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Morrissette D.A.,Neuroscience Education Institute | Morrissette D.A.,Palomar College | Stahl S.M.,Neuroscience Education Institute | Stahl S.M.,University of California at San Diego | Stahl S.M.,University of Cambridge
CNS Spectrums | Year: 2013

Insufficient treatment of psychosis often manifests as violent and aggressive behaviors that are dangerous to the patient and others, and that warrant treatment strategies which are not considered first-line, evidence-based practices. Such treatment strategies include both antipsychotic polypharmacy (simultaneous use of 2 antipsychotics) and high-dose antipsychotic monotherapy. Here we discuss the hypothesized neurobiological substrates of various types of violence and aggression, as well as providing arguments for the use of antipsychotic polypharmacy and high-dose monotherapy to target dysfunctional neurocircuitry in the subpopulation of patients that is treatment-resistant, violent, and aggressive. In this review, we focus primarily on the data supporting the use of second-generation, atypical antipsychotics both at high doses and in combination with other antipsychotics. © 2014 Cambridge University Press. Source

Stahl S.M.,University of California at San Diego | Stahl S.M.,University of Cambridge | Stahl S.M.,Neuroscience Education Institute | Morrissette D.A.,Neuroscience Education Institute | And 5 more authors.
CNS Spectrums | Year: 2013

Here we provide comprehensive guidelines for the assessment and treatment of violence and aggression of various etiologies, including psychotic aggression and impulsive aggression due to schizophrenia, mood disorders, ADHD, or trauma, and predatory aggression due to psychopathy and other personality disorders. These guidelines have been developed from a collection of prescribing recommendations, clinical trial results, and years of clinical experience in treating patients who are persistently violent or aggressive in the California Department of State Hospital System. Many of the recommendations provided in these guidelines employ off-label prescribing practices; thus, sound clinical judgment based on individual patient needs and according to institution formularies must be considered when applying these guidelines in clinical practice. © 2014 Cambridge University Press. Source

Ben-Ami S.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Gal-Yam A.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Filippenko A.V.,University of California at Berkeley | Mazzali P.A.,National institute for astrophysics | And 55 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2012

We present the discovery and extensive early-time observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN) PTF12gzk. Our light curves show a rise of 0.8mag within 2.5hr. Power-law fits (f(t) (t - t 0)n) to these data constrain the explosion date to within one day. We cannot rule out a quadratic fireball model, but higher values of n are possible as well for larger areas in the fit parameter space. Our bolometric light curve and a dense spectral sequence are used to estimate the physical parameters of the exploding star and of the explosion. We show that the photometric evolution of PTF12gzk is slower than that of most SNe Ic. The high ejecta expansion velocities we measure (∼30, 000kms-1 derived from line minima fourdays after explosion) are similar to the observed velocities of broad-lined SNe Ic associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) rather than to normal SN Ic velocities. Yet, this SN does not show the persistent broad lines that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. The host-galaxy characteristics are also consistent with GRB-SN hosts, and not with normal SN Ic hosts. By comparison with the spectroscopically similar SN 2004aw, we suggest that the observed properties of PTF12gzk indicate an initial progenitor mass of 25-35M ⊙ and a large ((5-10) × 10 51erg) kinetic energy, the later being close to the regime of GRB-SN properties. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Baird G.B.,University of Northern Colorado | Figg S.A.,Palomar College | Chamberlain K.R.,University of Wyoming
GFF | Year: 2014

The Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is predominately metamorphosed rift-related igneous and sedimentary rocks formed during Rodinia breakup in the Neoproterozoic. The Kebne Dyke Complex of the Kebnekaise Massif, arctic Sweden, is one such unit within the Seve Nappe Complex and is mostly composed of dolerite dykes metamorphosed and thrust onto Baltica during the Caledonian orogeny. Structurally adjacent to the dyke complex are geochemically similar amphibolites that have a common origin as the metadolerite dykes. Collectively, these rocks have transitional mid-ocean ridge basalt geochemistry similar to correlative Seve Nappe Complex rocks to the north (Indre Troms dykes) and south (Sarek Dyke Swarm). U–Pb single-crystal chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry of zircon from a metagabbro and a metagranitoid, showing co-mingling magmatic textures with the metadolerite, produced 11 concordant analyses with 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 608 to 596 Ma, which includes the magmatic age of the dyke complex. These results support the idea that the Kebne Dyke Complex, Sarek Dyke Swarm and Indre Troms dykes constitute the tholeiitic continent–ocean transition subdivision within the Seve Nappe Complex. However, the Kebne Dyke Complex differs from the Sarek Dyke Swarm and Indre Troms dykes as it is the least enriched among these, nearly lacks rift-related metasedimentary rocks, and may be younger than the Sarek Dyke Swarm by up to 14 Myr. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

Shurin J.B.,University of California at San Diego | Abbott R.L.,University of California at San Diego | Abbott R.L.,Cornell University | Deal M.S.,University of California at San Diego | And 6 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

Microalgae represent one of the most promising groups of candidate organisms for replacing fossil fuels with contemporary primary production as a renewable source of energy. Algae can produce many times more biomass per unit area than terrestrial crop plants, easing the competing demands for land with food crops and native ecosystems. However, several aspects of algal biology present unique challenges to the industrial-scale aquaculture of photosynthetic microorganisms. These include high susceptibility to invading aquatic consumers and weeds, as well as prodigious requirements for nutrients that may compete with the fertiliser demands of other crops. Most research on algal biofuel technologies approaches these problems from a cellular or genetic perspective, attempting either to engineer or select algal strains with particular traits. However, inherent functional trade-offs may limit the capacity of genetic selection or synthetic biology to simultaneously optimise multiple functional traits for biofuel productivity and resilience. We argue that a community engineering approach that manages microalgal diversity, species composition and environmental conditions may lead to more robust and productive biofuel ecosystems. We review evidence for trade-offs, challenges and opportunities in algal biofuel cultivation with a goal of guiding research towards intensifying bioenergy production using established principles of community and ecosystem ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS. Source

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