Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENV.2008.4.1.3.1. | Award Amount: 7.87M | Year: 2009
The main objective of the EnerGEO project is to develop a strategy for a global assessment of the current and future impact of the exploitation of energy resources on the environment and ecosystems and to demonstrate this strategy for a variety of energy resources worldwide. The global observation strategy will be developed to appropriately assess the impacts of current and future transitions in energy-use on the environment by a combination of: models already available for the different sources of energ: TASES, REMIX and MESSAGE existing global datasets from which environmental indicators will be derived to quantify changes to freshwater systems, biosphere, ecosystems, atmosphere and oceans. existing and currently developed models capable of assessing and forecasting environmental impacts and costs of energy exploitation. By developing a distributed system based on the recommendations of the GEO-Architecture and Data Committee global collection and dissemination of data relating to the effect of energy use on the environment will be supported. By including members of the Energy-Community of Practice of GEO, sustained contribution of the GEO-tasks EN-07-02 and EN-07-3 will be realised. The project takes the testing and demonstration of the observing system and developed scenarios through the execution of dedicated pilots at heart. The pilots are focused on the most important issues relating to atmospheric composition and land degradation through the use of fossil fuels, future impacts of the use and production of biomass on land ecosystems and food security, sustainable integration of solar energy in current grids as well as its visual impact and relating to the impact of wind energy on marine ecosystems. Attention will be given to pollutants that are continuously cycling between the atmosphere and aquatic ecosystems. The results of the pilots feed into an integrated platform that will be run for known scenarios in order to assess energy strategies.
Muhammad W.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Omer M.,Georgia Institute of Technology
AIAA Infotech at Aerospace Conference and Exhibit 2012 | Year: 2012
Embedded systems used in avionics and spacecraft industry require high degree of confidence in functionality and performance. Traditional simulation based testing methods cannot guarantee the systems behavior under all circumstances. Formal verification is used to verify the functionality of critical embedded system. We present a verification technique based on static formal analysis of data paths in RTL and gate level designs in Verilog and VHDL (HDL descriptions). © 2012 by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved.
Farhan S.B.,CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research |
Farhan S.B.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences |
Farhan S.B.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Zhang Y.,CAS Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research |
And 6 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2015
In a changing climate, river basins with limited summer precipitation but abundant snow and glacier melt-water are affected severely by reductions and seasonal alterations in annual stream flows. However, high altitude glacio-hydrological observations and investigations to address the linkage between the timing of glacier changes and river runoff fluctuations remain ambiguous, particularly in the northwestern Himalayan region of Pakistan. In this context, the hydrological regime of the Astore Basin, a sub-catchment of the Upper Indus River Basin, was comprehensively investigated by employing in situ hydro-meteorological observations in combination with satellite remote sensing data. Two-thirds of the annual precipitation in the Astore Basin falls in winter and spring, mainly deposited by westerly winds, whereas summer and autumn precipitation deposited by the monsoon and local jet streams accounts for only one-third. Some 14 % of the basin area is covered by glaciers and, added to the accumulated seasonal snow deposited by westerly circulations, this can reach 80–85 % of the basin area. Therefore more than 75 % of the annual basin runoff depends on melt-water produced by the predominant seasonal snow and glacier ablation. The non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test was applied to the whole time-series of hydro-meteorological data. This indicated a lowering of annual and summer mean temperatures during the period 1980–1995 and slight warming during the 1996–2010 period. Similarly, annual, winter and summer precipitation, and annual mean discharge, increased from 1980 to 1995 but, in contrast, a slight decrease in annual and summer precipitation was observed during the 1996–2010 period; however, discharge evidence is slight making any increase in this period insignificant. In addition, the Spearman and Mann–Kendall correlation results depict annual stream flow fluctuations during the 1980–2010 decades in the Astore River that were predominantly influenced by precipitation variations, but not by any alteration in catchment temperatures, and so not governed by enhanced glacier ablation and retreat. The results of the analysis presented here were also substantiated by satellite remote sensing investigation, which points to evidence of stable conditions in the Astore Basin glaciers during this period. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Malik M.J.,University of Twente |
Malik M.J.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
van der Velde R.,University of Twente |
Vekerdy Z.,University of Twente |
Su Z.,University of Twente
Journal of Hydrometeorology | Year: 2012
This study assesses the impact of assimilating satellite-observed snow albedo on the Noah land surface model (LSM)-simulated fluxes and snow properties. A direct insertion technique is developed to assimilate snow albedo into Noah and is applied to three intensive study areas in North Park (Colorado) that are part of the 2002/03 Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX). The assimilated snow albedo products are 1) the standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) product (MOD10A1) and 2) retrievals from MODIS observations with the recently developed Pattern-Based Semiempirical (PASS) approach. The performance of the Noah simulations, with and without assimilation, is evaluated using the in situ measurements of snow albedo, upward shortwave radiation, and snow depth. The results show that simulations with albedo assimilation agree better with the measurements. However, because of the limited impact of snow albedo updates after subsequent snowfall, the mean (or seasonal) error statistics decrease significantly for only two of the three CLPX sites. Though the simulated snow depth and duration for the snow season benefit fromthe assimilation, the greatest improvements are found in the simulated upward shortwave radiation, with root mean squared errors reduced by about 30%. As such, this study demonstrates that assimilation of satellite-observed snow albedo can improve LSM simulations, which may positively affect the representation of hydrological and surface energy budget processes in runoff and numerical weather prediction models. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.
Talha M.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Murtaza G.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Ameen M.A.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
International Conference on Space Science and Communication, IconSpace | Year: 2015
Critical frequency of F2 layer acquired by three ionosonde stations, Karachi (KHI, 24.95°N, 67.13°E), Multan (MUL, 30.18°N, 71.48°E) & Islamabad (ISL, 33.75°N, 73.13°E), in Pakistan has been compared with foF2 obtained from global ionospheric model IRI-2012 and computed from regional ionospheric model using higher terms of Emperical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs) during summer (July). The data has been compared at different phases of solar epoches. The computational sets using higher number of terms of EOFs (L > 1) showed slight different deviations from observations with respect to the expansion of EOFs using least number of terms (L = 1). Both models revealed good to reasonable agreement with the observed values for Multan and Islamabad. However for Karachi, considerable deviations between the models and observations are noted at different solar epoches except deep solar minimum due to its location which lies within equatorial ionization anomaly region. In general, regional model gives better results compared to IRI for MUL and ISL whereas IRI worked better for Karachi. Thus further improvements in regional model are required to get promosing results especially for EIA region station. © 2015 IEEE.
Afzal M.I.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Majid A.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
International Conference on Space Science and Communication, IconSpace | Year: 2013
Future space exploration missions may include transportation of human to the Mars and other planets. Interplanetary explorations missions may involve entry and/or re-entry of a spacecraft into the atmosphere of a planet. An entry vehicle (spacecraft's module which enters the planetary atmosphere) approaching a planet enters the atmosphere at a speed of more than the first escape velocity of that planet. The amount of kinetic as well as the potential energy possessed by the entry vehicle moving at such a high velocity is considerably very large. As the entry vehicle penetrates into the planetary atmosphere, this energy is transformed into heat energy. Future human rated exploration missions having plans to encounter atmospheric entry, require proper entry strategy with sufficient touchdown accuracy and without compromising the vehicle structural integrity or endangering the crew. A concept of an entry strategy with controlled constant altitude phase is proposed here, which combines two different concepts of entry strategies, i.e. Direct Entry and Aero-Capture. The proposed method avoids the complexity of orbiting and de-orbiting the vehicle as in case of aero-capture and this method gives and advantage of lower deceleration and heat loads in comparison of direct entry. © 2013 IEEE.
Zahid S.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
14th International Conference on Space Operations, 2016 | Year: 2016
Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Comission (SUPARCO), the national space agency of Pakistan, is responsible for design and development of satellite, satellite applications to meet nationals need and carry out research in this highly sophisticated & technologically advanced domain of space science & Tecnology. SUPARCO has research and application centers in all major cities across country with its Headquaters in Karachi. SUPARCO has purpose built and highly specialized laboratories equipped with a state-of-art design, development, manufacturing and testing facilities to pioneer the development of satellite industry in the country. SUPARCO has launched various satellites. The Organization is currently working on the development of four LEO satellites envisaged to be launched within next two years. In parallel, SUPARCO is focused on the development of essential facilities and human resources required for undertaking projects related to space technology and applications. In this paper a brief account of the past and present space activities of SUPARCO would be presented. Furthermore details of the upcoming space project, possible outcomes and the impact on the social and economic development of the country would also be discussed. © 2016, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA. All rights reserved.
Ismatullah,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine | Year: 2016
High accuracy testing of spacecraft antennas is one of the primary tasks in the space industry. The gain transfer method is a widely used IEEE standard method for gain measurement. Standard gain horns (SGHs) are usually provided with theoretical gain curves such as from the U.S. Naval Research Lab (NRL) with a typical gain accuracy of 0.3 dB, which is the major contributor in the overall measurement uncertainty of a facility. However, modern spaceborne applications require gain accuracy of the order of 0.1 dB or better. For such demanding applications, SGHs need to be calibrated in a standard laboratory such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology. © 2016 IEEE.
Yousaf M.S.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Ahmad M.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
Proceedings of 2013 10th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences and Technology, IBCAST 2013 | Year: 2013
Oscillator is an integral and vital part of any RF/Microwave communication system. With an ever increasing demand of sophisticated applications in communication domain, the need for specialized oscillator circuits capable of providing very stable and low phase noise signal is widely established. Among the transistor based high frequency oscillators, dielectric resonator oscillators are in limelight due to their higher stability and superior phase noise performance. This paper describes the design and development of a mechanically tunable dielectric resonator oscillator operable with a single dc supply. An ultra-low noise pHEMT is used in the oscillator core and a dielectric resonator puck from a commercial satellite television LNBF is used as high-Q tuning element. © 2013 IEEE.
Zain R.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Ali M.A.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission |
Owais A.M.,Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics | Year: 2013
K-indices have been produced and analyzed using two computer based methods for 1-min geomagnetic data from Sonmiani Geomagnetic Observatory (SON), located at 25.203° in latitude and 66.75° in longitude, for the period 2009-2011. The two methods used are Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) method and adaptive smoothing (AS) method. Solar quiet daily variation (Sq) and solar regular variation (Sr) curves are produced using FMI method and their comparison is drawn. Various statistical analyses have been carried out by comparing the K-indices obtained through AS method with other geomagnetic observatories having similar time zone and geomagnetic latitude aiming to validate our results. Resulting K-indices obtained from AS method are in a good match with nearby observatories irrespective of the K derivation method used for each of the observatories compared. Further, we have compared the K-indices obtained through AS and FMI methods and found the FMI has a tendency to shift the results to somewhat higher K-values than the AS method. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.