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Issa M.E.,Dalhousie University | Muruganandan S.,Dalhousie University | Ernst M.C.,Dalhousie University | Parlee S.D.,Dalhousie University | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology | Year: 2012

The chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by chemerin, a secreted plasma leukocyte attractant and adipokine. Previous studies identified that CMKLR1 is expressed in skeletal muscle in a stage-specific fashion during embryogenesis and in adult mice; however, its function in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Based on the established function of CMKLR1 in cell migration and differentiation, we investigated the hypothesis that CMKLR1 regulates the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. In C2C12 mouse myoblasts, CMKLR1 expression increased threefold with differentiation into multinucleated myotubes. Decreasing CMKLR1 expression by adenoviral-delivered small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) impaired the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into mature myotubes and reduced the mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors myogenin and MyoD while increasing Myf5 and Mrf4. At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), CMKLR1 knockout (CMKLR1-/-) mice appeared developmentally delayed and displayed significantly lower wet weights and a considerably diminished myotomal component of somites as revealed by immunolocalization of myosin heavy chain protein compared with wild-type (CMKLR1+/+) mouse embryos. These changes were associated with increased Myf5 and decreased MyoD protein expression in the somites of E12.5 CMKLR1-/- mouse embryos. Adult male CMKLR1-/- mice had significantly reduced bone-free lean mass and weighed less than the CMKLR1+/+ mice. We conclude that CMKLR1 is essential for myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells in vitro, and the CMKLR1 null mice have a subtle skeletal muscle deficit beginning from embryonic life that persists during postnatal life. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society.

Huss R.S.,Stanford University | Huss R.S.,Center for Molecular Biology and Medicine | Huddleston J.I.,Stanford University | Goodman S.B.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2010

Objective: Infiltrating immune cells play a central role in degenerative joint disease associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and particle-mediated periprosthetic osteolysis. The goal of this study was to characterize a newly identified population of synovial tissue-infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells obtained from patients with OA or patients with periprosthetic joint inflammation. Methods Synovial and interfacial tissue samples were collected from patients with OA who were undergoing primary or revision total joint replacement (TJR) surgery. The histologic features of OA synovium obtained from patients undergoing primary surgery and interfacial tissue obtained from patients undergoing revision surgery were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Synovial tissue-infiltrating NK cells were evaluated for the expression of surface receptors, using flow cytometry. Chemoattractant and cytokine protein and RNA levels in synovial and interfacial tissue and fluid were assessed by Luminex assay and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cytokine production and degranulation by stimulated synovial tissue versus normal blood NK cells were evaluated by intracellular cytokine staining. Results NK cells comprised nearly 30% of the CD45+ mononuclear cell infiltrate in synovial tissue obtained from patients undergoing primary TJR and from patients undergoing revision TJR. NK cells from both groups expressed CXCR3, CCR5, L-selectin, α4 integrins, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen. Synovial fluid from patients undergoing revision surgery contained elevated concentrations of the NK cell attractants CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10; all levels in synovial fluid obtained from patients undergoing revision surgery were higher than those in synovial fluid from patients undergoing primary surgery. Cytokine-stimulated interferon-Iγ production was significantly impaired in NK cells derived from primary and revision TJRs compared with blood NK cells. Conclusion NK cells are a principal tissue-infiltrating lymphocyte subset in patients with OA and patients with periprosthetic inflammation and display a quiescent phenotype that is consistent with postactivation exhaustion. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Li L.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | Ma P.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | Huang C.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | Liu Y.,CAS Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2014

The novel adipokine chemerin plays a role in the regulation of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and recent reports of elevated chemerin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome and preeclampsia have pointed to an emerging role of chemerin in reproduction. We hypothesised that chemerin, like other adipokines, may function to regulate male gonadal steroidogenesis. In this study, we show that chemerin and its three receptors chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 were expressed in male reproductive tracts, liver and white adipose tissue. CMKLR1 and GPR1 proteins were localised specifically in the Leydig cells of human and rat testes by immunohistochemistry. The expression of chemerin and its receptors in rat testes was developmentally regulated and highly expressed in Leydig cells. In vitro treatment with chemerin suppressed the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)- induced testosterone production from primary Leydig cells, which was accompanied by the inhibition of 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene and protein expression. The hCGactivated p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) pathway in Leydig cells was also inhibited by chemerin cotreatment. Together, these data suggest that chemerin is a novel regulator of male gonadal steroidogenesis. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

Ernst M.C.,Dalhousie University | Haidl I.D.,Dalhousie University | Zuniga L.A.,Stanford University | Dranse H.J.,Dalhousie University | And 6 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Adipose tissue secretes a variety of bioactive signaling molecules, termed adipokines, which regulate numerous biological functions including appetite, energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. Chemerin is a novel adipokine that regulates adipocyte differentiation and metabolism by binding to and activating the G protein-coupled receptor, chemokine like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). In the present study, we investigated the impact of CMKLR1 deficiency on adipose development, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation in vivo. Herein we report that regardless of diet (low or high fat), CMKLR1 -/- mice had lower food consumption, total body mass, and percent body fat compared with wild-type controls. CMKLR1 -/- mice also exhibited decreased hepatic and white adipose tissue TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels coincident with decreased hepatic dendritic cell infiltration, decreased adipose CD3+T cells, and increased adipose natural killer cells. CMKLR1 -/- mice were glucose intolerant compared with wild-type mice, and this was associated with decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion as well as decreased skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue glucose uptake. Collectively these data provide compelling evidence that CMKLR1 influences adipose tissue development, inflammation, and glucose homeostasis and may contribute to the metabolic derangement characteristic of obesity and obesity-related diseases. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.

Kim S.D.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim S.D.,Dong - A University | Lee H.Y.,Sungkyunkwan University | Lee H.Y.,Seoul National University | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Rationale: Acetylated Pro-Gly-Pro (Ac-PGP) is an endogenous degradation product of extracellular collagen that binds to leukocyte-expressed chemoattractant receptor CXCR2. Although certain agents that block CXCR2-mediated signaling protect against experimental sepsis, the roles of Ac-PGP and CXCR2 in sepsis are unclear. Objectives: To investigate the role of Ac-PGP and its receptor, CXCR2, in murine models of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis and organ injury. Methods: The impact of in vivo Ac-PGP treatment on animal survival after induction of experimental sepsis was assessed. Vital organ inflammation and immune cell apoptosis were evaluated by histology, and the modulation of proinflammatory cytokine production and bactericidal activity by Ac-PGP in mouse and human blood leukocytes was measured. Measurements and Main Results: The activation of CXCR2 by tripeptide agonist Ac-PGP dramatically improved survival in three experimental sepsis models. Ac-PGP elicited bactericidal activity via the generation of hydrogen peroxide, inhibited lung inflammation, and reduced immune cell apoptosis. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled PGP bound directly to CXCR2, and the protective effect of Ac-PGP in sepsis was abolished in CXCR2-deficient mice. Ac-PGP treatment enhanced the production of type 1 cytokines (IFN-g and IL-12) but inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) in vivo. In vitro, Ac-PGP directly increased IFN-γ production and decreased the LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α by mouse splenocytes and human leukocytes. Furthermore, direct treatment of LPS-stimulated splenocytes with IFN-γresulted in diminished secretion of TNF-α and IL-6. Conclusions: CXCR2 and Ac-PGP are thus novel target and starting molecules, respectively, for the development of therapeutic agents against sepsis.

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