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Chowaniec J.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny Panstwowy Instytut Badawczy
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2012

The Podhale Basin is one of the most important geothermal regions in Poland, characterised by water temperatures from 20 to 86°C, total dissolved solids (TDS) about 3 g/L, and good water renewal. However, this is a cross-border aquifer system and it is advisable to consider its occurrence in relation to the parameters of the hydraulically connected peri-Tatric troughs in Slovakia. Thermal waters of Podhale are primarily used for recreation and, to lesser extent, for heating purposes, and only on a small scale for drying wood, fish fanning and cultivation of vegetables. In Slovakia, thermal waters are used exclusively for recreational purposes. The greatest threat is the over-exploitation of the resources, especially in a small area of the Podhale Basin, and particularly in its northeastern part, where the ages of the thermal waters are very old, indicating a weak renewal of these waters. Source

Mikulski S.Z.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny Panstwowy Instytut Badawczy
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2012

In Poland, the only one documented nickel deposit is the saprolitic-type deposit in Szklary Lower Silesia, abandoned in 1983. Its documented balance resources are (B and C1 categories) ca. 117 thousands Mg of metallic nickel at 0.7% cut-off. However, around the Sowie Mts. block gneisses, more such Ni-layer silicate type ores in small and separate lenses are expected. Prognostic resources of nickel in serpentinite waste are estimated for ca. 25 thousand Mg. The advances in hydrometallurgy of weathering-type nickel ores and high nickel prices allowed considering the poor Ni-ores containing <0.5% Ni as potentially economic to modern processing. Intensification of Ni prospecting should cause an increase in the amount of prospective nickel resources by tens of thousands tons of nickel from saprolitic-type deposits hosted by serpentinite wastes developed on the Szklary, Braszowice-Brzeźnica and Gogołów-Jordanów massifs. Moreover, the verification of current documented resources according to new balance criteria should also result in an increase in Ni resources in Poland. The additional source of Ni in Poland is the Zechstein Cu-Ag-formation, from which the annual production is ca. 2 thousands Mg of nickel-sulfates during technological processing of Cu ores. It is worthy to notice that during documentation of the new Cu-Ag resources hosted by the Zechstein formation in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline, an increase in nickel resources should be expected in Poland. In this area, nickel is the coexisting element in the copper-bearing sulfide ores. Besides, some evidence for possible hypothetic resources of magmatic Ni-Cu deposits connected with ultramafic cumulates of ophiolitc sequences in the Gogoł́w- Jordańw, Braszowice-Brzeźnica and Nowa Ruda gabbros massifs, is also suggested. Source

Markowiak M.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny Panstwowy Instytut Badawczy
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2012

The Cianowice 2 borehole was drilled in a village of the Grebynice, a few kilometers to the NW of Cracow. Immediately under the Jurassic rocks, at depth of265.3-600.0 m, there are fine-grained. Ediacaran deposits are mainly red and brown, locally grey and green. Ore mineralisation in the Ediacaran rocks is very poor, but the rich mineral association is represented by framboidal pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, bornite, galenite-claussthalite, tennantite-tetrahedrite minerals, covellite, chalcocite, marcasite, sphalerite, anglesite and two minerals of rare earth elements. The mineralisation is of a hydrothermal and low-temperature nature. There is a possibility of occurrence of an acid igneous intrusion in a close vicinity to the Cianowice 2 borehole (approximately 1.5-2.0 km away), which could be a source of the hydrothermal solutions. Source

Ultramafic rocks from the Szklary Massif are regarded as mantle peridotite sequence of the Sudetic ophiolite complex. Primary ultramafic rocks are serpetinised in various degree. The investigation of ore mineralization was carried out on samples collected in the field and from the drill cores situated in the southern part of the Szklary Massif. Ore minerals were identified in thin sections using transmitted and reflected lights under the polarized microscope. Chemical composition was determined using CAMECA SX 100 electron microprobe. Serpetinites host major Fe-spinels enriched with Cr in various degree, minor Fe-Ni sulphides like pentlandite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, millerite, heazlewoodite, sulfosalts such as cobaltite and single native metals inclusions (native iron, native copper, native silver and silver-gold solid solution). Source

The paper describes strongly siliceous ferruginous metasomatite - birbirite found in two boreholes (Bobolice B2 and B5) located in the southern part of the Szklary-Wzgórze Siodłowe nickel saprolitic deposit in Lower Silesia. Birbirite forms a 5-6 m thick horizon (?lense), ca. 0.03 km2 in area (its horizontal extent is at least 300 × 100 m). The birbirite is a hard rock with a very characteristic light-rusty colour, strongly porous and of very low specific gravity. Amorphous silica, fine-grained recrystallized quartz (ca. 90 wt % SiO2), hydrated oxides and iron hydroxides (mainly goethite - ca. 4-9 wt % Fe2O3) definitely dominate in the birbirite composition. The birbirite is also characterised by a low MgO content (<1 wt %) and traces of nickel, cobalt and chromium. Birbirite formed as a result of strong leaching out and enrichments of saprolitic wastes (loss of MgO, Ni, Cr and Co and enrichment in amorphous silica and goethite). Saprolitic waste formed previously in the Palaeogene during exogenic changes of serpentinitized and fractured Upper Devonian peridotites in a humid and wet climate, and subsequently changed by local water table fluctuations resulting from a morphological uplift caused by the youngest tectonic activities. Source

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