Pan American Health Organization PAHO

Duque de Caxias, Brazil

Pan American Health Organization PAHO

Duque de Caxias, Brazil
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Grundmann H.,University of Groningen | Grundmann H.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Klugman K.P.,Emory University | Walsh T.,University of Cardiff | And 8 more authors.
Drug Resistance Updates | Year: 2011

The foreseen decline in antibiotic effectiveness explains the needs for data to inform the global public health agenda about the magnitude and evolution of antibiotic resistance as a serious threat to human health and development. Opportunistic bacterial pathogens are the cause of the majority of community and hospital-acquired infections worldwide. We provide an inventory of pre-existing regional surveillance programs in the six WHO regions which should form the underpinning for the consolidation of a global network infrastructure and we outline the structural components such as an international network of reference laboratories that need to be put in place to address the void of these crucial data. In addition we suggest to make use of existing Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS) to obtain crucial information from communities in resource limited settings at household level in low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Africa. For optimising the use of surveillance data for public health action i.e. priority setting for new drug development, comparative quantification of antibiotic effectiveness at local, national, regional and global level and identification of the action gaps can be helpful.And indeed, everything that one can discern has numbers,hence it is impossible to grasp or recognize anything without them.Philolaos of Kroton, 440 BC. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

PubMed | Special Program of Sustainable Development and Health Equity, Health Canada, World Health Organization, Canadian Coalition for Green Health Care and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health | Year: 2016

Extreme weather events have revealed the vulnerability of health care facilities and the extent of devastation to the community when they fail. With climate change anticipated to increase extreme weather and its impacts worldwide-severe droughts, floods, heat waves, and related vector-borne diseases-health care officials need to understand and address the vulnerabilities of their health care systems and take action to improve resiliency in ways that also meet sustainability goals. Generally, the health sector is among a countrys largest consumers of energy and a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Now it has the opportunity lead climate mitigation, while reducing energy, water, and other costs. This Special Report summarizes several initiatives and compares three toolkits for implementing sustainability and resiliency measures for health care facilities: the Canadian Health Care Facility Climate Change Resiliency Toolkit, the U.S. Sustainable and Climate Resilient Health Care Facilities Toolkit, and the PAHO SMART Hospitals Toolkit of the World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization. These tools and the lessons learned can provide a critical starting point for any health system in the Americas.

Reveiz L.,Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care | Maia-Elkhoury A.N.S.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Nicholls R.S.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Sierra Romero G.A.,University of Brasilia | Yadon Z.E.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:Leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the Americas. A Cochrane review published in 2009 analyzed 38 randomized controlled trials (RCT). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.Methods:All studies were extracted from PubMed, Embase, Lilacs (2009 to July, 2012 respectively), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (6-2012) and references of identified publications. RCTs' risk of bias was assessed.Results:We identified 1865 references of interest; we finally included 10 new RCTs. The risk of bias scored low or unclear for most domains. Miltefosine was not significantly different from meglumine antimoniate in the complete cure rate at 6 months (4 RCT; 584 participants; ITT; RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.85 to 1.47; I2 78%). However a significant difference in the rate of complete cure favoring miltefosine at 6 months was found in L. panamensis and L. guyanensis (2 RCTs, 206 participants; ITT; RR: 1.22; 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.46; I2 0%). One RCT found that meglumine antimoniate was superior to pentamidine in the rate of complete cure for L. braziliensis (80 participants, ITT; RR: 2.21; 95%CI: 1.41 to 3.49), while another RCT assessing L. guyanensis did not find any significant difference. Although meta-analysis of three studies found a significant difference in the rate of complete cure at 3 months favoring imiquimod versus placebo (134 participants; ITT; RR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12 to 1.88; I2 0%), no significant differences were found at 6 and 12 months. Thermotherapy and nitric oxide were not superior to meglumine antimoniate.Conclusion:Therapeutic interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are varied and should be decided according to the context. Since mucosal disease is the more neglected form of leishmaniasis a multicentric trial should be urgently considered. © 2013 Reveiz et al.

Horstick O.,University of Heidelberg | Martinez E.,Institute Medicina Tropical | Guzman M.G.,Institute Medicina Tropical | San Martin J.L.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | And 2 more authors.
Pathogens and Global Health | Year: 2015

Introduction: In 2009, the new World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification - dengue/ severe dengue (D/SD) - was introduced, replacing the 1997 WHO dengue case classification: dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS). Methods: A 2-day expert consensus meeting in La Habana/Cuba aimed to (1) share the experiences from Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) member states when applying D/SD, (2) present national and local data using D/SD, and (3) agree with the presented evidence on a list of recommendations for or against the use of D/SD for PAHO, and also globally. Results: Eight key questions were discussed, concluding: (1) D/SD is useful describing disease progression because it considers the dynamic nature of the disease, (2) D/SD helps defining dengue cases correctly for clinical studies, because it defines more precisely disease severity and allows evaluating dynamically the progression of cases, (3) D/SD describes correctly all clinical forms of severe dengue. Further standards need to be developed regionally, especially related to severe organ involvement, (4) D/SD allows for pathophysiological research identifying - in a sequential manner - the clinical manifestations of dengue related to pathophysiological events, (5) the warning signs help identifying early cases at risk of shock (children and adults), pathophysiology of the warning signs deserves further studies, (6) D/SD helps treating individual dengue cases and also the reorganization of health-care services for outbreak management, (7) D/SD helps diagnosing dengue, in presumptive diagnosis and follow-up of the disease, because of its high sensitivity and high negative predictive value (NPV), and (8) there is currently no update of the International Disease Classification10 (ICD10) to include the new classification of dengue (D/SD); therefore, there are not enough experiences of epidemiological reporting. Once D/SD has been implemented in epidemiological surveillance, D/SD allows to (1) identify severity of dengue cases in real time, for any decision-making on actions, (2) measure and compare morbidity and mortality in countries, and also globally, and (3) trigger contingency plans early, not only based on the number of reported cases but also on the reported severity of cases. Conclusion: The expert panel recommends to (1) update ICD10, (2) include D/SD in country epidemiological reports, and (3) implement studies improving sensitivity/specificity of the dengue case definition. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2015.

San Martin J.L.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Brathwaite O.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Zambrano B.,Sanofi S.A. | Solorzano J.O.,General Directorate of Health Surveillance | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

We have reported the epidemic patterns of dengue disease in the Region of the Americas from 1980 through 2007. Dengue cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization were analyzed from three periods: 1980-1989 (80s), 1990-1999 (90s), and 2000-2007 (2000-7). Age distribution data were examined from Brazil, Venezuela, Honduras, and Mexico. Cases increased over time: 1,033,417 (80s) to 2,725,405 (90s) to 4,759,007 (2000-7). The highest concentrations were reported in the Hispanic Caribbean (39.1%) in the 80s shifting to the Southern Cone in the 90s (55%) and 2000-7 (62.9%). From 1980 through 1987, 242 deaths were reported compared with 1,391 during 2000-7. The most frequently isolated serotypes were DENV-1 and DENV-2 (90s) and DENV-2 and DENV-3 (2000-7). The highest incidence was observed among adolescents and young adults; dengue hemorrhagic fever incidence was highest among infants in Venezuela. Increasing dengue morbidity/mortality was observed in the Americas in recent decades. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Dick O.B.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | San Martin J.L.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Montoya R.H.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Del Diego J.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2012

Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600-1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947-1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971-1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000-2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Luciani S.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Prieto-Lara E.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Vicari A.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO
Health Affairs | Year: 2011

Vaccines against the human papillomavirus (HPV)-the primary cause of cervical cancer-target adolescent girls, many of whom have limited contact with health services. Countries in the Americas are beginning to use HPV vaccines to increase the impact of cervical cancer programs and as an entry point to broader health services for girls. This strategy opens new opportunities to improve lifelong health habits; encourage regular cervical cancer screening and treatment, when necessary; and offer associated services such as reproductive health and nutrition guidance. Some of the early experiences with this strategy illustrate challenges and opportunities that may arise with other new vaccines. © 2011 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

Vigilato M.A.N.,Pan American Health Organization PAHO | Clavijo A.,Veterinary Public Health Unit Panaftosa | Knobl T.,University of Sao Paulo | Silva H.M.T.,Veterinary Public Health Unit Panaftosa | And 5 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2013

Human rabies transmitted by dogs is considered a neglected disease that can be eliminated in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by 2015. The aim of this paper is to discuss canine rabies policies and projections for LAC regarding current strategies for achieving this target and to critically review the political, economic and geographical factors related to the successful elimination of this deadly disease in the context of the difficulties and challenges of the region. The strong political and technical commitment to control rabies in LAC in the 1980s, started with the regional programme coordinated by the Pan American Health Organization. National and subnational programmes involve a range of strategies including mass canine vaccination with more than 51 million doses of canine vaccine produced annually, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, improvements in disease diagnosis and intensive surveillance. Rabies incidence in LAC has dramatically declined over the last few decades, with laboratory confirmed dog rabies cases decreasing from approximately 25 000 in 1980 to less than 300 in 2010. Dog-transmitted human rabies cases also decreased from 350 to less than 10 during the same period. Several countries have been declared free of human cases of dog-transmitted rabies, and from the 35 countries in the Americas, there is now only notification of human rabies transmitted by dogs in seven countries (Bolivia, Peru, Honduras, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and some states in north and northeast Brazil). Here, we emphasize the importance of the political commitment in the final progression towards disease elimination. The availability of strategies for rabies control, the experience of most countries in the region and the historical ties of solidarity between countries with the support of the scientific community are evidence to affirm that the elimination of dog-transmitted rabies can be achieved in the short term. The final efforts to confront the remaining obstacles, like achieving and sustaining high vaccination coverage in communities that are most impoverished or in remote locations, are faced by countries that struggle to allocate sufficient financial and human resources for rabies control. Continent-wide cooperation is therefore required in the final efforts to secure the free status of remaining countries in the Americas, which is key to the regional elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs. © 2013 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

PubMed | National Institute Of Psychiatry Ramon Of La Fuente, Alcohol Research Group, Central South University, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences and Pan American Health Organization PAHO
Type: | Journal: Addiction biology | Year: 2016

This study reports dose-response estimates for the relative risk and population attributable risk (PAR) between acute alcohol use and serious suicide attempt. Data were analyzed on 272 suicide attempters arriving at 38 emergency departments within 6hours of the event in 17 countries. Case-crossover analysis, pair-matching the number of standard drinks consumed within the 6hours prior to the suicide attempt with that consumed during the same 6-hour period of the previous week, was performed using fractional polynomial analysis for dose-response. Every drink increased the risk of a suicide attempt by 30 percent; even one-two drinks was associated with a sizable increase in the risk of a serious suicide attempt, and a dose-response was found for the relationship between drinking 6hours prior and the risk of a suicide attempt up to 20 drinks. Acute use of alcohol was responsible for 35 percent PAR of all suicide attempts. While very high levels of drinking were associated with larger relative risk s of suicide attempt, the control and reduction of smaller quantities of acute alcohol use also had an impact on population levels of suicide attempt, as showed here for the first time with our PAR estimates. Interventions to stop drinking or at least decrease levels of consumption could reduce the risk of suicide attempt. Screening people more at risk to suffer these acute effects of ethanol and offering interventions that work to these high-risk groups are a matter of urgent new research in the area.

PubMed | Pan American Health Organization PAHO, Ministerio de Salud y Proteccion Social, Investigaciones Medicas en Salud, Instituto Nacional Of Infectologia Evandro Chagas and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2016

Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool. We discuss the barriers and solutions for a fair consideration of PrEP as part of combination HIV prevention strategies in Latin America.Although demonstration projects are ongoing or being planned in a number of countries, to date no Latin American country has implemented a public PrEP programme. The knowledge of policymakers about PrEP implementation needs to be strengthened, and programmatic guidance and cost estimate tools need to be developed to support adequate planning. Despite high levels of awareness among health providers, especially if engaged in HIV or key population care, willingness to prescribe PrEP is still low due to the lack of national policies and guidelines. Key populations, especially men who have sex with men, transgender women and sex workers, have been engaged in demonstration projects, and qualitative research shows high awareness and willingness to use PrEP, especially if accessible in the public sector for free or at affordable price. Concerns of safety, adherence, effectiveness and risk compensation need to be addressed through targeted social communication strategies to improve PrEP knowledge and stimulate demand. Alliance among policymakers, civil society and representatives from key populations, healthcare providers and researchers will be critical for the design and successful implementation of PrEP demonstration projects of locally adapted delivery models. The use of mechanisms of joint negotiation and procurement of antiretrovirals could reduce costs and significantly increase the cost-effectiveness of PrEP.PrEP is an additional prevention tool and should be implemented in combination and synergy with other prevention interventions. PrEP programmes should target high-risk individuals from key populations for higher cost-effectiveness. Demonstration projects may generate strategic information for and lead to the implementation of full-scale PrEP programmes.

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