Fabinyi M.,University of Technology, Sydney |
Fabinyi M.,James Cook University |
Dressler W.,University of Melbourne |
Pido M.,Palawan State University
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2016
Recent studies in the literature on fisheries trade have contrasted the challenges and opportunities associated with domestic and internationally oriented fish trade. We examine forms of domestic and international fish trade in a municipality of the Philippines to show the empirical complexities of how fish trade unfolds on the ground. We draw on insights from the literature in livelihoods to highlight how the debate on fisheries trade can benefit from closer attention to the social and economic context of fisher livelihoods. We argue that from the perspective of small-scale producers who are focused on maintaining diversified livelihoods across a range of fisheries, the distinctions between domestic and international fish trade blur locally, and are sometimes of limited relevance when assessing livelihood options and outcomes. Instead, a more important distinction for households is social differentiation based on ownership of fishing assets. We suggest that household asset characteristics strongly influence how households can access a broad range of fisheries (both domestically and internationally traded) that often co-emerge in rural areas of the Philippines. We argue that a better understanding of household diversification and differentiation provides a view of fisheries trade that is more closely aligned with the perspectives and priorities of local fishers, than a focus on whether such trade is (or should be) domestically or internationally oriented. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Jollant F.,McGill University |
Malafosse A.,Idée |
Docto R.,Palawan State University |
Macdonald C.,French National Center for Scientific Research
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2014
Background Extremely high rates of suicide localized within subgroups of populations where suicide is rare have been reported. We investigated this intriguing observation in a population of South-East Asia, where local culture should theoretically be preventative of suicide. Method A team including an anthropologist and a psychiatrist surveyed all cases of suicide that had occurred over 10 years in four isolated regions. A psychological autopsy was carried out comparing each suicide case with two matched control cases. Results In a region of 1192 inhabitants, 16 suicides occurred, leading to an annual suicide rate of 134/100000 which is 10 times the rate in the USA or Canada. By contrast, three ethnically similar distant communities showed low to null rates. The gender ratio was three males to one female and two-thirds of cases were aged below 35 years. Methods of suicide were poisoning and hanging and motives mainly included interpersonal discord. The pattern of developmental and clinical risk factors was somewhat different from Western countries, showing no childhood maltreatment, only one case of alcohol/substance abuse and impulsive-aggressive personality but elevated rates of social anxiety. Suicide cases had very high frequencies of second-degree biological relatives who committed suicide. Conclusions Our study confirms a persistent phenomenon of high suicide rates restricted to a subgroup of a pre-industrialized population. We hypothesized this might be explained by isolation and endogamy, which may have promoted the selection/amplification of genetic vulnerability factors, or a contagion effect. These findings shed light on suicide from both a singular and a universal perspective, suggesting that particular local conditions may significantly modulate the rate of this complex behavior. Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press.
Ganotice F.A.,University of Hong Kong |
Ganotice F.A.,Palawan State University |
Datu J.A.D.,University of Hong Kong |
King R.B.,University of Hong Kong
School Psychology International | Year: 2016
Previous studies on academic emotions have mostly used variable-centered approaches. Although these studies have elucidated the relationships between academic emotions and key academic outcomes, they cannot identify naturally-occurring groups of students defined by distinct academic emotion profiles. In this study, we adopted a person-centered approach to explore whether students can be grouped in terms of distinct academic emotion profiles and whether these groups differed in terms of key academic outcomes. Cluster analyses showed four distinct profiles across both domain-general (Study 1) and domain-specific (Study 2) academic emotions. Students with high levels of positive academic emotions and low levels of negative academic emotions exhibited the most adaptive educational outcomes followed by students characterized by high levels of positive emotions and moderately high levels of shame. The most maladaptive profile was exhibited by students who are low in positive academic emotions and high in negative academic emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. © 2016, © The Author(s) 2016.
Salayo N.D.,Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center |
Perez M.L.,Worldfish Center |
Garces L.R.,Worldfish Center |
Pido M.D.,Palawan State University
Marine Policy | Year: 2012
This paper aims to evaluate mariculture as sustainable livelihood diversification option for coastal fishers in the Philippines and guide policy development in this direction. Mariculture in the Philippines refers to the culture of finfishes, shellfish, seaweeds and other commodities in cages, pens, stakes and rafts in marine environment. This paper evaluates the biophysical and socioeconomic contexts in which mariculture operate. Ten years after launching the first mariculture park organized and managed by the country's government fishery agency, and the nationwide promotion of this program, only 273. ha or 0.54% of the 50,150. ha total area planned for development has been established. Mariculture has not met its expected results due to a number of problems. This paper revisits the policies, organization, governance and administration of mariculture parks in the country. It also discusses the issues and challenges with mariculture as a livelihood diversification option within the context of ecosystems approach to fisheries management in the Philippines. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Pomeroy R.,Worldfish Center |
Garces L.,Worldfish Center |
Pido M.,Palawan State University |
Silvestre G.,Ortigas Center
Marine Policy | Year: 2010
There has been a gradual evolution in fisheries management over the past decades from a focus on sustainability of a single species or stock and resources to a focus on marine ecosystems. Among the issues to be addressed for effective implementation of ecosystem based fisheries management (EBFM) are the appropriate governance arrangements and scale for management. The purpose of this paper is to examine these issues of governance and scale as related to EBFM in tropical developing countries through an analysis of approaches being taken in the Philippines to manage fisheries on a multi-jurisdictional level. The management of fisheries and coastal resources in a number of bays and gulfs, which represent marine ecosystems, is presented. The opportunities and constraints to ecosystem based fisheries management in the Philippines are discussed and lessons for broader application of these governance structures in tropical developing country marine ecosystems are presented. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tupper M.,WorldFish Philippine Country Office |
Asif F.,WorldFish Philippine Country Office |
Garces L.R.,WorldFish Philippine Country Office |
Pido M.D.,Palawan State University
Marine Policy | Year: 2015
Fisheries is a vital sector in the Philippine economy, providing a significant source of both domestic and export earnings while meeting essential food security and nutritional requirements. However, marine resources in the Philippines are facing increasing pressure from overfishing, destructive fishing practices, habitat destruction, declining water quality and limited management capacity. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are part of the management strategy to address these issues but the majority of MPAs around the world do not meet their management objectives. This paper discusses the identification and testing of management effectiveness indicators to evaluate MPA management for seven sites in the Philippines. The selection of 14 indicators was a participatory process that involved representatives from the academe, civil society groups, fishing associations, local government units (LGUs), national government agencies and research institutions. Overall, the majority of the indicators are rated positive but there is significant room for improvement, particularly in areas of resource use conflict, availability and allocation of resources and interaction between MPA managers and stakeholders. It is imperative that MPAs across the Philippines be managed and implemented as a network to maximize conservation and fisheries management. Moreover, given that the Philippines lies in the Coral Triangle area of the highest marine biodiversity in the world, increased political will and support for MPAs is urgently needed to meet global marine biodiversity targets and allow the Philippines to be an example of effective marine biodiversity conservation. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Garces L.R.,Worldfish Center |
Pido M.D.,Palawan State University |
Tupper M.H.,Worldfish Center |
Silvestre G.T.,Fisheries Improved for Sustainable Harvest FISH Project
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013
Evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) has been a continuing challenge in marine conservation in the tropics. This paper describes the process involved, the chosen indicators and the selected results of the evaluation of management effectiveness of three MPAs in the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. The evaluation was a participatory process that involved several institutions: academe, an externally-funded project, local governments, national government agencies and research organizations. Twenty-three indicators were used for evaluation: six biophysical indicators that largely measured the status of capture fisheries and coastal habitats; eight socioeconomic indicators that largely assessed the economic status and the perceptions of coastal communities; and nine governance indicators that measured the various facets of MPA management. Key lessons learned indicate the need to correlate the perceptions of coastal stakeholders with scientific findings as some perceptions did not reflect the results of biophysical surveys. We illustrate that a multidisciplinary approach and engagement of key stakeholders provides a comprehensive assessment and consensus for measuring the success of MPAs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Josol M.R.C.,Palawan State University |
Montefrio M.J.F.,New York University
Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems | Year: 2013
Currently, smallholder farmers in the Philippines and elsewhere are being engaged in the production of rubber and oil palm for global consumption. Among these smallholder farmers are indigenous peoples who continue to practice traditional forms of swidden agriculture. There is then a propensity for emerging agro-industrial production regimes to increasingly interact with and affect traditional swidden agroecosystems. In this article, we endeavor to explore the application of the resilience concept in analyzing and comparing the persistence of swidden agroecosystems enmeshed in globally integrated agro-industrial production in the province of Palawan, the Philippines. Drawing from six months of ethnography, we compare the resilience of swidden agroecosystems interacting with rubber and oil palm production regimes using indicators developed specifically to evaluate the social and ecological resilience of agroecosystems. Our findings suggest that swidden agroecosystems interacting with rubber production indicate greater resilience as compared to those with oil palm. This difference can be attributed to the greater tolerance of the rubber production regime to swidden agriculture, as well as the regime'smore flexible production management systems. However, we caution that any plans of the rubber production regime to follow the oil palm contract model may result in the decline of resilience of swidden agroecosystems in rubber-producing communities. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Robinson A.S.,Palawan State University |
Gironella E.P.,Palawan State University |
Cervancia J.M.,Narra Municipal Hall
Phytotaxa | Year: 2016
Two new species of Stigmatodactylus from Palawan Island in the Philippines are described and illustrated. The taxa, which represent the first records for the genus Stigmatodactylus in the Philippines, are restricted to the ultramafic peaks of central Palawan. Cryptostylis carinata, originally described from New Guinea, is also documented, representing a first record for this species in Palawan. © 2016 Magnolia Press.
General D.M.,Palawan State University |
Alpert G.D.,Harvard University
ZooKeys | Year: 2012
An overview of the history of myrmecology in the Philippine archipelago is presented. Keys are provided to the 11 ant subfamilies and the 92 ant genera known from the Philippines. Eleven ant genera (12%), including 3 undescribed genera, are recorded for the first time from the Philippines. The biology and ecology of the 92 genera, illustrated by full-face and profile photo-images, of Philippine ants are summarized in the form of brief generic accounts. A bibliography of significant taxonomic and behavioral papers on Philippine ants and a checklist of valid species and subspecies and their island distributions are provided. © D. M. General, G. D. Alpert.