Chandigarh, India
Chandigarh, India

Panjab University is a public Autonomous university located in Chandigarh Union Territory, India. It was established in 1882 making it one of the oldest universities in India. Panjab University was ranked the #1 university in India in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings list 2013-14.The campus is residential, spread over 550 acres in sectors 14 and 25 of the city of Chandigarh. The main administrative and academic buildings are located in sector 14, beside a health centre, a sports complex, hostels and residential housing.The university has 75 teaching and research departments and 15 centres/chairs for teaching and research at the main campus located at Chandigarh. It has 10 affiliated colleges spread over the states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and U.T. of Chandigarh, with Regional Centres at Muktsar, Ludhiana and Hoshiarpur cities in Punjab state. Wikipedia.

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in motor, cognitive and behavioral anomalies. Loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region of the brain is the hallmark feature of PD, which is attributed to oxidative and inflammatory stress besides other diverse factors and hence drugs targeting these pathways hold promise as neuro-therapeutics. The anti-oxidative as well as anti-inflammatory properties of sodium salicylate (SS), suggest its neuroprotective potentials in PD. Since PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, the mechanistic basis for utilizing SS as a neuroprotectant in PD could be better understood in the chronic models. The present study utilizes a rotenone-based model of PD to evaluate the neuro-modulatory efficacy of SS. Subcutaneous injection of rotenone (2. mg/kg body weight) was given to male SD rats every day, for a period of 5. weeks, which developed all the essential features of PD in these animals. Simultaneously, another group was injected SS intraperitoneally at the dose of 100. mg/kg body weight, in addition to the rotenone. In the animals receiving rotenone + SS, significant improvement was observed in the various characteristic hallmarks of PD such as dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase levels as well as the motor dysfunction symptoms. It attenuated the reactive oxygen species levels significantly but failed to reduce the levels of protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. However, SS effectively abridged the levels of inflammatory mediators like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α was also observed following SS co-treatment. Thus, neuroprotective efficacy of SS in this chronic model of PD can be largely attributed to its anti-inflammatory effects rather than its free radical-scavenging properties. © 2012 IBRO.

Rinwa P.,Panjab University | Kumar A.,Panjab University
Neuroscience | Year: 2013

In rodents, olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) results in several behavioral and biochemical changes, useful as a screening model for antidepressants. Recent evidences suggest that quercetin; a bioflavonoid exhibits a variety of behavioral effects including anxiolytic, antidepressant, etc. Since microglia are commonly implicated in the neuroinflammation cascade of depression, we hypothesized that quercetin might involve microglial inhibition pathway in its antidepressant-like effects. To support such a possibility, we investigated the interaction of quercetin with a known microglial inhibitor (minocycline) against OBX-induced depression in male Wistar rats. In our study, ablation of olfactory bulbs caused hyperactivity in open field arena and increased immobility time in forced swim test (FST) which was coupled with enhanced serum corticosterone levels. Additionally, there were increased oxidative-nitrosative stress markers, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) along with enhanced apoptotic factor (caspase-3) in both cerebral cortex and hippocampal brain regions of OBX animals. These results were further supported by reports from histopathological analysis. After a surgical recovery period of 2. weeks, treatment with quercetin (40, 80. mg/kg; per oral (p.o.) p.o., 14. days) significantly prevented OBX-induced behavioral, biochemical, molecular and histopathological alterations. Further, combination of sub effective doses of quercetin (20, 40. mg/kg; p.o.) with minocycline (25. mg/kg; p.o.) significantly potentiated their protective effects as compared to their effects alone. Based on our results, we propose that microglial inhibitory pathway might be involved in the neuroprotective effects of quercetin and suppression of oxidative-nitrosative stress mediated neuroinflammation-apoptotic cascade associated with OBX rat model of depression. © 2013 IBRO.

Kumar A.,Panjab University | Singh A.,Panjab University | Ekavali,Panjab University
Pharmacological Reports | Year: 2015

Alzheimer's disease acknowledged as progressive multifarious neurodegenerative disorder, is the leading cause of dementia in late adult life. Pathologically it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular amyloidal protein deposits contributing to senile plaques. Over the last two decades, advances in the field of pathogenesis have inspired the researchers for the investigation of novel pharmacological therapeutics centered more towards the pathophysiological events of the disease. Currently available treatments i.e. acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, galantamine, donepezil) and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonist (memantine) contribute minimal impact on the disease and target late aspects of the disease. These drugs decelerate the progression of the disease, provide symptomatic relief but fail to achieve a definite cure. While the neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease are recognized but the intricacies of the mechanism have not been clearly defined. This lack of understanding regarding the pathogenic process may be the likely reason for the non-availability of effective treatment which can prevent onset and progression of the disease. Owing to the important progress in the field of pathophysiology in the last couple of years, new therapeutic targets are available that should render the underlying disease process to be tackled directly. In this review, authors will discusses the different aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms behind Alzheimer's disease and its management through conventional drug therapy, including modern investigational therapeutic strategies, recently completed and ongoing. © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences.

Puri J.K.,Panjab University | Singh R.,Panjab University | Chahal V.K.,Panjab University
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

This critical review summarizes progress of the rapidly developing and very active field of silatrane chemistry. The first part of the review deals with general synthetic approaches used to synthesize different silatranes. The most interesting feature of silatranes, i.e., variation of Si-N bond length on the basis of the axial substituent of Si, and other structural features, are described in the second part with special emphasis on crystallographic and theoretical studies. It is followed by a discussion on the reactivity of various silatranes. Silatranes have now gained acceptance for a wide variety of applications which are summarized in the last section of review. Some of them have extensive interest due to their medical use to heal wounds or stimulate hair-growth (pilotropic activity), biological properties, pharmacological properties e.g. antitumor, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, fungicidal activity, stimulating effect in animal production and seed germination effects. The review focuses on the extended potential of silatranes in sol-gel processes, mesoporous zeotypes, atomic force microscopy, commercial products such as adhesion promoters, polymer formation and rubber compositions. This critical review will be helpful for general researchers, experts, advanced undergraduates and newcomers working on silatrane chemistry as this review presents greater emphasis on synthesis and characterization, structural properties, reactivity and applications of silatranes in the field of biology, material science, sol-gel chemistry, pharmaceutics, agriculture and medicine (311 references). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Bansal R.,Panjab University | Acharya P.C.,Panjab University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

There are several fundamental techniques available to treat cancer, which include surgery, radiation therapy, immunologic treatment, and chemical-based approaches, and each has its own merits and limits. The basic approaches to cancer treatment are constantly changing. Clinical protocols are now exploring molecular targets, genetic therapies, manipulations of the immune system, stimulation of normal hematopoietic elements, induction of differentiation in tumor tissue, and inhibition of angiogenesis as appealing areas for cancer therapy. In the background of new available chemotherapeutic antineoplastic agents, cytotoxic drugs remain the mainstay of cancer therapy as they are highly specific to their targets. Sex hormones are also of interest in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. The growth of malignant neoplasms of the breast, prostate, and endometrium is often dependent on the hormonal balance of the body.

Kumari R.,Panjab University
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2013

We study fusion of halo nuclei with heavy targets using proximity based potentials due to Aage Winther (AW) 95, Bass 80 and Proximity 2010. In order to consider the extended matter distribution of halo nuclei, the nuclei radii borrowed from cross section measurements are included in these potentials. Our study reveals that the barrier heights are effectively reduced and fusion cross sections are appreciably enhanced by including extended radii of these nuclei. We also find that the extended sizes of halos contribute towards enhancement of fusion probabilities in case of proton halo nuclei, but, contribute to transfer or break-up process rather than fusion yield in case of neutron halo nuclei. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kansal S.K.,Panjab University | Kumari A.,Panjab University
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

A critical evaluation of M. oleifera, a unique plant usage as a sustainable material for water and wastewater treatment was studied. The study revealed that it can be successfully used for the removal of turbidity, metal ions, organic, and biological species from water. This biomaterial is capable of removing pollutants even at lower doses, which makes its application economical. As its sludge is not hazardous, there will be no need to develop any eco-friendly waste management method. The chemistry of water too remains unaltered with respect to its pH, alkalinity, and ionic strength. These characteristics render this plant a potential candidate for quick and inexpensive water treatment technology. The coagulation effectiveness of this plant varies depending upon the initial turbidity of the water to be treated. M. oleifera seed extract has also been assessed as a primary coagulant, cocoagulant, or secondary coagulant aid for the purification of drinking water and treatment of wastewater.

In the current investigation, the ameliorative effect of green tea (GT) and white tea (WT) against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage has been studied in the livers and lungs of Balb/c mice. A single dose of BaP (125 mg/kg, b.w. orally) increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutahione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) significantly. Pretreatment with GT and WT for 35 days before a single dose of BaP elevated the decreased activity of GR, SOD, and CAT in liver tissue and also tended to normalize the levels of GSH and LPO in both hepatic and pulmonary tissues. The percentage of DNA in comet tail and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels reflected the decreasing pattern of DNA damage from the BaP-treated group to the groups that received pretreatment with GT and WT. Our study concludes that both GT and WT are effective in combating BaP induced oxidative insult and DNA damage. However, WT was found to be more protective than GT with respect to CAT (only in the liver), percentage of DNA in comet tail (only in the lungs), GST activity, and GSH content in both the tissues.

Biomass is a renewable, economic and readily available resource of energy that has potential to substitute fossil fuels in many applications such as heat, electricity and biofuels. The increased use of the agricultural biomass can help the agricultural based societies in achieving energy security and creating employment without causing environmental degradation. But, the viability and feasibility of electricity generation from agricultural biomass depends upon the availability of biomass supply at a competitive cost. The present study investigates the availability of agricultural biomass for distributed power generation in Punjab. The total production of the crop residues has been estimated by residue-to-product ratio (RPR) method. Further, the restrictions introduced by competitive uses as well as harvesting practices are taken into considerations to evaluate the available biomass potential. The biomass power potential has been obtained on considerations of energy contents of the particular crop residues and selecting appropriate conversion route. A total of 55.396 Mt of the agricultural residues are produced from various major crops. Out of these, 22.315 Mt (40.17%) of the agricultural biomass has been found to be surplus with an average density of 443 t/km2. These surplus residues can significantly be used to provide continuous, reliable and sustainable fuel supply for power plants. Cereals (rice, wheat, maize and barley) have major contribution (74.67%) in the surplus biomass, followed by cotton (25.01%) and sugarcane (0.2%). The estimated annual bio-energy potential of unused crop residues is 0.35 EJ (8.43% of India's potential), which is equivalent to 1.43% India's annual primary energy consumption. It has been revealed that a power potential of 2000-3000 MW can be exploited from these resources depending upon thermal efficiency. The study concludes with a discussion on significance and challenges of decentralized electricity generation for rural energy supply, including brief description about economical, social, environmental and technical aspects of bioelectricity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Kaur I.P.,Panjab University | Singh H.,Panjab University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

With almost 30% of the world population suffering from tuberculosis (TB) including its resurgence in the developed world, better management of this global threat is highly desired. The emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) against first-line drugs and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) due to misuse of second-line antitubercular drugs (ATDs) is a further concern. Recommended treatment involves long term and multiple drug therapy with severe side effects. In this context, nanostructured systems efficiently encapsulating considerable amounts of ATDs, eliciting controlled, sustained and more profound effect to overcome the need to administer ATDs at high and frequent doses, would assist in improving patient compliance and circumvent hepatotoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity/ocular toxicity/ototoxicity associated with the prevalent first-line chemotherapy. Nanostructured delivery systems constitute a wide range of systems varying from liposomes, micelles, micro- and nanoemulsions, to polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Improved bioavailability, solubility, stability and biocompatibility make them an ideal choice for delivery of ATDs. Present review comprehensively covers research carried out on first-line antitubercular drug therapy using these nanostructured systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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