Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC

Muheza, Tanzania

Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC

Muheza, Tanzania

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Oxborough R.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Oxborough R.M.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Oxborough R.M.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | N'Guessan R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 11 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: The rapid selection of pyrethroid resistance throughout sub-Saharan Africa is a serious threat to malaria vector control. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide which shows no cross resistance to insecticide classes normally used for vector control and is effective on mosquito nets under experimental hut conditions. Unlike neurotoxic insecticides, chlorfenapyr owes its toxicity to disruption of metabolic pathways in mitochondria that enable cellular respiration. A series of experiments explored whether standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for evaluation of long-lasting insecticidal nets, developed through testing of pyrethroid insecticides, are suitable for evaluation of non-neurotoxic insecticides. Methods: The efficacy of WHO recommended cone, cylinder and tunnel tests was compared for pyrethroids and chlorfenapyr. To establish bioassay exposure times predictive of insecticide-treated net (ITN) efficacy in experimental hut trials, standard three-minute bioassays of pyrethroid and chlorfenapyr ITNs were compared with longer exposures. Mosquito behaviour and response to chlorfenapyr ITN in bioassays conducted at night were compared to day and across a range of temperatures representative of highland and lowland transmission. Results: Standard three-minute bioassay of chlorfenapyr produced extremely low levels of mortality compared to pyrethroids. Thirty-minute day-time bioassay produced mortality closer to hut efficacy of chlorfenapyr ITN but still fell short of the WHO threshold. Overnight tunnel test with chlorfenapyr produced 100% mortality and exceeded the WHO threshold of 80%. The endogenous circadian activity rhythm of anophelines results in inactivity by day and raised metabolism and flight activity by night. A model which explains improved toxicity of chlorfenapyr ITN when tested at night, and during the day at higher ambient temperature, is that activation of chlorfenapyr and disruption of respiratory pathways is enhanced when the insect is more metabolically and behaviourally active. Conclusions: Testing according to current WHO guidelines is not suitable for certain types of non-neurotoxic insecticide which, although highly effective in field trials, would be overlooked at the screening stage of evaluation through bioassay. Testing methods must be tailored to the characteristics and mode of action of each insecticide class. The WHO tunnel test on night-active anophelines is the most reliable bioassay for identifying the toxicity of novel insecticides. © 2015 Oxborough et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


N'Guessan R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | N'Guessan R.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | Asidi A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Boko P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

PermaNet 3.0 is a long-lasting combination net with deltamethrin present on the sides and a mixture of deltamethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an oxidase synergist, on the top panel. An experimental hut trial comparing unwashed and 20 times washed PermaNet 3.0 and PermaNet 2.0, Olyset Net and a conventional deltamethrin-treated net washed three times was conducted in southern Benin. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus from this area are highly resistant to pyrethroids through kdr and cytochrome P450 mechanisms. The unwashed PermaNet 3.0 killed slightly more A. gambiae (52%) than the unwashed PermaNet 2.0 (44%) (P=0.036), indicating only partial synergism of resistance. After washing there was significant loss of activity to a similar level, with PermaNet 3.0 killing 31%, PermaNet 2.0 killing 29% and the conventional net killing 26%. Blood-feeding rates were partially inhibited for unwashed PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Net (27% inhibition). Personal protection against A. gambiae derived from PermaNet 3.0 was similar to that from PermaNet 2.0 before washing (50% vs. 47%), and after 20 washes it decreased to 30%. Against C. quinquefasciatus, no treatment killed >24% entering the huts. The synergism from unwashed PermaNet 3.0 was lower than expected, probably due to an unidentified resistance mechanism unaffected by PBO. © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.


Oxborough R.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Oxborough R.M.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Oxborough R.M.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | N'Guessan R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 10 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets (LLIN) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) of houses remain the primary strategies for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria. Pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and new insecticides with different modes of action are urgently needed if malaria vector control is to remain effective. Indoxacarb is an oxadiazine insecticide that is effective as an oral and contact insecticide against a broad spectrum of agricultural pests and, due to its unique site of action, no cross-resistance has been detected through mechanisms associated with resistance to insecticides currently used in public health. Methods: WHO tunnel tests of host seeking mosquitoes were carried out as a forerunner to experimental hut trials, to provide information on dosage-dependent mortality, repellency, and blood-feeding inhibition. A dosage range of indoxacarb treated netting (100-1000 mg/m2) was tested against a pyrethroid susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae. In addition, efficacy of indoxacarb 500 mg/m2 was compared with a standard pyrethroid formulation against pyrethroid susceptible and resistant Culex quinquefasciatus. Dosages between 25 and 300 mg/m2 indoxacarb were tested in tunnel tests and in ball-frame bioassays as mixtures with alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m2 and were compared with singly applied treatments against an insectary reared pyrethroid resistant strain of Cx. quinquefasciatus originally collected in Cotonou, Benin. Results: There was a dosage-dependent response in terms of indoxacarb induced mortality, with dosages >100 mg/m2 producing the best mortality response. In tunnel tests indoxacarb 500 mg/m2 exceeded WHOPES thresholds with >80 % mortality of adult An. gambiae and blood-feeding inhibition of 75 %. No cross-resistance to indoxacarb was detected through mechanisms associated with resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and was equally effective against susceptible and resistant strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Indoxacarb 500 mg/m2 killed 75 % of pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus compared with only 21 % mortality with alphacypermethrin 40 mg/m2. Mixtures of indoxacarb with pyrethroid produced an additive response for both mortality and blood-feeding inhibition. The best performing mixture (indoxacarb 200 mg/m2 + alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m2) killed 83 % of pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus and reduced blood-feeding by 88 %, while alphacypermethrin only killed 36 % and inhibited blood-feeding by 50 %. Conclusions: New insecticides with different modes of action to those currently used in mosquito vector control are urgently needed. Indoxacarb shows great promise as a mixture with a pyrethroid and should be evaluated in experimental hut trials to determine performance against wild free-flying, pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae and wash-resistant formulations developed. © 2015 Oxborough et al.


N'Guessan R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | N'Guessan R.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | Ngufor C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ngufor C.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: The effectiveness of insecticide treated nets is under threat across Africa south of the Sahara from the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. To maintain progress against malaria it is necessary to identify alternative residual insecticides for mosquito nets. Mixtures of pyrethroid and insecticides with novel mode of action provide scope for both improved control and management of resistance through concurrent exposure to unrelated insecticides. Methods: The pyrrole chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alphacypermethrin were tested individually and as a mixture on mosquito nets in an experimental hut trial in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant An gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The nets were deliberately holed to simulate the effect of wear and tear. Results: The nets treated with the mixture of chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m2 and alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m2 killed a proportion of An gambiae (77%, 95%CI: 66-86%) significantly greater than nets treated with alphacypermethrin 25 mg/m2 (30%, 95%CI: 21-41%) but not significantly different from nets treated with chlorfenapyr 200 mg/m2 (69%, 95%CI: 57-78%). The nets treated with the mixtures procured personal protection against An gambiae biting(58-62%) by a greater margin than the alphacypermethrin treated net (39%), whereas the chlorfenapyr treated net was not protective. A similar trend in mortality and blood feeding inhibition between treatments was observed in Cx quinquefasciatus to that seen in An. gambiae, although the effects were lower. A mixture of alphacypermethrin with chlorfenapyr applied at 100 mg/m2 had an effect similar to the mixture with chlorfenapyr at 200 mg/m2. Conclusion: The effectiveness of ITNs against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes was restored by the mixture: the alphacypermethrin component reduced human-vector contact while the chlorfenapyr controlled pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. The complementary action of these unrelated insecticides demonstrates that the combination on nets has potential for preventing malaria transmission in areas compromised by the spread of pyrethroid resistance. © 2014 N'Guessan et al.


Ngufor C.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ngufor C.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | N'Guessan R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | N'Guessan R.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Alternative compounds which can complement pyrethroids on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) in the control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, reduces the fecundity and fertility of adult female mosquitoes. LNs containing a mixture of pyriproxyfen and pyrethroid could provide personal protection through the pyrethroid component and reduce vector abundance in the next generation through the sterilizing effect of pyriproxyfen. Method: The efficacy of Olyset Duo, a newly developed mixture LN containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin, was evaluated in experimental huts in southern Benin against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Comparison was made with Olyset Net® (permethrin alone) and a LN with pyriproxyfen alone (PPF LN). Laboratory tunnel tests were performed to substantiate the findings in the experimental huts. Results: Overall mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae s.s. was significantly higher with Olyset Duo than with Olyset Net (50% vs. 27%, P=0.01). Olyset DUO was more protective than Olyset Net (71% vs. 3%, P<0.001). The oviposition rate of surviving blood-fed An. gambiae from the control hut was 37% whereas none of those from Olyset Duo and PPF LN huts laid eggs. The tunnel test results were consistent with the experimental hut results. Olyset Duo was more protective than Olyset Net in the huts against wild pyrethroid resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus although mortality rates of this species did not differ significantly between Olyset Net and Olyset Duo. There was no sterilizing effect on surviving blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus with the PPF-treated nets. Conclusion: Olyset Duo was superior to Olyset Net in terms of personal protection and killing of pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae, and sterilized surviving blood-fed mosquitoes. Mixing pyrethroid and pyriproxyfen on a LN shows potential for malaria control and management of pyrethroid resistant vectors by preventing further selection of pyrethroid resistant phenotypes. © 2014 Ngufor et al.


Stewart Z.P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Stewart Z.P.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Oxborough R.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Oxborough R.M.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. Results: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05). Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. Conclusions: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor use of ATSB has the potential to serve as a strategy for managing insecticide resistance. © 2013 Stewart et al.


Kitau J.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College o | Kitau J.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | Oxborough R.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | Oxborough R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Results: The overall mortalities of An. arabiensis induced by the various treatments (range: 76-86%) were significantly greater than mortality in the untreated control (8%, P < 0.001). Mortality of An. arabiensis in DEET sprayed huts (82%) was higher than in lambdacyhalothrin CS (76%, P = 0.043) but not significantly different to pirimiphos methyl CS (86%, P = 0.204) or DDT huts (81%, P = 0.703). Against Cx. quinquefasciatus DEET MC was less effective, inducing lower mortality (29%) than other treatments. An arabiensis blood feeding rates were higher in the unsprayed control (34%) than in sprayed huts (range between treatments: 19-22%, P < 0.002), and DEET provided equivalent or superior blood feeding inhibition (44%) to other insecticides. Against Cx. quinquefasciatus there was no significant reduction in blood-feeding for any treatment relative to the control. There was a significantly higher exiting of An. arabiensis from huts sprayed with DEET (98%), lambdacyhalothrin (98%) and permethrin (96%) relative to the control (80%, P < 0.01). Exiting rates of Cx. quinquefasciatus did not differ between treatment huts and the control.Conclusion: Microencapsulated DEET acts like an insecticide at ambient temperature and induces mosquito mortality when applied to walls made from wooden panels. This trial demonstrated the potential of microencapsulated DEET to control An. arabiensis and warrants further studies of residual activity on interior substrates.Methods: DEET MC was tested alongside standard repellent and non-repellent residual insecticides: lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin, pirimiphos methyl and DDT. Residual formulations of these compounds were sprayed on plywood panels attached to walls of experimental huts to assess efficacy against pyrethroid resistant, wild free-flying Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The panel treatments were rotated weekly between huts.Background: Evolution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae complex necessitates evaluation of alternative chemical classes to complement existing insecticides for long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Microencapsulated (MC) DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is a formulation of the popular repellent, which gives long lasting activity when applied to nets. Its suitability for IRS use has not been evaluated before. This study assessed the efficacy of DEET MC, for IRS in experimental huts. © 2014 Kitau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | National Institute for Medical Research, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC
Type: | Journal: Malaria journal | Year: 2015

Insecticide-treated nets are the primary method of preventing malaria. To remain effective, the pyrethroid insecticide must withstand multiple washes over the lifetime of the net. ICON() Maxx is a dip-it-yourself kit for long-lasting treatment of polyester nets. The twin-sachet kit contains a slow-release capsule suspension of lambda-cyhalothrin plus binding agent. To determine whether ICON Maxx meets the standards required by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES), the efficacy and wash fastness of ICON Maxx was evaluated against wild, free-flying anopheline mosquitoes.ICON Maxx was subjected to bioassay evaluation and experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-susceptible Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus. Mosquito mortality, blood feeding inhibition and personal protection were compared between untreated nets, conventional lambda-cyhalothrin treated nets (CTN) washed either four times (cut-off threshold) or 20 times, and ICON Maxx-treated nets either unwashed or washed 20 times.In bioassay, ICON Maxx demonstrated superior wash resistance to the CTN. In the experimental hut trial, ICON Maxx killed 75 % of An. funestus, 71 % of An. gambiae and 47 % of An. arabiensis when unwashed and 58, 66 and 42 %, respectively, when 20 times washed. The CTN killed 52 % of An. funestus, 33 % of An. gambiae and 30 % of An. arabiensis when washed to the cut-off threshold of four washes and 40, 40 and 36 %, respectively, when 20 times washed. Percentage mortality with ICON Maxx 20 times washed was similar (An. funestus) or significantly higher (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis) than with CTN washed to the WHOPES cut-off threshold. Blood-feeding inhibition with ICON Maxx 20 times washed was similar to the CTN washed to cut-off for all three species. Personal protection was significantly higher with ICON Maxx 20 times washed (66-79 %) than with CTN washed to cut-off (48-60 %).Nets treated with ICON Maxx and washed 20 times met the approval criteria set by WHOPES for Phase II trials in terms of mortality and blood-feeding inhibition. This finding raises the prospect of conventional polyester nets and other materials being made long-lastingly insecticidal through simple dipping in community or home, and thus represents a major advance over conventional pyrethroid treatments.


Jaffer A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Protopopoff N.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Protopopoff N.,Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College | Protopopoff N.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | And 8 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

Pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors are widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa and new insecticides with different modes of action are urgently needed. Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone mimic that reduces fecundity and fertility of adult Anopheles mosquitoes when used as a contact insecticide. A long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating pyriproxyfen is under development. As wild, host-seeking females may succeed in blood-feeding at different intervals after initial contact with mosquito nets the aim of this study was to determine the effect that age and gonotrophic status (nulliparous or parous) and the interval between initial pyriproxyfen exposure and blood-feeding has in terms of subsequent reduced fecundity and fertility.Anopheles gambiae s.s. were exposed to pyriproxyfen LLIN for three minutes in WHO cone bioassays. Four regimens were tested with different blood-feeding intervals A-1 hour (nulliparous), B-1 hour (parous), C-24. h (nulliparous), or D-120. h (nulliparous) after pyriproxyfen exposure. Mosquito oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility of eggs were recorded for several days. All four treatment regimens produced levels of mortality similar to unexposed females. The overall reduction in reproductive rate of 99.9% for regimen A relative to the untreated net was primarily due to oviposition inhibition in exposed females (97%). Pyriproxyfen was equally effective against older parous mosquitoes and when blood-feeding was 24. h after exposure. Regimen D produced a reduction in reproductive rate of 60.1% but this was of lesser magnitude than other regimens and was the only regimen that failed to reduce fertility of laid eggs, indicating the effects of pyriproxyfen exposure on reproduction are to some extent reversible as mosquitoes age. In an area of moderate to high mosquito net coverage a host-seeking mosquito is likely to contact a treated mosquito net before: (a) penetrating a holed net and blood-feeding shortly after exposure or, (b) be frustrated by intact nets before succeeding in blood-feeding on an unprotected individual the following night. Mosquito nets are an appropriate delivery system for pyriproxyfen, based on the large reductions in reproductive rate when blood-feeding between 1. h and 24. h after exposure. Combining with a pyrethroid should be an effective approach if susceptible mosquitoes are killed and resistant mosquitoes sterilized. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Oxborough R.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Oxborough R.M.,Tumaini University Makumira | Oxborough R.M.,Pan African Malaria Vector Research Consortium PAMVERC | Kitau J.,Tumaini University Makumira | And 5 more authors.
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2015

Experimental huts with veranda traps have been used in Tanzania since 1963 for the study of residual insecticides for use with insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Mosquitoes are allowed unrestricted entry through the eaves to facilitate the collection of an estimable proportion of mosquitoes that attempt to exit through the eave gaps, which are left open on two sides of the hut. This study was designed to validate the use of eave baffles to funnel entry and to prevent mosquito escape, and to determine biting times of Anopheles arabiensis (Patton) (Diptera: Culicidae). Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were released into the room at 20.30 hours and collected the following morning from veranda traps, window traps and the room. Centers for Disease Control light traps hung overnight next to volunteers were emptied every 2 h to determine peak biting times. A total of 55% of An. arabiensis were trapped before 22.30 hours and the highest peak in 'biting' was recorded during 18.30-20.30 hours. Of the released An. arabiensis that exited into veranda traps, 7% were captured in veranda traps entered through baffles and 93% were captured in traps entered through unmodified eaves. When veranda screens were left open to allow for escape outdoors, recapture rates were 68% for huts with eave baffles and 39% for huts with unmodified eaves. The comparison of open eaves with baffled eaves validated the assumption that in huts of the traditional non-baffled design, 50% of mosquitoes escape through open eaves. Eave baffles succeeded in reducing the potential for mosquito exit and produced more precise estimates of effect. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

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