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Cain S.E.,University of South Carolina | Kohn J.,Palmetto Health Richland | Bookstaver P.B.,University of South Carolina | Albrecht H.,University of South Carolina | Al-Has M.N.,University of South Carolina
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

The bloodstream infection mortality risk score (BSIMRS) predicts the outcome of patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSI) with high discrimination. This retrospective cohort study examined the impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on mortality in adult patients with Gram-negative BSI admitted to Palmetto Health Hospitals in Columbia, SC, USA, from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012 after stratification by predicted prognosis at initial presentation using BSIMRS. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to identify independent risk factors for 28-day mortality overall and within each predefined BSIMRS category (<5, 5 to 9, and ≥10). Relative risk reduction (RRR), absolute risk reduction (ARR), and number needed to treat (NNT) were calculated from a predictive logistic regression model of mortality. Overall, 390 unique patients with first episodes of Gram-negative BSI were identified. The median age was 66 years, and 229 (59%) were women. There was significant association between inappropriate antimicrobial therapy and mortality in patients with BSIMRS of 5 to 9 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.55; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.22 to 8.31; P = 0.02) and BSIMRS of ≥10 (aHR, 4.99; 95% CI, 1.09 to 22.87; P = 0.04) but not in those with BSIMRS of <5 (aHR, 3.34; 95% CI, 0.17 to 22.77; P = 0.34). RRR, ARR, and NNT were 0.25, 0.02, and 63 for BSIMRS of <5; 0.56, 0.32, and 3 for BSIMRS of 5 to 9; and 0.39, 0.39, and 3 for BSIMRS of ≥10, respectively. There is a significant benefit from appropriate antimicrobial therapy in patients with Gram-negative BSI with guarded (BSIMRS of 5 to 9) and poor (BSIMRS of ≥10) predicted prognosis. Survival difference remains unclear among those with good predicted prognosis (BSIMRS of <5) at initial presentation. @copy;2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Brigmon M.M.,University of South Carolina | Bookstaver P.B.,University of South Carolina | Kohn J.,Palmetto Health Richland | Albrecht H.,University of South Carolina | Al-Hasan M.N.,University of South Carolina
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2015

There has been a concerning increase in fluoroquinolone resistance among Gram-negative bloodstream isolates. This retrospective cohort study examines the implications of fluoroquinolone resistance on use of healthcare resources in patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSI). Hospitalized adults with first episodes of community-onset Gram-negative BSI from 2010 to 2012 at Palmetto Health Hospitals in Columbia, SC, USA were identified. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine risk factors for prolonged hospital length of stay (HLOS) in survivors of Gram-negative BSI. Among 474 unique patients, 384 (81%) and 90 (19%) had BSI due to fluoroquinolone-susceptible (FQ-S) and fluoroquinolone non-susceptible (FQ-NS) Gram-negative bacilli, respectively. The FQ-NS bloodstream isolates, particularly Escherichia coli, were more likely than FQ-S isolates to be multi-drug resistant (56% versus 6%, p<0.001). Compared with patients with BSI due to FQ-S bloodstream isolates, those with FQ-NS isolates were more likely to receive inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (26% versus 3%, p<0.001), have longer mean HLOS (11.6 versus 9.3 days, p 0.03) and treatment duration with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization (9.1 versus 7.1 days, p 0.001), and use outpatient intravenous antibiotics at hospital discharge (15% versus 8%, p 0.05). After adjustments in the multivariate model, inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy was an independent risk factor for prolonged HLOS in survivors of Gram-negative BSI (parameter estimate 3.65 days, 95% CI 0.43-6.86). Multi-drug resistance among FQ-NS bloodstream isolates limits both empirical and definitive antimicrobial treatment options and poses excessive burdens on the healthcare system. © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Varner T.R.,Palmetto Health Richland | Brandon Bookstaver P.,University of South Carolina | Rudisill C.N.,University of South Carolina | Albrecht H.,University Specialty Clinics
Annals of Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature concerning the role of rifampin in the combination treatment of Legionella pneumophilapneumonia. DATA SOURCES: A search of MEDLINE and Ovid databases was conducted (January 1970-May 2011) using the search terms Legionella pneumophila, pneumonia, Legionnaires' disease, rifampin or rifampicin, macrolide, fluoroquinolone, erythromycin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and moxifloxacin STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: In vivo studies published in English that compared antimicrobial therapies including rifampin for the treatment of Legionellapneumonia, as well as in vitro studies including an assessment of rifampin bioactivity, were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: Macrolides and fluoroquinolones have been effective as monotherapy in the treatment of L. pneumophilapneumonia. This review includes evidence summaries from 4 bioactivity evaluations, 6 clinical studies, and 6 reported cases of combination rifampin use. Combined with supporting evidence, the role of combination rifampin therapy is further delineated. CONCLUSIONS: Interpretation of the data is limited by the potential for selection bias and lack of consistent comparators. Rifampin therapy should be considered only for patients with severe disease or significant comorbid conditions (eg, uncontrolled diabetes, smoking, or obstructive lung disease) including immuno-compromised hosts and those refractory to conventional monotherapy regimens. Caution for significant adverse drug events and drug-drug interactions should be taken with the addition of rifampin.

Wieland D.,University of South Carolina | Boland R.,Palmetto Health Richland | Baskins J.,Palmetto Health Richland | Kinosian B.,Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion | Kinosian B.,University of Pennsylvania
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2010

Background.Community-based services are preferred to institutional care for people requiring long-term care (LTC). States are increasing their Medicaid waiver programs, although Program of All-Inclusive Care For Elderly (PACE)-prepaid, community-based comprehensive care-is available in 31 states. Despite emerging alternatives, little is known about their comparative effectiveness.Methods.For a two-county region of South Carolina, we contrast long-term survival among entrants (n = 2040) to an aged and disabled waiver program, PACE, and nursing homes (NHs), stratifying for risk. Participants were followed for 5 years or until death; those lost to follow-up or surviving less than 5 years as on August 8, 2005 were censored. Analyses included admission descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier curves. To address cohort risk imbalance, we employed an established mortality risk index, which showed external validity in waiver, PACE, and NH cohorts (log-rank tests = 105.42, 28.72, and 52.23, respectively, all p <. 001; c-statistics =. 67,. 58,. 65, p <. 001).Results.Compared with waiver (n = 1,018) and NH (n = 468) admissions, PACE participants (n = 554) were older, more cognitively impaired, and had intermediate activities of daily living dependency. PACE mortality risk (72.6% high-to-intermediate) was greater than in waiver (58.8%), and similar to NH (71.6%). Median NH survival was 2.3 years. Median PACE survival was 4.2 years versus 3.5 in waiver (unstratified, log rank =. 394; p =. 53), but accounting for risk, PACE's advantage is significant (log rank = 5.941 (1); p =. 015). Compared with waiver, higher risk admissions to PACE were most likely to benefit (moderate: PACE median survival = 4.7 years vs waiver 3.4; high risk: 3.0 vs 2.0).Conclusion.Long-term outcomes of LTC alternatives warrant greater research and policy attention. © 2010 The Author.

Al-Jaghbeer M.,University of South Carolina | Marcus M.,Palmetto Health Richland | Durkin M.,Palmetto Health Richland | McGuire F.R.,Frye Regional Hospital | Iftikhar I.H.,Ohio State University
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease | Year: 2016

Objectives: Peripheral lung nodules (PLNs) are a common and diagnostically challenging finding. Electronavigational bronchoscopy (ENB) is used to increase the diagnostic yield and is considered safe. Multiple factors have been correlated with a better diagnostic yield. We sought to assess the effect of nodule characteristics and prior workup on the diagnostic yield in ENB. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 98 ENB procedures in a community referral center. Two investigators reviewed patients' charts and images independently. Multiple logistic regression analyses was used to determine if factors such as bronchus sign, ground glass opacification (GGO), distance from pleura, prior use of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and positron emission tomography (PET) had an impact on the diagnostic yield. Results: We evaluated 98 ENBs performed in 92 patients. Most of the lesions were in the upper lobes. The diagnostic yield was 60%. A PET scan was performed prior to ENB in 47% of cases. EBUS was performed in 24% of cases. Bronchus sign was present in 60% of cases and GGO in only 6% of nodules. The odds ratio for diagnostic yield with a bronchus sign was 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-4.33] and with nodules showing GGO characteristics it was 4.51 (95% CI: 0.51-39.68). Pneumothorax occurred in 6% of cases. Conclusion: In our cohort, diagnostic yield was 60% with a 6% pneumothorax rate. A suggestive trend for the presence of bronchus sign on computed tomography scan, albeit statistically nonsignificant, as a predictor for improved diagnostic yield needs to be validated in a larger cohort. © 2016 The Author(s).

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