Economic Aspects of Veterinary Services Mandate and Activities". According to the presented world status of animal diseases in 2009 and at the beginning of 2010, major developments affecting animals have been: the continued existence and extension of African swine fever in Russia, foot and mouth disease (serotype O) in Asia and glanders in Brazil, Ethiopia, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Myanmar and Mongolia. The next topic was the presentation of reports by inter-national organizations which have signed cooperation agreements with the OIE. Subsequently, the activities of Specialist Commissions and Working Groups were presented. Finally, it was underlined that the OIE is extending its activities focused to a larger extent on chemical poisoning in animals and animal products. This is related to food and feed safety issues, which are becoming increasingly important.

Truszczynski M.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny | Pejsak Z.,Panstwowy Instytut Weterynaryjny
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2010

Definitions of public health and veterinary public health are presented. Basing on publications published recently in Scientific and Technical Review, edited by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), new trends in the veterinary curriculum are characterised. They concentrate on veterinary education for global animal and public health. They include monitoring, surveillance and control of zoonotic infections of food animals, companion animals and wildlife. Welfare of food animals from birth to slaughter is getting an obligation of the supervision by veterinarians. An other important area is the control of the food chain to the moment of delivery of safe food to the consumer, free of zoonotic bacteria, viruses, prions as well as residues of chemicals including, herbicides, pesticides, carcinogenic substances and antimicrobrials. As an important element of the veterinary curriculum the veterinary supervision of the international movement of animals and animal products, based on Terrestrial Animal Health OIE Codes, is also underlined. Examples of veterinary education after inclusion of veterinary public health at different universities in Europe and in the USA are characterised. Postgraduate and continuous education is added, with the perspective of integration of global and public health.

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