Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Raipur, India

Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University in Raipur, is Chhattisgarh's largest and oldest institution of higher education, founded in 1964 Wikipedia.

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Ajazuddin,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Saraf S.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Fitoterapia | Year: 2010

Over the past several years, great advances have been made on development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for plant actives and extracts. The variety of novel herbal formulations like polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microsphere, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. The novel formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The present review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and summarizes their method of preparation, type of active ingredients, size, entrapment efficiency, route of administration, biological activity and applications of novel formulations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Saraf S.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Alexander A.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Ajazuddin,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc. | Khan J.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

Stimuli triggered polymers provide a variety of applications related with the biomedical fields. Among various stimuli triggered mechanisms, thermoresponsive mechanisms have been extensively investigated, as they are relatively more convenient and effective stimuli for biomedical applications. In a contemporary approach for achieving the sustained action of proteins, peptides and bioactives, injectable depots and implants have always remained the thrust areas of research. In the same series, Poloxamer based thermogelling copolymers have their own limitations regarding biodegradability. Thus, there is a need to have an alternative biomaterial for the formulation of injectable hydrogel, which must remain biocompatible along with safety and efficacy. In the same context, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based copolymers play a crucial role as a biomedical material for biomedical applications, because of their biocompatibility, biodegradability, thermosensitivity and easy controlled characters. This review stresses on the physicochemical property, stability and composition prospects of smart PEG/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based thermoresponsive injectable hydrogels, recently utilized for biomedical applications. The manuscript also highlights the synthesis scheme and stability characteristics of these copolymers, which will surely help the researchers working in the same area. We have also emphasized the applied use of these smart copolymers along with their formulation problems, which could help in understanding the possible modifications related with these, to overcome their inherent associated limitations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Pradhan M.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Singh D.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Singh M.R.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder of the skin with relapsing episodes of inflammation and hyperkeratosis. Numerous approaches have been explored to treat this dreadful disease using different antipsoriatic drugs with different modes of action and routes of administration. But, till date there is no cure for psoriasis due to lack of an ideal carrier for safe and effective delivery of antipsoriatic drugs. Constant progression in the development of newer formulations utilizing colloidal drug delivery systems has led to effective treatment of psoriasis. Colloidal carriers include vesicular and particulate systems like liposome, transferosome, niosomes, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, microspheres, micelles, dendrimers etc. have gained unique position as drug cargoes. Present review is an attempt to contemplate on psoriasis in terms of pathogenesis, role of cy-tokines, major hindrances in psoriasis treatment, currently available treatment options pertaining to mode of action, pharmacokinetics, marketed products, side effects of individual antipsoriatic drugs and recent developments in the delivery of various antipsoriatic drugs through novel colloidal drug carriers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Patel R.J.,Gujarat University | Saraf S.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2016

Application of pharmaceutical nanotechnology (nanomedicines) for plant actives and extracts, is gaining a tremendous growth and interest among the scientists. This emerging herbal revolution has headed towards the development of another approaches for the delivery of poorly soluble herbal bioactives and plant extracts for enhancing their bioavailability and efficacy. In the same context, a majority of pharmaceutical nanotechnologies and targeting strategies including phytosomes, nanoparticles, hydrogels, microspheres, transferosomes and ethosomes, self nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS), self micro emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) has been applied for the delivery of bioactives and plant extracts and were identified and explored. These pharmaceutical nanotechnologies have been proven to be the most efficient and reliable delivery systems, as these enhance the solubility, absorption, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability and provide protection from toxicity. Considering these aspects, the present review highlights the present scenario related to the expansion of novel herbal formulations utilizing the nanotechnologies and compilation of their delivery types and mechanism, methodology, loaded drug, drug size, entrapment efficiency of drug, in vivo activity and its application. Moreover, this review article provides an understanding of therapeutic efficacy of the herbal medicines to be loaded into the novel drug delivery system for various biomedical applications. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Kaur C.D.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Saraf S.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
International Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2011

The main antioxidant polyphenols present in Camellia sinensis (green tea) are known as epicatechins which function as anti-inflammatory or anticarcinogenic agents. There are various evidences in the literature for the protective effects that green tea polyphenols exert on the skin's immune system on oral and topical application. The aim of this study was to produce green tea extract and to evaluate its photochemoprotective ability. The alcoholic extract of green tea leaves was prepared by continuous hot extraction method using Soxhlet apparatus. The antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by reducing power estimation method in which the antioxidant activity of extract was compared with that of standard (ascorbic acid). The individual antioxidant activity obtained was 51.12±1.8% and combined antioxidant activity (ascorbic acid with extract) showed additive synergistic effect as compared to that of standard. In vitro SPF was determined according to the spectrophotometric method where alcoholic dilution of green tea extract was prepared and in vitro photoprotective activity was studied by UV spectrophotometeric method in the range of 290-320 nm. The extract produced high absorbances at 290-320 nm wavelength range and SPF obtained was 18.10±0.05 which collectively confirmed the photoprotective activity of green tea polyphenols. The higher antioxidant activity and sun protection factor of green tea extract could be utilized in the preparation of photoprotective cosmetic formulations which could prevent the skin with harmful effects of ultra violet radiations. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

Khan J.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Saraf S.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology | Year: 2016

Context: The phyto-phospholipid complexation technique is a promising approach to improve the bioavailability and efficacy of flavonoids.Objective: The objective of this study was to improve the bioavailability and efficacy of luteolin by phospholipid complexation against inflammatory liver damage.Materials and methods: The phospholipid complex of luteolin (LPC) was prepared by solvent evaporation accompanied by freeze drying. The physicochemical properties of LPC were investigated by means of spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pharmacokinetic parameters in rats were determined and the hepatoprotective potential was assessed against d-galctosamine and lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) induced hepatic damage.Results: LPC showed drug loading of 74.14% and average particle size 147.4 nm. The results of FTIR, thermal and diffraction studies confirmed the formation of complex. The aqueous/n-octanol solubility showed improvements. LPC showed an increase in relative in vivo bioavailability to 535.31% of pure luteolin. The histological and biochemical changes induced by GalN/LPS were significantly ameliorated by LPC.Discussion: Hepatoprotective effect of LPC was more profound than luteolin with a particle size suitable for passive targeting of inflammatory sites.Conclusion: LPC was successfully formulated under optimized conditions and is an efficient drug delivery system for oral administration of luteolin with enhanced bioavailability and hepatoprotective potential. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Saraf S.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Khan J.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Alexander A.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Ajazuddin,A And G Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2013

The phyto-phospholipid complexation technique has emerged as one of the leading methods of improving bioavailability of phytopharmaceuticals having poor competency of solubilizing and crossing the biological membranes. Several plant actives in spite having potent in vitro pharmacological activities have failed to demonstrate similar in vivo response. Such plant actives have been made more effective systemically by incorporating them with dietary phospholipids forming new cellular structures which are amphipathic in nature. In the last few years phospholipids have been extensively explored for improved bioavailability and efficacy of plant drugs. Further, it is also much relevant to mention that phospholipids show unique compatibility with biological membranes and have inherent hepatoprotective activity. Different methods have been adopted to formulate phospholipid complexes of plant extractives utilizing varying solvent systems, molar ratios of drug/phospholipids and different drying techniques. Some methods of formulating such drug-phospholipid complexes have been patented as well. However, the stability of phyto-phospholipid complexes is still a matter of concern which needs attention. But still a number of products exploiting this technique are under clinical trials and some of them are now in market. The current review highlights key findings of recent years with our own viewpoints which can give the new directions to this strategy and also includes advancements in the technical aspects of phyto-phospholipid formulations which have been done in the recent past with future challenges. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gidwani B.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Vyas A.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2014

Cyclodextrins, the macrocyclic compounds are renowned for their inclusion ability. Several chemical and polymerized derivatives of parent cyclodextrins are synthesized to improve the physicochemical/biopharmaceutical properties of drug and inclusion capacity of cyclodextrin. This review article recapitulates the potential aspects of polymerized water-soluble derivative of β-cyclodextrin viz. epichlorohydrin-β-cyclodextrin polymer in different areas of drug delivery. Polymerized cyclodextrin combines the advantage of the properties of polymer (high molecular weight and higher solubility) with the formation of inclusion complex with cyclodextrin. This justifies the superiority of polymerized cyclodextrin over parent cyclodextrin and some other chemically modified and non-polymerized derivatives. The use of polymerized cyclodextrin in various fields like biomedical, pharmaceutical and gene delivery is increasing day-by-day. β-Cyclodextrin-epichlorohydrin polymer is a high molecular weight compound, which acts as an effective drug carrier for enhancing the solubility and oral bioavailability of drugs along with the increase in therapeutic efficiency. The future panorama of polymerized cyclodextrins is quite bright as they can serve as useful multifunctional tools for pharmaceutical scientists to develop and optimize drug delivery through various routes. Also, no information concerning the regulatory status and toxicity of polymerized cyclodextrins is available. So, there is a need to focus on these critical issues for resolving the problems associated with the development and commercialization of drug products. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Suresh P.K.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University | Sah A.K.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

Introduction: Many therapeutic strategies have been adopted in the treatment of anterior uveitis, and it includes corticosteroids and NSAIDs. But, the successful delivery of these drugs is restricted due to limitations of conventional formulation. This review emphasizes on the possible benefits and strategies for development of various novel nanocarriers.Areas covered: The article explores the various polymers involved in the preparation of novel nanocarriers like polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, microemulsion, liposomes and cubosomes. Reported clinical experimental findings are screened and also discussed in this review.Expert opinion: The principle behind the development of different nanocarriers is to overcome the limitations imposed by conventional formulations. Several efforts have been made by the researchers in achieving these objectives, but the major challenge with nanosystems remains the requirement of excipients that have unknown or objectionable toxicity profile and are not approved by regulatory authorities. This review is an attempt to provide comprehensive information for the scientists working in the concerned research area. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Das S.,Narsee Monjee Institute of Management and Higher Studies | Suresh P.K.,Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2011

Present limitations in the management of ophthalmic fungal infections include the inability to provide long-term extraocular drug delivery without compromising intraocular structures and/or systemic drug exposure. In the present study, the potential of Eudragit RS 100 nanoparticles (NPs) as a new vehicle for the improvement of the delivery of drugs to the ocular mucosa was investigated. Amphotericin B (AmB) was chosen as a model compound because of its potential usefulness for the treatment of fungal diseases. A solvent displacement technique was used to produce AmB-loaded Eudragit NPs. These NPs had a mean size range of 150-290 nm and a zeta potential of +19-28 mV. Even after 6 months of stability study, results were unchanged, indicating the good potential for ocular application. In vitro release studies revealed that a maximum amount of drug was released within 24 hours (60%). The results obtained from microbial assay showed that the antifungal activity of drug-loaded NPs was equal to or slightly lower than that of free-AmB solution. In vivo experiments showed that, following topical instillation of nanosuspension to a rabbit's eye there was no irritation. From these results we can conclude that Eudragit RS 100 nanosuspension may represent an efficacious vehicle to deliver the drug into the eye. From the Clinical Editor: Amphotericin B encapsulated into Eudragit, a mildly cationic nanoparticle, was shown to have 6 month stability, release 60% of its drug payload in dissolution within 24 hours, and elicited no irritation when instilled into rabbit eyes. The concept is being considered for local ophthalmologic therapy of fungal disease. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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