Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano

www.zamorano.edu
Tegucigalpa, Honduras
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Hofmann E.P.,Indiana University of Pennsylvania | Gray R.J.,Toucan Ridge Ecology & Education Society | Wilson L.D.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Townsend J.H.,Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Herpetology Notes | Year: 2017

Tantilla hendersoni Stafford, 2004 was described based on a single female specimen from Cayo District, Belize, and is the only snake species considered to be endemic to the country. We report the discovery of a second specimen, the first male, of Tantilla hendersoni from a new locality in Stann Creek District, and provide a detailed morphological description of the specimen. We also discuss the distribution, conservation, and taxonomic status of the species. © 2017, Societas Europaea Herpetologica. All rights reserved.


Moro T.M.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Ascheri J.L.R.,Food Extrusion and Physical Properties Laboratory | Ortiz J.A.R.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Carvalho C.W.P.,Food Extrusion and Physical Properties Laboratory | Melendez-Arevalo A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2017

Industrial passion fruit juice production generates a large amount of passion fruit waste, which contains about 60% of fibers when dried and could be used as reinforcement of thermoplastic starch. This study aimed to develop an extruded starchy bioplastic reinforced with passion fruit peel (Pfp) (0, 4, 10, 16, and 20%), glycerol (60, 64, 70, 76, and 80 wt%), and starch mix (55% corn and 45% cassava) that were processed at varied screw speeds (66, 80, 100, 120, and 134 rpm). The response surface methodology was applied to analyze the effects of Pfp, glycerol, and screw speed. Mechanical properties, contact angle, and water permeability and solubility were the response variables. Addition of Pfp, up to 4%, improved the bioplastic mechanical properties. High addition of Pfp (16 and 20%) combined with the lowest screw speed (66 rpm) reduced bioplastic water solubility. Water vapor permeability slightly increased with the combination of increasing glycerol content and screw speed. Contact angle was not statically affected by the independent variables. The extrusion showed as an interesting tool that provided greater homogeneity of Pfp incorporated in starch bioplastic, though the mix would benefit from finer Pfp particle size distribution. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC


Cerrato Rodriguez W.A.,Louisiana State University | Torrico D.D.,University of Melbourne | Osorio L.F.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Cardona J.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Prinyawiwatkul W.,Louisiana State University
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Associations of sodium intake with heart-related problems are creating awareness towards reducing sodium. Potassium chloride (KCl), a substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl), has the disadvantage of imparting bitterness at high concentrations. We evaluated physical characteristics, taste perception and purchase intent of KCl and NaCl in oil-in-water spreads/emulsions composed by olive, rice bran and soya bean oils. Consumers (N = 300) evaluated saltiness/bitterness of emulsions prepared with 65% oil, and NaCl (0.5% and 1.0%) or KCl (0.75% and 1.5%). Olive oil spreads (104.07-107.43 Pa s) had higher viscosity compared to other spreads (59.16-74.96 Pa s). Type of oil had significant effects on bitterness, overall taste liking and viscosity. Taste liking decreased due to bitterness of olive oil spreads (mean drop=1.72-2.43). Purchase intent was positively associated with saltiness and pH and increased with oil claims (increase = 1.3%-22.1%) compared to sodium claims (increase = 0.0%-12.9%). These findings are useful for understanding taste perception of emulsions. © 2017 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Henry A.,Pennsylvania State University | Rosas J.C.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Beaver J.S.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez | Lynch J.P.,Pennsylvania State University
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Multilines (genetic mixtures) composed of genotypes of contrasting root architecture were hypothesized to show improved growth and productivity in comparison with genetic monocultures in conditions of multiple edaphic stresses. To test this hypothesis, three multilines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), each composed of two recombinant inbred lines having contrasting root architecture in previous studies, were evaluated at seven sites in Honduras with varying soil phosphorus and moisture availability. Molecular markers were used to quantify the presence of each genotype in both root and seed-yield samples. Root growth in competition was dependent on both soil treatment and genotype. In one of the multilines, the root zone was dominated by one genotype, especially in the high-P treatment. In contrast, the root zone of another multiline had equal representation from both genotypes. These results show that response to belowground competition can differ among genotypes of the same species. No tradeoff between root growth and plant performance (yield or shoot biomass) was observed. Contrary to expected results, profiles of root distribution did not differ significantly in the environments tested in this study. As a result, differences in uptake of resources (phosphorus and water) in divergent soil domains and yield advantage of multilines were observed in only a small number of cases. Multilines did not create any yield penalty. Future work with genotypes that are more contrasting in root architecture is necessary to assess this strategy for use by resource-poor farmers. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Matamoros W.A.,University of Southern Mississippi | Matamoros W.A.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Schaefer J.F.,University of Southern Mississippi
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2010

A new species of Profundulus, Profundulus portillorum, from the Honduran central highlands is described. Profundulus portillorum belongs to the Profundulus labialis species group and is distinct from the Profundulus punctatus species group in that it lacks a humeral spot and less than half of the caudal fin is scaled. Within the P. labialis species group, P. portillorum has a more slender body, smaller eye, fewer anal rays, caudal rays and lateral-line scales than other species. Forty-one specimens were collected around emergent vegetation in the margins of two small (2-5 m in width, 20-40 cm in depth), high-elevation (1300 m) tributaries of the Río Calam within the Río Ulúa drainage. These specimens represent the easternmost collection of any Profundulus and the first collection of any member of the P. labialis species group from Honduras. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.


Acevedo M.,North Dakota State University | Steadman J.R.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Rosas J.C.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Bean rust, caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus, is a major constraint for common bean production worldwide. Virulence of U. appendiculatus collected from wild and cultivated Phaseolus spp. was examined in 28 locations across Honduras. Host accessions representing wild and domesticated Phaseolus spp. collected at the same sampling locations were evaluated for resistance against U. appendiculatus. In total, 91 pathotypes were identified from 385 U. appendiculatus isolates according to their virulence on each of the 12 host differentials. No significant difference in pathogen total virulence, measured as the mean disease score, was found between locations. However, significant differences were found in pathotype virulence among isolates collected from different Phaseolus spp. within a location. Moreover, when locations were compared on the basis of pathotype occurrence and frequency, differences among locations were evident. No two locations had the same pathotype composition. The most common pathotype was virulent on 9 of the 12 differential lines. A high number of resistant accessions were identified in Phaseolus coccineus and P. lunatus. Although most wild P. vulgaris accessions were highly susceptible, rust resistance was observed in P. vulgaris landraces collected from farmer's fields. Thirty-two (52%) of the accessions screened showed intermediate to high levels of resistance and, of those, 16% were P. coccineus accessions. Our findings support the hypothesis that interaction of U. appendiculatus in host populations composed of diverse Phaseolus spp. and genotypes has favored highly diverse and virulent pathotypes, creating a center for virulence diversity of the pathogen in Honduras. The high percentage of intermediate and highly resistant accessions identified in the present study supports the strategy of collecting plants from the center of diversity of a pathogen or in locations with high incidence of disease and pathogen diversity to maximize the probability of identifying new sources of resistance. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.


Lascano G.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Velez M.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Tricarico J.M.,Alltech Inc. | Heinrichs A.J.,Pennsylvania State University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of replacing soybean protein (SBM) with a slow-release urea (SR-U) in control-fed dairy heifers in the tropics. Eight Holstein heifers (237.6 ± 5.45. kg of body weight) were allocated to 2 treatments in a crossover design. Treatments were control (SBM) and SR-U (Optigen II; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY). The forage-to-concentrate ratio was 50:50 [dry matter (DM) basis], and fresh chopped sugarcane was the sole source of forage. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model. Compared with the SR-U diet, SBM tended to have greater total tract apparent digestibility of DM and ash. Total tract apparent digestibilities in SBM-fed heifers were greater than in SR-U-fed heifers for organic matter (73.9 vs. 71.3 ± 0.6), crude protein (76.9 vs. 75.2 ± 0.7), hemicellulose (50.5 vs. 43.3 ± 0.9), and starch (98.6 vs. 97.1 ± 0.5). However, total tract apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was similar, and digestibility of acid detergent fiber was higher in SR-U heifers than in SBM (33.3 vs. 27.7 ± 2.6). Water intake and excretion of urine and feces (wet and dry) were similar between treatments. Retained N was similar for all groups, and no differences were observed in the distribution of excreted N. We conclude that when SR-U replaced SBM, it tended to marginally decrease DM and decreased organic matter, crude protein, hemicellulose, and starch total tract apparent digestibility, but did not affect neutral detergent fiber and increased acid detergent fiber digestibility. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.


Espinal M.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Escobedo-Galvan A.H.,National Autonomous University of Mexico
Southwestern Naturalist | Year: 2011

During 2005 and 2007, we examined status of populations of the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in three rivers at El Cajon Reservoir in central Honduras. Number of crocodiles per kilometer of survey varied by river and time of study. Most observations were of hatchlings and yearlings, but juveniles, subadults, and adults also were observed. Sex ratio in the reservoir was 1â̂¶1.4 maleâ̂¶female. Assuming that sex ratio and size-class structure were representative of the overall population, our study suggests that the population in El Cajon Reservoir is stable. Copyright © 2011 BioOne All rights reserved.


McCranie J.R.,10770 SW 164th Street | McCranie J.R.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Townsend J.H.,University of Florida
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

We describe a new species of Oedipina (subgenus Oedopinola) from Parque Nacional Pico Bonito in the central portion of the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in north-central Honduras. The new species was previously assigned to O. gephyra, but a combination of molecular analyses and its differences in foot morphology diagnose it from O. gephyra.Copyright © 2011 • Magnolia Press.


Jadin R.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Townsend J.H.,University of Florida | Townsend J.H.,Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano | Castoe T.A.,Aurora University | Campbell J.A.,University of Texas at Arlington
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2012

The discovery and taxonomic recognition of cryptic species has become increasingly frequent with the application of molecular phylogenetic analyses, particularly for species with broad geographic distributions. In this study we focus on the venomous pitviper species Cerrophidion godmani that is widely distributed throughout the highlands of Central America. We provide evidence based on both molecular phylogenetic analyses and morphological data that C. godmani represents three deeply divergent lineages and is possibly non-monophyletic. These three lineages are relatively conserved in their morphology and tend to be highly variable among individuals, but we do find sufficient morphological characters to diagnose them as evolutionarily distinct. We apply these data, together with known geographic distributions of populations, to infer boundaries of these three divergent evolutionary lineages. Based on the body of evidence, we formally name and describe two new species of Cerrophidion and redescribe C. godmani sensu stricto. © 2012 The Authors. Zoologica Scripta © 2012 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

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