Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research

Palo Alto, CA, United States

Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research

Palo Alto, CA, United States
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Lee M.,Stanford University | Kiefel H.,Stanford University | Lajevic M.D.,Stanford University | Macauley M.S.,Scripps Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Nature Immunology | Year: 2014

Lymphocytes are recruited from blood by high-endothelial venules (HEVs). We performed transcriptomic analyses and identified molecular signatures that distinguish HEVs from capillary endothelium and that define tissue-specific HEV specialization. Capillaries expressed gene programs for vascular development. HEV-expressed genes showed enrichment for genes encoding molecules involved in immunological defense and lymphocyte migration. We identify capillary and HEV markers and candidate mechanisms for regulated recruitment of lymphocytes, including a lymph node HEV-selective transmembrane mucin; transcriptional control of functionally specialized carbohydrate ligands for lymphocyte L-selectin; HEV expression of molecules for transendothelial migration; and metabolic programs for lipid mediators of lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. We also elucidate a carbohydrate-recognition pathway that targets B cells to intestinal lymphoid tissues, defining CD22 as a lectin-homing receptor for mucosal HEVs. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Stanford University, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Palo Alto University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) | Year: 2014

Although the homing of lymphocytes to GALT has been extensively studied, little is known about how high endothelial venules (HEVs) within Peyers patches (PPs) are patterned to display dominantly mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1). In this study, we report that Nkx2-3-deficient mice show gradual loss of MAdCAM-1 in PPs postnatally and increased levels of mRNA for peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd) backbone proteins as well as enhanced expression of MECA79 sulfated glycoepitope at the luminal aspect of HEVs, thus replacing MAdCAM-1 with PNAd. Induction of PNAd in mutant PPs requires lymphotoxin receptor activity, and its upregulation needs the presence of mature T and B cells. Furthermore, treatment with MECA-79 anti-PNAd mAb in vivo effectively blocks lymphocyte homing to mutant PPs. Despite the replacement of MAdCAM-1 by PNAd in HEV endothelia, lymphocytes could efficiently home to PPs in mutant mice. We conclude that although Nkx2-3 activity controls the addressin balance of HEVs in GALT, the general HEV functionality is preserved independently from Nkx2-3, indicating a substantial plasticity in the specification of GALT HEV endothelium.


PubMed | Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Stanford University, Scripps Research Institute and Palo Alto University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature immunology | Year: 2014

Lymphocytes are recruited from blood by high-endothelial venules (HEVs). We performed transcriptomic analyses and identified molecular signatures that distinguish HEVs from capillary endothelium and that define tissue-specific HEV specialization. Capillaries expressed gene programs for vascular development. HEV-expressed genes showed enrichment for genes encoding molecules involved in immunological defense and lymphocyte migration. We identify capillary and HEV markers and candidate mechanisms for regulated recruitment of lymphocytes, including a lymph node HEV-selective transmembrane mucin; transcriptional control of functionally specialized carbohydrate ligands for lymphocyte L-selectin; HEV expression of molecules for transendothelial migration; and metabolic programs for lipid mediators of lymphocyte motility and chemotaxis. We also elucidate a carbohydrate-recognition pathway that targets B cells to intestinal lymphoid tissues, defining CD22 as a lectin-homing receptor for mucosal HEVs.


PubMed | Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Zeromski Hospital, Jagiellonian University and Palo Alto University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Chemerin is a protein ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor CMKLR1 and also binds to two atypical heptahelical receptors, CCRL2 and GPR1. Chemerin is a leukocyte attractant, adipokine, and antimicrobial protein. Although chemerin was initially identified as a highly expressed gene in healthy skin keratinocytes that was downregulated during psoriasis, the regulation of chemerin and its receptors in the skin by specific cytokines and microbial factors remains unexplored. Here we show that chemerin, CMKLR1, CCRL2 and GPR1 are expressed in human and mouse epidermis, suggesting that this tissue may be both a source and target for chemerin mediated effects. In human skin cultures, chemerin is significantly downregulated by IL-17 and IL-22, key cytokines implicated in psoriasis, whereas it is upregulated by acute phase cytokines oncostatin M and IL-1. Moreover, we show that human keratinocytes in vitro and mouse skin in vivo respond to specific microbial signals to regulate expression levels of chemerin and its receptors. Furthermore, in a cutaneous infection model, chemerin is required for maximal bactericidal effects in vivo. Together, our findings reveal previously uncharacterized regulators of chemerin expression in skin and identify a physiologic role for chemerin in skin barrier defense against microbial pathogens.


Habtezion A.,Stanford University | Nguyen L.P.,Stanford University | Hadeiba H.,Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research | Butcher E.C.,Stanford University | Butcher E.C.,Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research
Gastroenterology | Year: 2016

Leukocyte trafficking to the small and large intestines is tightly controlled to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis, mediate immune responses, and regulate inflammation. A wide array of chemoattractants, chemoattractant receptors, and adhesion molecules expressed by leukocytes, mucosal endothelium, epithelium, and stromal cells controls leukocyte recruitment and microenvironmental localization in intestine and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs). Naive lymphocytes traffic to the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes where they undergo antigen-induced activation and priming; these processes determine their memory/effector phenotypes and imprint them with the capacity to migrate via the lymph and blood to the intestines. Mechanisms of T-cell recruitment to GALT and of T cells and plasmablasts to the small intestine are well described. Recent advances include the discovery of an unexpected role for lectin CD22 as a B-cell homing receptor GALT, and identification of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) as a T-cell chemoattractant/trafficking receptor for the colon. GPR15 decorates distinct subsets of T cells in mice and humans, a difference in species that could affect translation of the results of mouse colitis models to humans. Clinical studies with antibodies to integrin α4β7 and its vascular ligand mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 are proving the value of lymphocyte trafficking mechanisms as therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel diseases. In contrast to lymphocytes, cells of the innate immune system express adhesion and chemoattractant receptors that allow them to migrate directly to effector tissue sites during inflammation. We review the mechanisms for innate and adaptive leukocyte localization to the intestinal tract and GALT, and discuss their relevance to human intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. © 2016 AGA Institute.


Wang H.,Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research | Zhang Z.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Rose S.,Harvard University | van der Laan M.,University of California at Berkeley
Genetics | Year: 2014

We present a novel semiparametric method for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in experimental crosses. Conventional genetic mapping methods typically assume parametric models with Gaussian errors and obtain parameter estimates through maximumlikelihood estimation. In contrast with univariate regression and interval-mapping methods, our model requires fewer assumptions and also accommodates various machine-learning algorithms. Estimation is performed with targeted maximum-likelihood learning methods. We demonstrate our semiparametric targeted learning approach in a simulation study and a well-studied barley data set. © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.


Zabel B.A.,Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research | Rott A.,Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research | Butcher E.C.,Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research | Butcher E.C.,Stanford University
Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease | Year: 2015

Combinations of leukocyte attractant ligands and cognate heptahelical receptors specify the systemic recruitment of circulating cells by triggering integrin-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells, supporting extravasation, and directing specific intratissue localization via gradient-driven chemotaxis. Chemoattractant receptors also control leukocyte egress from lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues. In this article, we summarize the fundamental mechanics of leukocyte trafficking, from the evolution of multistep models of leukocyte recruitment and navigation to the regulation of chemoattractant availability and function by atypical heptahelical receptors. To provide a more complete picture of the migratory circuits involved in leukocyte trafficking, we integrate a number of nonchemokine chemoattractant receptors into our discussion. Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors play key roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. We review recent advances in our understanding of chemoattractant receptors in disease pathogenesis, with a focus on genome-wide association studies in humans and the translational implications of mechanistic studies in animal disease models. © 2015 by Annual Reviews.


PubMed | Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Stanford University and South University of Science and Technology of China
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) | Year: 2016

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. A bright, renal-excreted, and biocompatible near-infrared II fluorophore for in vivo imaging of TBI is designed. A transient hypoperfusion in the injured cerebral region, followed by fluorophore leakage, is observed. NIR-II fluorophores can provide noninvasive assessment of TBI.


PubMed | Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology and University of Ottawa
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Elevated serum chemerin levels correlate with increased severity of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the role of CMKLR1 signaling in ovarian biology under conditions of excess DHT remains unclear. In this study we compared the effects of continuous 90-day high dose DHT exposure (83.3g/day) on wild type and CMKLR1-deficient mice. DHT induced PCOS-like clinical signs in wild type mice as well as significant changes in the expression of hormone receptors, steroid synthesis enzymes, and BMPs and their receptors. In contrast, CMKLR1-deficient mice significantly attenuated DHT-induced clinical signs of PCOS and alterations in ovarian gene expression. To determine whether the BMP4 signaling pathway was involved in the pathogenic effects of CMKLR1 signaling in DHT-induced ovarian steroidogenesis, antral follicles were isolated from wild type and CMKLR1 knockout (KO) mice and treated in vitro with combinations of hCG, DHT, and BMP4 inhibitors. BMP4 inhibition attenuated the induction effects of hCG and DHT on estrogen and progesterone secretion in CMKLR1 KO mice, but not in WT mice, implicating the BMP4 signaling pathway in the CMKLR1-dependent response to DHT. In conclusion, CMKLR1 gene deletion attenuates the effects of chronic DHT treatment on ovarian function in experimental PCOS, likely via BMP4 signaling.


PubMed | Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, University of California at Berkeley and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics | Year: 2014

We present a novel semiparametric method for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in experimental crosses. Conventional genetic mapping methods typically assume parametric models with Gaussian errors and obtain parameter estimates through maximum-likelihood estimation. In contrast with univariate regression and interval-mapping methods, our model requires fewer assumptions and also accommodates various machine-learning algorithms. Estimation is performed with targeted maximum-likelihood learning methods. We demonstrate our semiparametric targeted learning approach in a simulation study and a well-studied barley data set.

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