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Djursholm, Sweden

Acuna J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Mogensen P.,Palne Mogensen AB | Palm B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
HVAC and R Research | Year: 2011

In a distributed thermal response test, distributed temperature measurements are taken along a borehole heat exchanger during thermal response tests, allowing the determination of local ground thermal conductivities and borehole thermal resistances. In this article, the first results from six heat injection distributed thermal response tests carried out on a new, thermally insulated leg type, multi-pipe coaxial borehole heat exchanger are presented. The borehole heat exchanger consists of 1 insulated central and 12 peripheral pipes. Temperature measurements are carried out using fiber-optic cables placed inside the borehole heat exchanger pipes. Unique temperature and thermal power profiles along the borehole depth as a function of the flow rate and the total thermal power injected into the borehole are presented. A line source model is used for simulating the borehole heat exchanger thermal response and determining local variations of the ground thermal conductivity and borehole thermal resistance. The flow regime in the peripheral pipes is laminar during all distributed thermal response tests and average thermal resistances remain relatively constant, independently of the volumetric flow rate, being lower than those corresponding to U-pipe borehole heat exchangers. The thermal insulation of the central pipe significantly reduces the thermal shunt to the peripheral pipes even at low volumetric flow rates. Copyright © 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Source


Acuna J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Mogensen P.,Palne Mogensen AB | Palm B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
2010 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC 14 | Year: 2010

Different borehole heat exchanger designs have been discussed for many years. However, the U-pipe design has dominated the market, and the introduction of new designs has been practically lacking. The interest for innovation within this field is rapidly increasing and other designs are being introduced on the market. This paper presents a general state of the art summary of the borehole heat exchanger research in the last years. A first study of a prototype coaxial borehole heat exchanger consisting of one central pipe and five external channels is also presented. The particular geometry of the heat exchanger is analyzed thermally in 2-D with a FEM software. An experimental evaluation consisting of two in situ thermal response tests and measurements of the pressure drop at different flow rates is also presented. The latter tests are carried out at two different flow directions with an extra temperature measurement point at the borehole bottom that shows the different heat flow distribution along the heat exchanger for the two flow cases. The borehole thermal resistance of the coaxial design is calculated both based on experimental data and theoretically. © 2010 by ASME. Source


Beier R.A.,Oklahoma State University | Acuna J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Mogensen P.,Palne Mogensen AB | Palm B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Geothermics | Year: 2012

The design of ground source heat pump systems requires values for the ground thermal conductivity and the borehole thermal resistance. In situ thermal response tests (TRT) are often performed on vertical boreholes to determine these parameters. Most TRT analysis methods apply the mean of the inlet and outlet temperatures of the circulating fluid along the entire borehole length. This assumption is convenient but not rigorous. To provide a more general approach, this paper develops an analytical model of the vertical temperature profile in the borehole during the late-time period of the in situ test. The model also includes the vertical temperature profile of the undisturbed ground. The model is verified with distributed temperature measurements along a vertical borehole using fiber optic cables inside a U-tube for the circulating fluid. The borehole thermal resistance is calculated without the need for the mean temperature approximation. In the studied borehole, the mean temperature approximation overestimates the borehole resistance by more than 20%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Beier R.A.,Oklahoma State University | Acuna J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Mogensen P.,Palne Mogensen AB | Palm B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Geothermics | Year: 2014

Ground-source heat pumps often use vertical boreholes to exchange heat with the ground. A transient heat transfer model has been developed for a thermal response test on a pipe-in-pipe coaxial borehole heat exchanger. The analytical model calculates the vertical temperature profiles in the fluid flowing through the pipes, which are coupled to the surrounding grout and ground. The model is verified against measured vertical temperature profiles in the circulating fluid during a distributed thermal response test. The comparison with measured data indicates that the proposed model gives a more accurate estimate of the borehole thermal resistance than the conventional analytical model that uses a mean temperature approximation. The model demonstrates how strongly the shapes of the temperature profiles are dependent on the thermal resistance of the internal pipe wall and the flow direction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Beier R.A.,Oklahoma State University | Acuna J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Mogensen P.,Palne Mogensen AB | Palm B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

Ground source heat pump systems are often coupled to the ground by circulating a fluid through vertical Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs). The design of a system requires estimates of the ground thermal conductivity and the borehole thermal resistance, which are usually determined by an in situ thermal response test on a completed borehole. The usual test interpretation methods average the inlet and outlet fluid temperatures and use this mean temperature as the average temperature along the borehole length. This assumption is convenient but does not strictly apply. For a coaxial heat exchanger this paper develops an analytical model for the vertical temperature profiles, which can be used instead of the mean temperature approximation to estimate borehole resistance. The model is verified with measured temperatures on a BHE, where an optical technique allows continuous measurements along a coaxial borehole during a distributed thermal response test. A sensitivity study shows that the proposed method corrects errors in the mean temperature approximation, which overestimates the borehole resistance in a coaxial borehole. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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