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Lee S.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jang S.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj E.P.,University of Maryland, Baltimore | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In the present study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses using a co-infection model of experimental NE in commercial broilers. Chickens were fed from hatch with a diet supplemented with XT, or with a non-supplemented control diet, and either uninfected or orally challenged with virulent Eimeria maxima oocysts at 14 d and Clostridium perfringens at 18 d of age. Parameters of protective immunity were as follows: (1) body weight; (2) gut lesions; (3) serum levels of C. perfringens α-toxin and NE B-like (NetB) toxin; (4) serum levels of antibodies to α-toxin and NetB toxin; (5) levels of gene transcripts encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the intestine and spleen. Infected chickens fed the XT-supplemented diet had increased body weight and reduced gut lesion scores compared with infected birds given the non-supplemented diet. The XT-fed group also displayed decreased serum α-toxin levels and reduced intestinal IL-8, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF), IL-17A and IL-17F mRNA levels, while cytokine/chemokine levels in splenocytes increased in the XT-fed group, compared with the animals fed the control diet. In conclusion, the present study documents the molecular and cellular immune changes following dietary supplementation with extracts of Capsicum and turmeric that may be relevant to protective immunity against avian NE. © The Authors 2013.

Kim D.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee S.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jang S.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bravo D.,Pancosma SA
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Among dietary phytonutrients, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin are well known for their antiinflammatory and antibiotic effects in human and veterinary medicine. To further define the molecular and genetic mechanisms responsible for these properties, broiler chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with either of the 3 phytochemicals and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were examined for changes in gene expression by microarray analysis. When compared with chickens fed a nonsupplemented standard diet, carvacrol-fed chickens showed altered expression of 74 genes (26 upregulated, 48 downregulated) and cinnamaldehyde led to changes in the levels of mRNAs corresponding to 62 genes (31 upregulated, 31 downregulated). Most changes in gene expression were seen in the Capsicum-fed broilers with 98 upregulated and 156 downregulated genes compared with untreated controls. Results from the microarray analysis were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR with a subset of selected genes. Among the genes that showed >2.0-fold altered mRNA levels, most were associated with meta-bolic pathways. In particular, with the genes altered by Capsicum oleoresin, the highest scored molecular network included genes associated with lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and cancer. In conclusion, this study provides a foundation to further investigate specific chicken genes that are expressed in response to a diet containing carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, or Capsicum oleoresin. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Lee S.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jang S.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee K.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2011

Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II +, CD4 +, CD8 +, TCR1+, or TCR2 + T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1 + macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis. © 2011.

Kim D.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee S.H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj E.P.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Bravo D.,Pancosma SA
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The effects of a compound including the secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulphinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulphinate oxide (PTSO), on the in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound comprised of PTSO (67%) and PTS (33%) dose-dependently killed invasive E. acervulina sporozoites and stimulated higher spleen cell proliferation. Broiler chickens continuously fed from hatch with PTSO/PTS compound-supplemented diet and orally challenged with live E. acervulina oocysts had increased body weight gain, decreased faecal oocyst excretion and greater E. acervulina profilin antibody responses, compared with chickens fed a non-supplemented diet. Differential gene expression by microarray hybridisation identified 1227 transcripts whose levels were significantly altered in the intestinal lymphocytes of PTSO/PTS-fed birds compared with non-supplemented controls (552 up-regulated, 675 down-regulated). Biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories 'Disease and Disorder' and 'Physiological System Development and Function'. In the former category, the most significant function identified was 'Inflammatory Response', while the most significant function in the latter category was 'Cardiovascular System Development and Function'. This new information documents the immunologic and genomic changes that occur in chickens following PTSO/PTS dietary supplementation, which are relevant to protective immunity during avian coccidiosis. © 2012 The Authors.

Cho H.-J.,University of Melbourne | Callaghan B.,University of Melbourne | Bron R.,University of Melbourne | Bravo D.M.,Pancosma S.A. | Furness J.B.,University of Melbourne
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2014

TRPA1 is an ion channel that detects specific chemicals in food and also transduces mechanical, cold and chemical stimulation. Its presence in sensory nerve endings is well known and recent evidence indicates that it is expressed by some gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC). The purpose of the present work is to identify and quantify EEC that express TRPA1 in the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Combined in situ hybridisation histochemistry for TRPA1 and immunofluorescence for EEC hormones was used. TRPA1 expressing EEC were common in the duodenum and jejunum, were rare in the distal small intestine and were absent from the stomach and large intestine. In the duodenum and jejunum, TRPA1 occurred in EEC that contained both cholecystokinin (CCK) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) and in a small number of cells expressing 5HT but not CCK. TRPA1 was absent from CCK cells that did not express 5HT and from EEC containing glucagon-like insulinotropic peptide. Thus TRPA1 is contained in very specific EEC populations. It is suggested that foods such as garlic and cinnamon that contain TRPA1 stimulants may aid digestion by facilitating the release of CCK. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

The invention relates to the use of at least one dialkyl thiosulfonate or thiosulfinate in order to reduce the number of apicomplexa, such as coccidioides and, in particular, Eimeria, in monogastric animals, such as poultry or pigs, or ruminants, such as cattle, sheep or goats.

Pancosma Sa and University of Liverpool | Date: 2013-08-29

The invention concerns the use of a food additive including a sweetener in the feed or the drink of a ruminant animal to reduce the impact of stressful conditions on intestinal mucosa quality.

The invention relates to an organometallic complex of the amino acid/metal type. The complex is a crystalline pluri-metal complex that can be obtained in the form of a homogeneous powder that can be used to optimise animal feed. More specifically, the invention relates to an organometallic complex that is characterised in that it is formed by at least one amino acid or amino acid derivative with at least two different metals. The invention also relates to a powder comprising the organometallic complex of the invention, as well as to methods for preparing such a powder.

The invention relates to the use of a food additive comprising at least one phytonutrient in order to stimulate vaccine immunity against apicomplexa in non-human monogastric animals, such as poultry or pigs, or in ruminants, such as a cattle, sheep or goats.

Pancosma S.A. | Date: 2014-06-18

The invention relates to elemental selenium nanoparticles, especially a product containing selenium nanoparticules, that can be produced from at least one organic compound and at least one selenium source, with a step of drying by atomisation. The invention also relates to a method for producing such a product and to a method for enriching, with elemental selenium nanoparticles, a product which already comprises elemental selenium nanoparticles.

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