Inigo J.F.,University of Texas at Austin |
Inigo J.F.,Pan American Energy |
Laubach S.E.,University of Texas at Austin |
Hooker J.N.,University of Texas at Austin
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2012
Opening-mode fractures in Devonian sandstones in outcrop and in several fields in the Subandean Ranges of southern Bolivia and northern Argentina compose two fracture sets, I and II that strike west-northwest and north-northeast, respectively. Abundant Set I fractures are at a high angle to local Andean structural trends, and Set II is aligned with fold axes. Crosscutting relations and quartz textures in fractures suggest that, although Set I is locally older, these sets may have opened partly contemporaneously. Sets comprise both macroscopic fractures and more abundant, millimeter-scale microfractures. Fractures with opening displacement of less than 0.1 mm are typically sealed with quartz, but wider fractures are lined with quartz and contain connected fracture porosity. Microfractures are more abundant than macrofractures, and size distributions can be interpreted to approximate power laws. Microfracture strain is an efficient method of quantifying fracture abundance. Both sets record small fracture strains of 0.00016-0.0083. In backlimbs Set I strain is higher in brittle quartz-rich sandstones. Set II strain varies markedly and is generally high in hinges and steep forelimbs of asymmetric anticlines. For individual samples, Set I-II strains in fold hinges and forelimbs are comparable, consistent with concurrent Set I-II growth. Open fractures that could augment permeability are present both on and off structure, but microfractures document fracture abundance that varies with structural position and sandstone quartz content that could account for variations in production outcomes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Trinchero E.,Pan American Energy |
Vernengo L.,Pan American Energy
Leading Edge | Year: 2013
Conventional seismic attributes often provide satisfactory results, especially in the characterization of conventional reservoirs such as sandstones. This is not so evident with more compact, low-permeability, and apparently uniform reservoirs, which comprise substantial reserves in amounts unthinkable a few decades ago, and whose development seemed almost impossible until very recently. Unconventional reservoirs considered in this article are located in a predominantly Jurassic-Cretaceous rifted depositional basin. The basin shifted into an early sag phase during the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous, resulting in the accumulation of a thick series of carbonates and shales. Tithonian, Berriasian and Valanginian rocks compose the segment of the geologic column under consideration. The studied sedimentary sequence is a highly prolific oil-prone source rock, with total organic carbon (TOC) up to 8 wt% and amorphous organic matter (type I/II kerogen) deposited in a euxinic paleoenvironment which generated sulfur-rich oils. © 2013 by The Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Zunana P.R.,Pan American Energy |
Bizzotto Sr. P.E.,Pan American Energy
Global Congress on Process Safety 2012 - Topical Conference at the 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety | Year: 2012
While completing a facility modification in a gas Plant and attempting to remove an inflatable plug from a pipe, a worker was hit by the ejecting plug, suffering fatal injuries. The incident investigation showed weaknesses of local safety culture, deficiencies in the application of the work permit system and lack of competency in energy isolation practices. Just fourteen months after the accident, the result of an independent safety culture evaluation was rated "Proactive to Generative" as per the OGP scale, and work permit audits showed high level of job planning, risk analysis, and execution. This paper details the approach of the company to recover from the situation and reach such significant Safety improvements in a relatively short time. Additionally, a vision of future work is presented.
Gornatti G.,Pan American Energy |
Albertini G.,Pan American Energy |
Ferrigno E.,Lufkin Industries Inc.
Society of Petroleum Engineers - 2013 SPE Artificial Lift Conference - Americas: Artificial Lift: Where Do We Go From Here | Year: 2013
The present work shows the development applied at the site of Cerro Dragon of Pan American Energy (PAE), which implemented a system that collects, integrates and analyzes dynamometer charts and shooting level measurements. PAE Cerro Dragon field is the largest oil field in Argentina, located in the Golfo San Jorge basin (Patagonia), with 2900 production wells (75% RP, 24% ESP) + 533 injection wells. The current production is almost 90,000 bopd + 1,000,000 bwpd This work shows how it was faced with the challenge for data consolidation and validation from different sources. One source is data from suppliers who collect dynamometers/shooting levels. Another information source is the automation system from Rod Pumping Controllers. Finally it also uses information from different maintenance and administrative databases. All information is processed by the software that was developed by the Operator. It is not a standard or commercial product. This tool is a big gateway, database tool, user manager/viewer, and the most remarkable part is the mathematical tools that allow for the processing of all the information, calculating the Downhole analysis and reports. Before having this tool, there was on one hand software for manual physical measurements, and on the other a pump off software; both independent and often outdated in one or other piece of information. This required the production meetings to refer to both systems, and in other cases obtain independent reports which then had to be consolidated. Another problem was that, although it was not necessary from the operational point of view to have manual measurements of a well with a pump off controller, in practice one was made about every 3 or 4 months, and the information was consolidated in one place, which was then linked to other company databases. This new tool has replaced both of the old software systems, since it allows for the generation of downhole reports from remote automation sources in addition to the manual sources, and saves them in a single database consolidated and linked to the rest of the organization. This demanded a complete and responsible reorganization inside the production staff. This paper will present these reorganizational challenges and lessons learned. Approximately 7000 people work in the oilfield (85% contractors). Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Dangavs N.V.,National University of La Plata |
Pierrard L.R.,Pan American Energy
Revista de la Asociacion Geologica Argentina | Year: 2013
It was characterized the physiography, hydrologic regime, typology and origin of this shallow lake. In outcroppings four lithostratigraphic units and two pedostratigraphic were recognized, which span from Early to Late Pleistocene and from Late Holocene to Upper Late Holocene. The oldest one, the Ensenada Formation, makes up the regional substratum, which is covered by the aeolian origin units Buenos Aires, La Postrera III and IV Formations and the Sin Nombre and Puesto Berrondo Geosols. In the lakes infilling sediments are seven litostratigraphic units, five subaqueous and two aeolian. The subaqueous units are ascribed to Luján Formation, La Chumbiada, Lobos, Río Salado and Monte Members, which span from the Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene and the recent Alluvium layer. The lakes aeolian infilling deposits are ascribed to La Postrera I and IV Formation of Late Pleistocene and Upper Late Holocene, respectively. The lake basin deflation started during the "Bonaerense" aeolian episodes, the subsequent alternate humid and dry climatic stages facilitate the lake basin evolution. The dry stages were characterized by deflation, sabkhas, salt precipitation and aeolian deposit accumulation. In the humid stages predominate infilling and pedogenesis. Thus, the subsequent deposits to Ensenada Formation are represented by five dry climatic episodes, which span from the Early Glacial to the Little Ice Age and five humid, with lentic accumulations, extending from La Chumbiada Member to the present Alluvium and the synchronic soils S4, S1 and S0 (lack S2 and S3).