PANGAS Science Coordination

Guaymas, Mexico

PANGAS Science Coordination

Guaymas, Mexico

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Sagarin R.D.,University of Arizona | Adams J.,University of Arizona | Blanchette C.A.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Brusca R.C.,University of Arizona | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2016

Marine ecologists have a wide array of tools with which to study complex and dynamic systems, but there are cases where neither simple, highly controlled experiments nor largely uncontrolled, more complex field observations provide adequate inferential power. In such cases, mesocosm studies in marine systems may help bridge the gap. Mesocosm studies can facilitate research ranging from basic biology to multifactorial ecosystem studies that involve observation, perturbation, validation, calibration, long-term studies, and testing of new technologies. Although scale, closed boundaries, biodiversity levels, and replication can impose challenges on mesocosm research, these parameters can also help to define research opportunities that are uniquely suited to such controlled environments. Finally, we provide examples of successful marine mesocosm research and discuss opportunities for future work. © The Ecological Society of America


Jackson A.M.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Munguia-Vega A.,PANGAS Science Coordination | Munguia-Vega A.,University of Arizona | Beldade R.,University of California at Santa Cruz | And 4 more authors.
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2015

Effective design of marine reserves for use in fisheries management and conservation requires a clear understanding of patterns of larval transport and sink-source dynamics between populations, as well as a clear understanding of population demography. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were analyzed to investigate potential mechanisms impacting connectivity among and the demographic history of subpopulations of a commercially important species in the Gulf of California, the leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea). Demographic history and connectivity analyses included a coalescent analysis, estimating neutrality indices, estimating global and pairwise F’ST, ΦST, or G’’ST, and a priori methodologies to identify genetically distinct units and barriers to dispersal. Average, long-term connectivity between geographic regions in the Gulf was also estimated. Divergence of mitochondrial lineages of leopard grouper dated to the late Pleistocene, with deep-water islands serving as demographically stable populations that may have acted as sources for new populations during periods of climate variability. Additionally, we observed genetically distinct units of leopard grouper in the Gulf, particularly between peninsular and mainland sites, as well as asymmetrical migration between the northern and central Gulf. Observed patterns of genetic differentiation are likely attributed to complex asymmetrical oceanographic currents and local larval retention. Based on our genetic findings and current fishing pressure in certain regions, we recommend implementing small, upstream no-take zones in the areas east of Isla Ángel de la Guarda, around Isla San Lorenzo and Isla San Esteban, and north of Isla Tiburón, that would enhance connectivity among subpopulations, preserve sites with high genetic diversity, and benefit fisheries downstream of these sites. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Munguia-Vega A.,PANGAS Science Coordination | Munguia-Vega A.,University of Arizona | Jackson A.,University of California at Santa Cruz | Marinone S.G.,Research Center Cientifica Educacion Superior Of Ensenada | And 6 more authors.
PeerJ | Year: 2014

Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed.We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea).We tested the hypothesis that source-sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites.We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and theMidriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae fromthe Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May-June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seemto be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density fromall over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it. © 2014 Munguia-Vega et al.


PubMed | Autonomous University of Baja California, PANGAS Science Coordination, University of California at San Diego, University of California at Santa Cruz and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: PeerJ | Year: 2014

Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source-sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the Sonoran coastline that acts like a larval sink, in agreement with the cyclonic gyre (anti-clockwise) present at the peak of spawning (May-June). Our approach provided a mechanistic explanation of the location of fishing zones: most of the largest areas where fishing takes place seem to be sustained simultaneously by high levels of local retention, contribution of larvae from upstream sites and oceanographic patterns that concentrate larval density from all over the region. The general asymmetry in marine connectivity observed highlights that benefits from reserves are biased towards particular directions, that no-take areas need to be located upstream of targeted fishing zones, and that some fishing localities might not directly benefit from avoiding fishing within reserves located adjacent to their communities. We discuss the implications of marine connectivity for the current network of marine protected areas and no-take zones, and identify ways of improving it.


Lodeiros C.,ESPOL Polytechnic University | Lodeiros C.,University of the East Venezuela | Soria G.,CONICET | Soria G.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2016

Members of the bivalve molluscan family Spondylidae were very important elements in the world view of pre-Hispanic cultures of America, and today remain as symbols of culture heritage in contemporary society. In recent decades, given the importance they have for crafts and jewelry, as well as for fisheries and gastronomy, their exploitation has caused a drastic decrease in natural populations leading to restrictions in fishing. In the present review, data about Spondylus species of eastern Pacific Ocean, describing the symbolism, taxonomy, distribution, biology, and ecology, their status as exploitable resources, the advances in aquaculture of these species, as well as management experiences and conservation efforts are presented.


Cruz-Hernandez P.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Munguia-Vega A.,PANGAS Science Coordination | Munguia-Vega A.,University of Arizona | Leyva-Valencia I.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | And 2 more authors.
Conservation Genetics Resources | Year: 2014

Panopea globosa is a marine bivalve mollusk important for small-scale fisheries from Northwest Mexico. Twenty-four tetra-nucleotide microsatellite markers were characterized by 454 XL+ Titanium pyrosequencing. High average levels of allelic diversity and heterozygosity were observed (NA = 16.68; Ne = 9.77; HO = 0.643; HE = 0.858). Significant deviations from HWE, as previously observed in other mollusks, were detected in twelve loci. Linkage disequilibrium was detected among two loci pairs. This set of microsatellite loci will be useful to determine the genetic structure and larval connectivity of P. globosa. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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