Chandigarh, India
Chandigarh, India

Panjab University is a public Autonomous university located in Chandigarh Union Territory, India. It was established in 1882 making it one of the oldest universities in India. Panjab University was ranked the #1 university in India in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings list 2013-14.The campus is residential, spread over 550 acres in sectors 14 and 25 of the city of Chandigarh. The main administrative and academic buildings are located in sector 14, beside a health centre, a sports complex, hostels and residential housing.The university has 75 teaching and research departments and 15 centres/chairs for teaching and research at the main campus located at Chandigarh. It has 10 affiliated colleges spread over the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and U.T. of Chandigarh, with Regional Centres at Muktsar, Ludhiana and Hoshiarpur cities in Punjab state. Wikipedia.

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Puri J.K.,Panjab University | Singh R.,Panjab University | Chahal V.K.,Panjab University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

This critical review summarizes progress of the rapidly developing and very active field of silatrane chemistry. The first part of the review deals with general synthetic approaches used to synthesize different silatranes. The most interesting feature of silatranes, i.e., variation of Si-N bond length on the basis of the axial substituent of Si, and other structural features, are described in the second part with special emphasis on crystallographic and theoretical studies. It is followed by a discussion on the reactivity of various silatranes. Silatranes have now gained acceptance for a wide variety of applications which are summarized in the last section of review. Some of them have extensive interest due to their medical use to heal wounds or stimulate hair-growth (pilotropic activity), biological properties, pharmacological properties e.g. antitumor, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, fungicidal activity, stimulating effect in animal production and seed germination effects. The review focuses on the extended potential of silatranes in sol-gel processes, mesoporous zeotypes, atomic force microscopy, commercial products such as adhesion promoters, polymer formation and rubber compositions. This critical review will be helpful for general researchers, experts, advanced undergraduates and newcomers working on silatrane chemistry as this review presents greater emphasis on synthesis and characterization, structural properties, reactivity and applications of silatranes in the field of biology, material science, sol-gel chemistry, pharmaceutics, agriculture and medicine (311 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Cancer research illustrated that combinatorial studies can provide significant improvement in safety and effectiveness over the monotherapy regimens. A combination of two drugs may restrain precancerous colon polyps, opening a new possible opportunity for chemoprevention of colon cancer. In this context, chemopreventive efficacy of a combination regimen of C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein present in Spirulina platensis, a cyanobacterium, which is a selective cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and piroxicam, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was considered in 1,2 dimethylhyadrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, DNA fragmentation, fluorescent staining, PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay, and carrageenan-induced paw edema test were performed along with morphological and histological analysis. DMH treatment showed a rich presence of preneoplastic lesions such as multiple plaque lesions, aberrant crypt foci, and well-characterized dysplasia. These features were reduced with piroxicam and C-phycocyanin administration. The number of apoptotic cells was featured prominently in all the groups compared with DMH. DMH treatment revealed intact high molecular weight genomic DNA with no signs of laddering/DNA fragmentation while it was noticeable significantly in control and DMH + piroxicam + C-phycocyanin. DMH group showed highest COX-2 expression and PGE(2) level in comparison with other groups. Doses of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin used in the present study were established at an anti-inflammatory range. A combination regimen of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin, rather than individually has the much greater potential for reduction of DMH-induced colon cancer development and COX-2 being the prime possible target in such chemoprevention.

Bansal R.,Panjab University | Acharya P.C.,Panjab University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

There are several fundamental techniques available to treat cancer, which include surgery, radiation therapy, immunologic treatment, and chemical-based approaches, and each has its own merits and limits. The basic approaches to cancer treatment are constantly changing. Clinical protocols are now exploring molecular targets, genetic therapies, manipulations of the immune system, stimulation of normal hematopoietic elements, induction of differentiation in tumor tissue, and inhibition of angiogenesis as appealing areas for cancer therapy. In the background of new available chemotherapeutic antineoplastic agents, cytotoxic drugs remain the mainstay of cancer therapy as they are highly specific to their targets. Sex hormones are also of interest in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. The growth of malignant neoplasms of the breast, prostate, and endometrium is often dependent on the hormonal balance of the body.

Kumari R.,Panjab University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2013

We study fusion of halo nuclei with heavy targets using proximity based potentials due to Aage Winther (AW) 95, Bass 80 and Proximity 2010. In order to consider the extended matter distribution of halo nuclei, the nuclei radii borrowed from cross section measurements are included in these potentials. Our study reveals that the barrier heights are effectively reduced and fusion cross sections are appreciably enhanced by including extended radii of these nuclei. We also find that the extended sizes of halos contribute towards enhancement of fusion probabilities in case of proton halo nuclei, but, contribute to transfer or break-up process rather than fusion yield in case of neutron halo nuclei. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kansal S.K.,Panjab University | Kumari A.,Panjab University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

A critical evaluation of M. oleifera, a unique plant usage as a sustainable material for water and wastewater treatment was studied. The study revealed that it can be successfully used for the removal of turbidity, metal ions, organic, and biological species from water. This biomaterial is capable of removing pollutants even at lower doses, which makes its application economical. As its sludge is not hazardous, there will be no need to develop any eco-friendly waste management method. The chemistry of water too remains unaltered with respect to its pH, alkalinity, and ionic strength. These characteristics render this plant a potential candidate for quick and inexpensive water treatment technology. The coagulation effectiveness of this plant varies depending upon the initial turbidity of the water to be treated. M. oleifera seed extract has also been assessed as a primary coagulant, cocoagulant, or secondary coagulant aid for the purification of drinking water and treatment of wastewater.

In the current investigation, the ameliorative effect of green tea (GT) and white tea (WT) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage has been studied in the livers and lungs of Balb/c mice. A single dose of BaP (125 mg/kg, b.w. orally) increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutahione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) significantly. Pretreatment with GT and WT for 35 days before a single dose of BaP elevated the decreased activity of GR, SOD, and CAT in liver tissue and also tended to normalize the levels of GSH and LPO in both hepatic and pulmonary tissues. The percentage of DNA in comet tail and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels reflected the decreasing pattern of DNA damage from the BaP-treated group to the groups that received pretreatment with GT and WT. Our study concludes that both GT and WT are effective in combating BaP induced oxidative insult and DNA damage. However, WT was found to be more protective than GT with respect to CAT (only in the liver), percentage of DNA in comet tail (only in the lungs), GST activity, and GSH content in both the tissues.

Biomass is a renewable, economic and readily available resource of energy that has potential to substitute fossil fuels in many applications such as heat, electricity and biofuels. The increased use of the agricultural biomass can help the agricultural based societies in achieving energy security and creating employment without causing environmental degradation. But, the viability and feasibility of electricity generation from agricultural biomass depends upon the availability of biomass supply at a competitive cost. The present study investigates the availability of agricultural biomass for distributed power generation in Punjab. The total production of the crop residues has been estimated by residue-to-product ratio (RPR) method. Further, the restrictions introduced by competitive uses as well as harvesting practices are taken into considerations to evaluate the available biomass potential. The biomass power potential has been obtained on considerations of energy contents of the particular crop residues and selecting appropriate conversion route. A total of 55.396 Mt of the agricultural residues are produced from various major crops. Out of these, 22.315 Mt (40.17%) of the agricultural biomass has been found to be surplus with an average density of 443 t/km2. These surplus residues can significantly be used to provide continuous, reliable and sustainable fuel supply for power plants. Cereals (rice, wheat, maize and barley) have major contribution (74.67%) in the surplus biomass, followed by cotton (25.01%) and sugarcane (0.2%). The estimated annual bio-energy potential of unused crop residues is 0.35 EJ (8.43% of India's potential), which is equivalent to 1.43% India's annual primary energy consumption. It has been revealed that a power potential of 2000-3000 MW can be exploited from these resources depending upon thermal efficiency. The study concludes with a discussion on significance and challenges of decentralized electricity generation for rural energy supply, including brief description about economical, social, environmental and technical aspects of bioelectricity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kaur I.P.,Panjab University | Singh H.,Panjab University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

With almost 30% of the world population suffering from tuberculosis (TB) including its resurgence in the developed world, better management of this global threat is highly desired. The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) due to misuse of second-line antitubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. In this context, nanostructured systems efficiently encapsulating considerable amounts of ATDs, eliciting controlled, sustained and more profound effect to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Improved bioavailability, solubility, stability and biocompatibility make them an ideal choice for delivery of ATDs. Present review comprehensively covers research carried out on first-line antitubercular drug therapy using these nanostructured systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Kaur I.P.,Panjab University | Kakkar S.,Panjab University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

It is assumed that more than 50% of the most enfeebling ocular diseases have their origin in the posterior segment. Furthermore, most of these diseases lead to partial or complete blindness, if left untreated. After cancer, blindness is the second most dreaded disease world over. However, treatment of posterior eye diseases is more challenging than the anterior segment ailments due to a series of anatomical barriers and physiological constraints confronted for delivery to this segment. In this regard, nanostructured drug delivery systems are proposed to defy ocular barriers, target retina, and act as permeation enhancers in addition to providing a controlled release. Since an important step towards developing effective treatment strategies is to understand the course or a route a drug molecule needs to follow to reach the target site, the first part of the present review discusses various pathways available for effective delivery to and clearance from the posterior eye. Promise held by nanocarrier systems, viz. liposomes, nanoparticles, and nanoemulsion, for effective delivery and selective targeting is also discussed with illustrative examples, tables, and flowcharts. However, the applicability of these nanocarrier systems as self-administration ocular drops is still an unrealized dream which is in itself a huge technological challenge. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Sandhir R.,Panjab University | Mehrotra A.,Panjab University
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2013

The study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of quercetin supplementation in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induced model of Huntington's disease (HD). HD was induced in rats by administering sub-chronic dose of 3-NP, intraperitoneally, twice daily for 17. days. Quercetin was supplemented at a dose of 25. mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for 21. days. At the end of treatment, mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial swelling, oxidative stress, neurobehavioral deficits and histopathological changes were analyzed. Quercetin supplementation was able to reverse 3-NP induced inhibition of respiratory chain complexes, restore ATP levels, attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and prevent mitochondrial swelling. Quercetin administration also restored the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase along with thiol content in 3-NP treated animals. Beneficial effect of quercetin administration was observed on 3-NP induced motor deficits analyzed by narrow beam walk and footprint analysis. Histopathological analysis of 3-NP treated rats revealed pyknotic nuclei and astrogliosis in striatum, which were reduced or absent in quercetin supplemented animals. Altogether, our results show that quercetin supplementation to 3-NP induced HD animals ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits in rats showing potential of this flavonoid in maintaining mitochondrial functions, suggesting a putative role of quercetin in HD management. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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