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Montferrier-sur-Lez, France

Cros D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Flori A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Nodichao L.,INRAB | Omore A.,INRAB | Nouy B.,PalmElit SAS
Tropical Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) produces bunches throughout the year, following annual cycles marked by a peak season, with genetic diversity regarding the regularity of the annual profile of bunch production. The aim of this study was to understand this diversity among a set of oil palm crosses. We hypothesized that this diversity originated from differential responses to water balance and bunch load. Seven crosses with different production cycles were studied during 6 years in Benin, where dry seasons are marked. Phenological stages of phytomer development were recorded from leaf appearance to bunch harvest. Inequality in the distribution over the months of the year of phytomers at each stage was quantified using the Gini coefficient. We found that annual variations in the rate of early abortions, sex ratio, time between leaf opening and appearance of female inflorescence (AFI) and time between AFI and flowering strongly contributed to the diversity in production profile among crosses. To a lesser extent, annual variations in the time of bunch maturation also generated diversity in the production profile. Sex ratio was positively correlated with water balance and negatively with bunch load when leaves were around axil number -25 (approximately 29 months before harvest). Early abortions were positively correlated with bunch load when leaves were at axil number 10 (approximately 9 months before harvest). Correlations varied among crosses, indicating differential responses of crosses to variations in water balance and bunch load, which eventually created significant diversity among crosses regarding the regularity of bunch production profiles. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Adam H.,IRD Montpellier | Collin M.,IRD Montpellier | Richaud F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Beule T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 5 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2011

BackgroundThe African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a monoecious species of the palm subfamily Arecoideae. It may be qualified as 'temporally dioecious' in that it produces functionally unisexual male and female inflorescences in an alternating cycle on the same plant, resulting in an allogamous mode of reproduction. The 'sex ratio' of an oil palm stand is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In particular, the enhancement of male inflorescence production in response to water stress has been well documented. ScopeThis paper presents a review of our current understanding of the sex determination process in oil palm and discusses possible insights that can be gained from other species. Although some informative phenological studies have been carried out, nothing is as yet known about the genetic basis of sex determination in oil palm, nor the mechanisms by which this process is regulated. Nevertheless new genomics-based techniques, when combined with field studies and biochemical and molecular cytological-based approaches, should provide a new understanding of the complex processes governing oil palm sex determination in the foreseeable future. Current hypotheses and strategies for future research are discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. Source

Tranbarger T.J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Dussert S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Joet T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Argout X.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 6 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

Fruit provide essential nutrients and vitamins for the human diet. Not only is the lipid-rich fleshy mesocarp tissue of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit the main source of edible oil for the world, but it is also the richest dietary source of provitamin A. This study examines the transcriptional basis of these two outstanding metabolic characters in the oil palm mesocarp. Morphological, cellular, biochemical, and hormonal features defined key phases of mesocarp development. A 454 pyrosequencingderived transcriptome was then assembled for the developmental phases preceding and during maturation and ripening, when high rates of lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis occur. A total of 2,629 contigs with differential representation revealed coordination of metabolic and regulatory components. Further analysis focused on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol assembly pathways and during carotenogenesis. Notably, a contig similar to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed oil transcription factor WRINKLED1 was identified with a transcript profile coordinated with those of several fatty acid biosynthetic genes and the high rates of lipid accumulation, suggesting some common regulatory features between seeds and fruits. We also focused on transcriptional regulatory networks of the fruit, in particular those related to ethylene transcriptional and GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like proteins in the mesocarp and a central role for ethylene-coordinated transcriptional regulation of type VII ethylene response factors during ripening. Our results suggest that divergence has occurred in the regulatory components in thismonocot fruit compared with those identified in the dicot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fleshy fruit model. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Roongsattham P.,IRD Montpellier | Morcillo F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Jantasuriyarat C.,Kasetsart University | Pizot M.,IRD Montpellier | And 9 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Background: Cell separation that occurs during fleshy fruit abscission and dry fruit dehiscence facilitates seed dispersal, the final stage of plant reproductive development. While our understanding of the evolutionary context of cell separation is limited mainly to the eudicot model systems tomato and Arabidopsis, less is known about the mechanisms underlying fruit abscission in crop species, monocots in particular. The polygalacturonase (PG) multigene family encodes enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of pectin homogalacturonan within the primary cell wall and middle lamella. PG activity is commonly found in the separation layers during organ abscission and dehiscence, however, little is known about how this gene family has diverged since the separation of monocot and eudicots and the consequence of this divergence on the abscission process.Results: The objective of the current study was to identify PGs responsible for the high activity previously observed in the abscission zone (AZ) during fruit shedding of the tropical monocot oil palm, and to analyze PG gene expression during oil palm fruit ripening and abscission. We identified 14 transcripts that encode PGs, all of which are expressed in the base of the oil palm fruit. The accumulation of five PG transcripts increase, four decrease and five do not change during ethylene treatments that induce cell separation. One PG transcript (EgPG4) is the most highly induced in the fruit base, with a 700-5000 fold increase during the ethylene treatment. In situ hybridization experiments indicate that the EgPG4 transcript increases preferentially in the AZ cell layers in the base of the fruit in response to ethylene prior to cell separation.Conclusions: The expression pattern of EgPG4 is consistent with the temporal and spatial requirements for cell separation to occur during oil palm fruit shedding. The sequence diversity of PGs and the complexity of their expression in the oil palm fruit tissues contrast with data from tomato, suggesting functional divergence underlying the ripening and abscission processes has occurred between these two fruit species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of EgPG4 with PGs from other species suggests some conservation, but also diversification has occurred between monocots and eudicots, in particular between dry and fleshy fruit species. © 2012 Roongsattham et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Roongsattham P.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Roongsattham P.,Prince of Songkla University | Morcillo F.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Fooyontphanich K.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 7 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fruit primary abscission zone (AZ) is a multi-cell layered boundary region between the pedicel (P) and mesocarp (M) tissues. To examine the cellular processes that occur during the development and function of the AZ cell layers, we employed multiple histological and immunohistochemical methods combined with confocal, electron and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy approaches. During early fruit development and differentiation of the AZ, the orientation of cell divisions in the AZ was periclinal compared with anticlinal divisions in the P and M. AZ cell wall width increased earlier during development suggesting cell wall assembly occurred more rapidly in the AZ than the adjacent P and M tissues. The developing fruit AZ contain numerous intra-AZ cell layer plasmodesmata (PD), but very few inter-AZ cell layer PD. In the AZ of ripening fruit, PD were less frequent, wider, and mainly intra-AZ cell layer localized. Furthermore, DAPI staining revealed nuclei are located adjacent to PD and are remarkably aligned within AZ layer cells, and remain aligned and intact after cell separation. The polarized accumulation of ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and vesicles suggested active secretion at the tip of AZ cells occurred during development which may contribute to the striated cell wall patterns in the AZ cell layers. AZ cells accumulated intracellular pectin during development, which appear to be released and/or degraded during cell separation. The signal for the JIM5 epitope, that recognizes low methylesterified and un-methylesterified homogalacturonan (HG), increased in the AZ layer cell walls prior to separation and dramatically increased on the separated AZ cell surfaces. Finally, FT-IR microspectroscopy analysis indicated a decrease in methylesterified HG occurred in AZ cell walls during separation, which may partially explain an increase in the JIM5 epitope signal. The results obtained through a multi-imaging approach allow an integrated view of the dynamic developmental processes that occur in a multi-layered boundary AZ and provide evidence for distinct regulatory mechanisms that underlie oil palm fruit AZ development and function. © 2016 Roongsattham, Morcillo, Fooyontphanich, Jantasuriyarat, Tragoonrung, Amblard, Collin, Mouille, Verdeil and Tranbarger. Source

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