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Rodriguez-Prado M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ferret A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Zwieten J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gonzalez L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Four beef Holstein heifers (BW = 438 ± 71 kg) fitted with a 1-cm i.d. plastic ruminal trocars were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of 3 doses of capsicum extract (CAP) on intake, water consumption, and ruminal fermentation in heifers fed a high-concentrate diet. Animals were fed (DM basis) 10% barley straw and 90% concentrate (32.2% barley grain, 27.9% ground corn, 7.5% wheat bran, 10.7% soybean meal, 10.7% soybean hulls, 7.2% corn gluten feed, 3.1% mineral-vitamin mix; 16.6% CP, 18.3% NDF). Treatments were no additive (CTR), 125 (CAP125), 250 (CAP250), and 500 (CAP500) mg/d of capsicum oleoresin standardized with 6% of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (XTract 6933, Pancosma, Geneva, Switzerland). Each experimental period consisted of 25 d (15 d for adaptation, 5 d of continuous measurement of DMI, and 3 d for rumen sample collection). Animals had ad libitum access to water and feed offered once daily at 0800 h. Data were analyzed by the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the fixed effects of period and treatment, the random effect of heifer, and the residual error. The effects were tested for linear and quadratic effects. A linear response was observed (CTR, CAP125, CAP250, and CAP500, respectively) for DMI (8.56, 9.84, 8.68, and 9.40 kg/d; P < 0.04), ruminal pH (6.03, 5.84, 5.96, and 5.86; P < 0.08) and total VFA (134.3, 144.8, 140.1, and 142.8 mM; P < 0.08). There was a strong correlation between water consumption and DMI (R2 = 0.98). Dry matter intake in the first 2 h after feeding was reduced (P < 0.05) in all CAP treatments compared with control. The molar proportion of acetate tended to decrease linearly (from 59.6 to 55.5 mol/100 mol; P < 0.06), and ammonia N concentration tended to increase linearly (from 14.4 to 16.0 mg N/dL; P < 0.08). In contrast, the molar proportion of propionate (23.8 mol/100 mol), butyrate (14.2 mol/100 mol), and lactate (0.28 mol/100 mol) were not affected by treatments. Results indicate that capsicum extract stimulated DMI and modified the pattern of DMI in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Reverdy C.,Pancosma | Schlich P.,University of Burgundy | Ginon E.,University of Burgundy | Lange C.,University of Burgundy
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

During an evaluation of the effects of a French sensory education program for 8-10. years old school children, an experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of the program on the development of children's preferences for stimuli differing in arousal potential (higher complexity and/or intensity).An experimental group (n=101) who participated in the education program and a control group (n=102) who did not, rated liking for five stimuli differing in arousal potential in each of three product categories (mashed potatoes, fruit yoghurts and compotes) at three moments: just before (T0) and after (T1) the education program and 10. months later (T2). Although initially both groups showed the same increase in liking for more arousing stimuli in two foods, indicating that exposure to more arousing stimuli alone sufficed, whereas the effect of the education program was only shown in the further extension of this change at T2 in the experimental group. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Harper M.T.,Pennsylvania State University | Oh J.,Pennsylvania State University | Giallongo F.,Pennsylvania State University | Lopes J.C.,Pennsylvania State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2016

Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197 ± 32 d in milk, 1.9 ± 0.8 lactations, 27.8 ± 4.2 kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5 ± 7.4 kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300 g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1 kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2 d, 2 h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5 min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371 g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239 g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows may prefer vanilla or fenugreek flavors when offered a novel choice. © 2016 American Dairy Science Association.

Tekippe J.A.,Pennsylvania State University | Tacoma R.,Pennsylvania State University | Hristov A.N.,Pennsylvania State University | Lee C.,Pennsylvania State University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

Three experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of an essential oil product (EO) based on eugenol and cinnamaldehyde (0, control, or 525. mg/d of Xtract 6965; Pancosma SA, Geneva, Switzerland) on ruminal fermentation, total-tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N losses, and dairy cow performance. In Exp. 1 and 3, the EO supplement was added to the vitamin-mineral premix. In Exp. 2, EO was top-dressed. Experiments 1 and 2 were crossover designs with 20 multiparous Holstein cows each (including 4 and 8 ruminally cannulated cows, respectively) and consisted of two 28-d periods. Intake of dry matter did not differ between treatments. Most ruminal fermentation parameters were unaffected by EO. Concentrations of ammonia (Exp. 1), isobutyrate (Exp. 1 and 2), and isovalerate (Exp. 1) were increased by EO compared with the control. Apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients was similar between treatments, except total-tract digestibility of neutral-detergent fiber, which was increased or tended to be increased by EO in Exp. 1 and 2. Manure emissions of ammonia and methane were unaffected by EO. Blood plasma and milk urea-N concentrations and urinary N losses were increased by EO compared with the control in Exp. 1, but not in Exp. 2. Average milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, a marker for microbial protein production in the rumen, was greater in cows receiving the EO diet in Exp. 1, but not in Exp. 2. In Exp. 3, 120 Holstein cows were grouped in pens of 20 cows/pen in a 12-wk experiment to study production effects of EO. Dry matter intake, milk yield (a trend for a slight decrease with EO), milk components, milk urea N, and feed efficiency were similar between treatments. Results from these studies indicate that supplementing dairy cows with 525. mg/d of Xtract 6965 had moderate effects on ruminal fermentation, but consistently increased ruminal isobutyrate concentration and tended to increase total-tract digestibility of neutral-detergent fiber. Under the conditions of these experiments, Xtract 6965 fed at 525. mg/d did not affect milk production or composition. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Vacchina V.,UT2A | Oguey S.,Pancosma | Ionescu C.,Pancosma | Bravo D.,Pancosma | Lobinski R.,LCABIE UMR5254
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

A method was developed for the determination of metal complexes with glycine (glycinates, [M(Gly)x(H2O)y(SO 4)z]n, where M denotes Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe) in premix samples used for the preparation of animal feeds enriched in essential trace elements. The method was based on the extraction of the glycinates with 10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 7.4) followed by their determination using capillary electrophoresis with ICP MS detection. The stability of the glycinates in solution was verified by electrospray TOF-MS. Each supplement was shown to be a mixture of complexes, with polymerization degrees ranging from n∈=∈1 to n∈=∈4 (depending on the metal), that were fully or partially dehydrated. The metal glycine complex moiety was found to be preserved during capillary electrophoresis. The detection limits, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank plus the blank, were between 0.05 and 0.2 μg mL-1 (as the metal), and the calibration curves were linear, allowing the analysis of premix samples. Repeatability for glycinate standards was below 12%, and analytical precision was typically within 15%. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

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