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Anderson J.,PANalytical | Gobbo L.D.A.,PANalytical | Van Weeren H.,PANalytical B.V.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2015

The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of cement process materials has grown beyond its roots in the laboratory to become an important tool for process control. Combined with its partners, i.e., X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and controlled neutron analysis (CNA), these techniques can provide valuable process control information, i.e., essentially 'new eyes', to guide process control decisions. Important developments in XRD analyzers have decreased analysis time from hours to minutes to provide quick results that enable timely process control decisions. XRD phase analysis can provide information to optimize combustion control and mix chemistry, cooler operation, and additive mixtures in finish cement. This paper will provide an overview of all the XRF/XRD applications and then focus on the XRD process control opportunities. © 2014 IEEE.


da Costa E.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Rodriguez E.D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Bernal S.A.,University of Sheffield | Provis J.L.,University of Sheffield | And 2 more authors.
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2016

Calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement (CSAB) offers lower CO2 emissions in its production, compared with Portland cement. However, for the production of CSAB a high amount of alumina is required, and the scarcity and high cost of high-purity bauxite make these cements costly at present. In this study, the use of uncalcined aluminium anodising sludge (AAS) as the main source of alumina to produce CSAB clinkers, replacing bauxite, was assessed. The CSAB clinkers produced were mainly composed of ye'elimite and belite, along with minor traces of alite, and/or brownmillerite, depending on the alumina source. Clinkers derived from AAS as a source of aluminium showed a lower content of ye'elimite (35.5%), as well as the formation of alite (8.2%) when compared to a reference clinker produced with reagent-grade materials. Comparable hydration products were identified in the hydrated cements independent of the alumina source used. The use of AAS to produce CSAB cement was proven to be technically feasible, and the cement thus produced has desirable technical characteristics, presenting high mechanical strength (>40 MPa in paste samples). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Cui M.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang L.,PANalytical | Zhang Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Meng C.,Dalian University of Technology
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2015

Mordenite was synthesized from diatomite in a template-free system. The crystallization behavior and changes of medium-range structure during the crystallization were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrograph, vibrational spectroscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction. It is indicated that major 4-membered rings are formed at a stage later than that of 5-membered ring in the course of crystallization. Diatomite has also been demonstrated to consist of 5-membered rings and various rings lager than 5-membered ring. A formation pathway for mordenite from diatomite could be proposed that 5-membered rings formed initially are undergoing accommodation of 4-membered rings around them to form mordenite. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Visser J.,Netherlands Institute for Subatomic Physics | Van Der Heijden B.,Netherlands Institute for Subatomic Physics | Weijers S.J.A.,PANalytical | De Vries R.,PANalytical | Visschers J.L.,Netherlands Institute for Subatomic Physics
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

A system to read-out images from four photon-counting Medipix chips at one Gigabit per second has been constructed in a bilateral collaboration between Nikhef and PANalytical. The system consists of two printed circuit boards. One board supports the four Medipix readout ASICs, flip-chipped to a single pixellized semiconducting sensor on top. This board is mounted perpendicular on the Relaxd read-out board. This Relaxd board supplies the necessary voltages to the Medipix readout ASICs, controls all signals to and from these chips via a low-power Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, Lattice SC series) and communicates with a PC through a standard one Gigabit per second Ethernet connection (GbE). The T-shaped mechanical topology allows multiple modules to be mounted adjacent to each other in all directions (2D tiling) and to minimise the insensitive area between separate Relaxd modules. An overview of the system layout and the functionality is presented as well as the first test results. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cui M.,Dalian University of Technology | Zhang Y.,Dalian University of Technology | Liu X.,Dalian University of Technology | Wang L.,PANalytical | Meng C.,Dalian University of Technology
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2014

Changes of medium-range structure during the crystallization of zeolite omega from magadiite were characterized. It is found that although the long-range order of magadiite is collapsed in the initial stage, parts of 5-member rings and 6-member rings are still preserved as secondary building units. The fraction of 5-member rings and 6-member rings increases as the crystallization progresses. The 4-member ring chains are formed at a stage later than that of 5-member rings and 6-member rings. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Hong J.-I.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Choi J.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Jang S.S.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Gu J.,California State University, Long Beach | And 4 more authors.
Nano Letters | Year: 2012

It is known that bulk ZnO is a nonmagnetic material. However, the electronic band structure of ZnO is severely distorted when the ZnO is in the shape of a very thin plate with its dimension along the c-axis reduced to a few nanometers while keeping the bulk scale sizes in the other two dimensions. We found that the chemically synthesized ZnO nanoplates exhibit magnetism even at room temperature. First-principles calculations show a growing asymmetry in the spin distribution within the distorted bands formed from Zn (3d) and O (2p) orbitals with the reduction of thickness of the ZnO nanoplates, which is suggested to be responsible for the observed magnetism. In contrast, reducing the dimension along the a- or b-axes of a ZnO crystal does not yield any magnetism for ZnO nanowires that grow along c-axis, suggesting that the internal electric field produced by the large {0001} polar surfaces of the nanoplates may be responsible for the distorted electronic band structures of thin ZnO nanoplates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Meier R.,PANalytical | Anderson J.,PANalytical | Verryn S.,PANalytical Pty. Ltd.
Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry | Year: 2012

X-ray analysis of polycrystalline powder samples has grown beyond its roots in the world of laboratory research and is regarded as one of the most powerful industrial process-control tools in the field of building materials and minerals. This is the key to characterize the element and the phase composition of the material. This is largely due to the development of industrial X-ray analytical systems, which have transformed these advanced analytical techniques born in the laboratory into a robust, workmanlike and easy-to-use tool for today's heavy industries. X-ray diffraction (phase analysis) opens enormous possibilities for process and quality control. Moreover, the recent development of ultra-high-speed X-ray detectors allows for "on the fly" quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis and truly interactive process control. Hydration of cements can be studied relative ease. Additionally Computed X-ray Tomography (CT) can yield valuable information in the study of mortars and concrete. Copyright © Mineralogical Society of America.


Norberg N.,PANalytical | Vermeulen A.C.,PANalytical
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Collecting reliable data is crucial in the research of residual stresses in thin films using X-ray diffraction. The parallel beam geometry has advantage of reliability compared to focusing beam geometry. Though care must be taken to the alignment. A small alignment error may cause a significant error in the stress value. We will show the sensitivity for the misalignment of the parallel beam optics, discuss requirements on hardware alignment and demonstrate a software correction for the presence of remaining hardware errors. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Anderson J.,Application Specialist | Gobbo L.,PANalytical | Van Weeren H.,Segment Manager Building Materials
IEEE Cement Industry Technical Conference (Paper) | Year: 2014

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of cement process materials has grown beyond its roots in the laboratory to become an important tool for process control. Combined with its partners, XRF and CNA, these techniques can provide valuable process control information - essentially 'new eyes' - to guide process control decisions. Important developments in the XRD analyzers have decreased analysis time from hours to minutes to provide quick results that enable timely process control decisions. XRD phase analysis can provide information to optimize combustion control, mix chemistry, cooler operation as well as additive mixtures in finish cement. The paper will provide an overview of all the XRF/XRD applications and then focus on the XRD process control opportunities. © 2014 IEEE.


Vermeulen A.C.,PANalytical
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2014

The alignment of a 1/4-circle Eulerian cradle is discussed. The method is based on diffraction and uses a special alignment tool and a stress-free powder sample. A new profile shape function is introduced to describe better distorted diffraction peaks. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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