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Morrissette D.A.,Neuroscience Education Institute | Morrissette D.A.,Palomar College | Stahl S.M.,Neuroscience Education Institute | Stahl S.M.,University of California at San Diego | Stahl S.M.,University of Cambridge
CNS Spectrums | Year: 2013

Insufficient treatment of psychosis often manifests as violent and aggressive behaviors that are dangerous to the patient and others, and that warrant treatment strategies which are not considered first-line, evidence-based practices. Such treatment strategies include both antipsychotic polypharmacy (simultaneous use of 2 antipsychotics) and high-dose antipsychotic monotherapy. Here we discuss the hypothesized neurobiological substrates of various types of violence and aggression, as well as providing arguments for the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose monotherapy to target dysfunctional neurocircuitry in the subpopulation of patients that is treatment-resistant, violent, and aggressive. In this review, we focus primarily on the data supporting the use of second-generation, atypical antipsychotics both at high doses and in combination with other antipsychotics. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.


Fessler D.M.T.,University of California at Los Angeles | Stieger S.,University of Vienna | Asaridou S.S.,International Max Planck Research School for Language science | Bahia U.,Federal University of Bahia | And 17 more authors.
Evolution and Human Behavior | Year: 2012

The constituents of attractiveness differ across the sexes. Many relevant traits are dimorphic, suggesting that they are the product of intersexual selection. However, direction of causality is generally difficult to determine, as aesthetic criteria can as readily result from, as cause, dimorphism. Women have proportionately smaller feet than men. Prior work on the role of foot size in attractiveness suggests an asymmetry across the sexes, as small feet enhance female appearance, yet average, rather than large, feet are preferred on men. Previous investigations employed crude stimuli and limited samples. Here, we report on multiple cross-cultural studies designed to overcome these limitations. With the exception of one rural society, we find that small foot size is preferred when judging women, yet no equivalent preference applies to men. Similarly, consonant with the thesis that a preference for youth underlies intersexual selection acting on women, we document an inverse relationship between foot size and perceived age. Examination of preferences regarding, and inferences from, feet viewed in isolation suggests different roles for proportionality and absolute size in judgments of female and male bodies. Although the majority of these results bolster the conclusion that pedal dimorphism is the product of intersexual selection, the picture is complicated by the reversal of the usual preference for small female feet found in one rural society. While possibly explicable in terms of greater emphasis on female economic productivity relative to beauty, the latter finding underscores the importance of employing diverse samples when exploring postulated evolved aesthetic preferences. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Ben-Ami S.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Gal-Yam A.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Filippenko A.V.,University of California at Berkeley | Mazzali P.A.,National institute for astrophysics | And 55 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012

We present the discovery and extensive early-time observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN) PTF12gzk. Our light curves show a rise of 0.8mag within 2.5hr. Power-law fits (f(t) (t - t 0)n) to these data constrain the explosion date to within one day. We cannot rule out a quadratic fireball model, but higher values of n are possible as well for larger areas in the fit parameter space. Our bolometric light curve and a dense spectral sequence are used to estimate the physical parameters of the exploding star and of the explosion. We show that the photometric evolution of PTF12gzk is slower than that of most SNe Ic. The high ejecta expansion velocities we measure (∼30, 000kms-1 derived from line minima fourdays after explosion) are similar to the observed velocities of broad-lined SNe Ic associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) rather than to normal SN Ic velocities. Yet, this SN does not show the persistent broad lines that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. The host-galaxy characteristics are also consistent with GRB-SN hosts, and not with normal SN Ic hosts. By comparison with the spectroscopically similar SN 2004aw, we suggest that the observed properties of PTF12gzk indicate an initial progenitor mass of 25-35M ⊙ and a large ((5-10) × 10 51erg) kinetic energy, the later being close to the regime of GRB-SN properties. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Shurin J.B.,University of California at San Diego | Abbott R.L.,University of California at San Diego | Abbott R.L.,Cornell University | Deal M.S.,University of California at San Diego | And 6 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.


PubMed | California State University, San Marcos, University of California at Los Angeles, General Atomics, Palomar College and Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Review of scientific instruments | Year: 2017

A heterodyne detection scheme is combined with a 10.59 m CO


Baird G.B.,University of Northern Colorado | Figg S.A.,Palomar College | Chamberlain K.R.,University of Wyoming
GFF | Year: 2014

The Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is predominately metamorphosed rift-related igneous and sedimentary rocks formed during Rodinia breakup in the Neoproterozoic. The Kebne Dyke Complex of the Kebnekaise Massif, arctic Sweden, is one such unit within the Seve Nappe Complex and is mostly composed of dolerite dykes metamorphosed and thrust onto Baltica during the Caledonian orogeny. Structurally adjacent to the dyke complex are geochemically similar amphibolites that have a common origin as the metadolerite dykes. Collectively, these rocks have transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt geochemistry similar to correlative Seve Nappe Complex rocks to the north (Indre Troms dykes) and south (Sarek Dyke Swarm). U–Pb single-crystal chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry of zircon from a metagabbro and a metagranitoid, showing co-mingling magmatic textures with the metadolerite, produced 11 concordant analyses with 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 608 to 596 Ma, which includes the magmatic age of the dyke complex. These results support the idea that the Kebne Dyke Complex, Sarek Dyke Swarm and Indre Troms dykes constitute the tholeiitic continent–ocean transition subdivision within the Seve Nappe Complex. However, the Kebne Dyke Complex differs from the Sarek Dyke Swarm and Indre Troms dykes as it is the least enriched among these, nearly lacks rift-related metasedimentary rocks, and may be younger than the Sarek Dyke Swarm by up to 14 Myr. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Stoschus H.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | Thomas D.M.,General Atomics | Hudson B.,Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education | Watkins M.,General Atomics | And 3 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2013

The 30 keV lithium beam diagnostic on DIII-D is suitable to measure both the radial electron density and poloidal magnetic field profiles in the pedestal. The refurbished system features a new setup to measure the Doppler shift allowing accurate alignment of the spectral filters. The injector has been optimized to generate a stable lithium neutral beam with a current of I = 15-20 mA and a diameter of 1.9 ± 0.1 cm measured by beam imaging. The typical temporal resolution is Δt = 1-10 ms and the radial resolution of ΔR = 5 mm is given by the optical setup. A new analysis technique based on fast Fourier transform avoids systematic error contributions from the digital lock-in analysis and accounts intrinsically for background light correction. Latest upgrades and a detailed characterization of the system are presented. Proof-of-principle measurements of the poloidal magnetic field with a statistical error of typically 2% show a fair agreement with the predictions modeled with the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver EFIT within 4%. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.


News Article | November 3, 2015
Site: www.fastcompany.com

Whether they’re seeking better pay or working conditions, employees—especially low-wage workers—have typically had to traverse a tough road of organizing to get their message across and then getting others to listen. Now, dozens of employee networks have found a new place to gather, organize, and create change: Coworker.org. Cofounders Michelle Miller and Jess Kutcher created the site in 2013 as a platform for workers' voices. Both had previously worked at Service Employees International Union (SEIU), a labor union representing nearly 2 million workers. Kutcher had also worked at petition site Change.org. The duo saw a need for a platform that was more than just a social media-based advocacy group or petition site—they wanted to create a place where workers could specifically advocate for change in the workplace. "What we weren’t seeing was any infrastructure with the lessons, data, and information in one place so that the next person [advocating for better conditions] wasn’t starting from scratch," Kutcher says. If a worker could log on and tap into an existing network of coworkers and see the history of changes that had been made, the campaign might have more success, she says. That power could create more democratic workplaces. Coworker.org is now primarily a platform that connects coworkers who are advocating for change in the workplace. It currently hosts hundreds of initiatives by everyone from restaurant servers and bank tellers to Uber drivers and salon workers who are calling for specific improvements to their jobs and workplaces. And while the site is not specifically targeted to one gender, women, who make up two-thirds of minimum-wage workers, according to the National Women’s Law Center, are disproportionately affected by workplace democracy issues, Kutch says. Women, who make up two-thirds of minimum-wage workers, are disproportionately affected by workplace democracy issues. One of those women is Kristie Williams, who worked as a barista in the Atlanta area. She launched a petition on Coworker.org to get Starbucks to allow employees to show their tattoos instead of hiding them under long-sleeved shirts. After roughly six weeks, more than 15,000 coworkers in 17 countries signed her petition, which gathered more than 25,000 signatures. Employees shared photos of their body art on Instagram, which also attracted media attention. In October 2014, Starbucks changed its dress code to allow visible tattoos, except for those on the face or throat, or anything profane or lewd. Is wearing a long-sleeved shirt to hide tattoos really that big a deal? Miller says there's a bigger picture than just wardrobe. "People look at [bans on] beards, tattoos, and these things, and it’s very easy to say, ‘Well, why is that a problem?’ But it matters when you are surveilled. It’s a form of personal surveillance at that level and managed at that level on your job, when it has nothing to do with whether you can perform the tasks you’ve been given," she says. And now, there is a large network of Starbucks employees on the site that are working together to advocate for other working condition improvements. For example, some workers want more advance and consistent scheduling to allow them to better plan child care and secure second jobs, she says. "We have 25,000 Starbucks baristas that have more than two dozen active campaigns right now, ranging from paid sick days to paid vacation to wage increases to scheduling improvement. So, that universe of people continues to grow and will likely reach 30,000 by the end of the year, representing 10% of Starbucks’ workforce," Kutch adds. Kutch points to other success stories as well. Walmart workers joined with the group OUR Walmart to launch a Coworker.org initiative that helped improve scheduling practices and access to full-time opportunities, she says. And, after recruiting more than 100 of her colleagues to join her initiative, an adjunct professor at Palomar College in San Marcos, California, persuaded her employer to participate in a federal student loan forgiveness program, which would forgive her debt after 10 years of on-time payments. "As these digital networks continue to grow, we're building out new tools and interventions that make it easier for employees to collect and share data with coworkers and the public on what's happening in their workplaces," Kutch says. That includes data collection, such as anonymously surveying coworkers on their new 401(k) package, for example, and comparing their working conditions with others. With greater transparency, workers can collaborate on solutions that go beyond a single idea or initiative, she says. It’s not only employers that are paying attention to what’s happening on Coworker.org. On October 7, Miller led a town hall meeting with President Barack Obama, where they discussed the importance of the worker's voice, and shared platform users’ questions, ideas, and concerns. Miller thinks Coworker.org serves an important role at a time when trade unions and worker groups find themselves under fire in some areas. "We’re codesigning new forms of collective advocacy power for workers, which don’t replace trade unions. They are actually new kinds of models that sit next to trade unions as options for workers to start to think about the ways in which they want to have organizational power inside their workplaces," she says. By giving workers a more powerful voice through a platform that allows them to build networks and access previous efforts and their impact, she and Kutch believe Coworker.org can make a big difference in workers’ lives—especially women.


Anderson R.,Utah State University | Waayers R.,Palomar College | Knight A.,The University of Winchester
Animals | Year: 2016

Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego’s SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors. Our observations were consistent with those of a former Seaworld trainer, and provide important insights into orca cognition, communication, and social intelligence. However, after being trained as performers within Seaworld’s commercial entertainment program, a number of orcas began to exhibit aggressive behaviors. The orcas who previously established apparent friendships with humans were most affected, although significant aggression also occurred in some of their descendants, and among the orcas they lived with. Such oceanaria confinement and commercial use can no longer be considered ethically defensible, given the current understanding of orcas’ advanced cognitive, social, and communicative capacities, and of their behavioral needs. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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