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Faust L.J.,Alexander Center for Applied Population Biology | Cress D.,Pan African Sanctuary Alliance | Farmer K.H.,Pan African Sanctuary Alliance | Farmer K.H.,University of Stirling | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

Wildlife sanctuaries rescue, rehabilitate, reintroduce, and provide life-long care for orphaned and injured animals. Understanding a sanctuary's patterns in arrival, mortality, and projected changes in population size can help managers plan carefully for future needs, as well as illuminate patterns in source populations of wildlife. We studied these dynamics for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in 11 sanctuaries of the Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA). We analyzed historic demographic patterns and projected future population dynamics using an individual-based demographic model. From 2000 to 2006, the population in these sanctuaries has been growing at a rate of 15% per year. This growth is driven by arrivals of new individuals, with an average of 56 arrivals per year. The median age of the 760 chimpanzees living in these sanctuaries as of 2007 was 9 yr, with 76% of the population <15 yr. We found no significant difference in survivorship to age 20 between these chimpanzees and those maintained in North American accredited zoos. The size of the population in 20 yr is projected to be between 550 and 1800, depending on different assumptions about arrival and reintroduction rates. Projected shifts in age structure, including increases in the proportions of adolescent (9-19 yr of age) and older (35+) chimpanzees, may necessitate adjustments to management, veterinary care, and housing. This research illustrates how data on historic population dynamics can be modeled to inform future sanctuary capacity and management needs, allowing sanctuaries to plan better for their populations' long-term care. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Ferrie G.M.,Disneys Animal Kingdom | Farmer K.H.,Pan African Sanctuary Alliance | Farmer K.H.,University of Stirling | Kuhar C.W.,Cleveland Metroparks Zoo | And 3 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2014

Over the last few decades, primate sanctuaries have become more numerous, particularly in Africa. Sanctuaries play an obvious and vital role in the battle against the illegal trade in wildlife and provide opportunities for local people to learn about the importance of protecting habitat and laws governing wildlife trade. Given the multi-disciplinary role of sanctuaries, the Pan African Sanctuary Alliance provides mechanisms to exchange best practices and establishes links to other conservation partners. In April 2011, the managers of the 22 Pan African Sanctuary Alliance members were surveyed in order to collect detailed information on the conservation activities of each sanctuary. The majority of the 22 sanctuaries conducted both on- and off-site education activities, engaging more than 429,000 people in education activities per year. Sanctuaries reported that they provided employment for over 550 local community members across Africa, as well as resources for community education and infrastructure, with an economic impact over $3 million per year. Sanctuaries were also involved in activities that promote law enforcement and believed that the activities they supported have led to better protection of primate habitats. The results of the survey demonstrate that sanctuaries have moved towards supporting and implementing community development activities aimed at poverty reduction, while conducting conservation activities. While Pan African Sanctuary Alliance sanctuaries were initially established to provide care and housing for orphaned, confiscated and displaced primates, this paper demonstrates how sanctuaries have combined ex-situ with in-situ initiatives to support social, economic, and environmental progress in primate range countries in Africa. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Cartwright B.J.,Pan African Sanctuary Alliance | Cartwright B.J.,Royal Roads University | Wall J.E.,Carleton University | Placide Kaya J.A.,Center des Recherches Forestieres du Littoral
Journal of Environmental Education | Year: 2012

Among species recovery tools available, re-introduction of animals to the wild is one of the more complex. Since the mid-1990s two successful great ape re-introductions have taken place in the Republic of Congo, leading some conservationists to revisit re-introduction as a strategy. This research explored the role of conservation education and environmental communication in the projects, including activities undertaken, stakeholder perceptions of success and impacts on project outcomes. The research found that education and communication activities, while varied and broad, were managed in an ad hoc, intuitive manner, lacking priority, expertise, and funding leading to recommendations for future reintroduction projects. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Kuhar C.W.,Disneys Animal Kingdom | Bettinger T.L.,Disneys Animal Kingdom | Lehnhardt K.,Disneys Animal Kingdom | Cartwright B.,Pan African Sanctuary Alliance | Cress D.,Pan African Sanctuary Alliance
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2012

The past decade has witnessed a shift in the role of primate sanctuaries in Africa from warehouses of salvaged animals to proactive conservation organizations. As part of this new role, the Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) has conducted annual training workshops for educators from member sanctuaries. These workshops have included content on program development, interpretive techniques, and evaluation techniques. Here we use meta-analytic techniques to examine data from the resulting education evaluation programs for trends in knowledge acquisition across PASA sanctuaries. Question content strongly impacted the evaluation results of the conservation education program. In addition, effect size and final performance scores were independent of one another and provide different perspectives as to the effectiveness of a conservation education program. These results highlight the importance of using both final performance scores and effect size measures in conservation education program evaluation. They also underscore the importance of evaluating knowledge transfer as part of the larger picture of evaluating pro-environmental behavior change and conservation impact. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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