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Islamabad, Pakistan

Tahira R.,University of Punjab | Ihsanullah,Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute | Ata-ur-Rehman,Pakistan Science Foundation | Saleem M.,University of Punjab
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015

Raya [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] germplasm included in the Brassica breeding program for the development of canola type verities was screened for quality traits. Significant differences were observed for quality characters among Raya germplasm. Oil contents ranged from 22.02 to 41.69%. Lowest total glucosinolate concentration (21.15 μmoles/g) was detected in J-90-43001, a line introduced from Canada. Palmitic and stearic acid ranged between 1.98-4.18 and 1.03-2.7%, respectively. All the accessions except J-90-43001 and RBJ-96026 contained oleic acid less than 20%. Higher levels of linoleic (23.12%) and linolenic acid (14.92%) were identified in the collected germplasm. Erucic acid contents ranged from 1.62 to 52.17%. Oleic acid showed high negative correlation with erucic acid and negative association with linolenic acid. Quality parameters including oil contents, oleic and linoleic acid could be used as selection criteria in Raya for the development of canola type varieties. Keeping in view strong direct effect of total glucosinolates and moderate direct effect of linolenic acid, these quality parameters could also serve for the selection of lines with low erucic acid in Brassica breeding programs. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers. Source


Maghsoudi K.,Shiraz University | Emam Y.,Shiraz University | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

To evaluate the response of some selected wheat cultivars to silicon application at different growth stages under drought stress, an experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran, during 2012 using a completely randomized factorial design with four replications. Experimental treatments included drought stress (100% F.C. as control and 40% F.C. as drought) and foliar application of 6 mM sodium silicate (control, application at mid tillering stage, at anthesis stage, and application at tillering + anthesis stages) and wheat cultivars (Sirvan and Chamran, relatively drought-tolerant, and Shiraz and Marvdasht, drought-sensitive cultivars). Drought stress significantly reduced chlorophyll content, leaf area, relative water content, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biomass of all wheat cultivars. Furthermore, drought stress increased electrolyte leakage of the flag leaves of all cultivars. In contrast, foliar-applied silicon significantly increased these parameters and reduced electrolyte leakage. Furthermore, highest positive influence of silicon application was observed at combined use of silicon both at the tillering + anthesis stages in wheat plants under both stress and non-stress conditions. Significant differences were found in physiological responses among wheat cultivars. The drought tolerant cultivars (Sirvan and Chamran) had significantly higher growth and yield than those of drought sensitive cvs. Shiraz and Marvdasht under drought stress. In conclusion, foliar application of silicon especially at the tillering + anthesis stages was very effective in promoting resistance in wheat plants to drought conditions by maintaining cellular membrane integrity and relative water content, and increasing chlorophyll content. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis. Source


Naz H.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Akram N.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation | Ashraf M.,King Saud University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2016

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a very popular vegetable, which is utilized all-over the world. In the current research, two cultivars of cucumber, Local and Hybrid were chosen to look at the effect of foliar-applied ascorbic acid on some key physio-biochemical attributes under varying water regimes. After one week of seed germination, the plants of both cucumber cultivars were subjected to 100% field capacity (control) and 60% field capacity (water deficit conditions. After one month of water stress treatment, ascorbic acid (AsA) at the rate of 0 (control), 50 and 100 mg L-1 was applied foliarly. After 15-day AsA application, the data were recorded which showed that drought stress significantly reduced the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, relative water contents (RWC), rate of photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and Ci/Ca, while drought caused an increase in relative membrane permeability (RMP), and proline and glycine betaine contents. AsA improved the shoot fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll a, RWC, Ci, Ci/Ca and proline contents. No change was observed in both cucumber cultivars under water-deficit and AsA treatments. Overall, growth improvement of cucumber plants under dry arid climate could be attributed to AsA-induced stimulation in the chlorophyll a, proline, RWC contents and Ci concentration. © 2016, Pakistan Botanical Society. All Rights reserved. Source


Akram N.A.,The University of Faisalabad | Waseem M.,The University of Faisalabad | Ameen R.,The University of Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation | Ashraf M.,King Saud University
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2016

Trehalose, a natural disaccharide, has already been under the attempt of improving stress tolerance in a variety of crop plants. Keeping in view its role in stress tolerance, the effectiveness of seed presoaking with trehalose (25 mM) was tested in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants grown under water stress and non-stress conditions. Two radish cultivars namely Manu and 40-day were grown under control (normal watering) and water-deficit (60 % field capacity) conditions. After 45 days of drought stress treatment, a significant suppression was observed in plant fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll (a and b), relative water content (RWC), rate of photosynthesis (Pn), sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci), and shoot and root K+, Ca2+ and P, while a rise in water-use efficiency (WUE), total soluble sugars (TSS) leaf free proline and glycinebetaine (GB) contents, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in both radish cultivars under water stress. However, trehalose application caused a significant increase in plant fresh and dry biomass, chlorophyll a content, TSS, Pn, WUE, free proline contents as well as the activity of SOD enzyme. Of both radish cultivars, cv. Manu was relatively better in chlorophyll b content, TSS and Ci, while cv. 40-day in shoot K+ and P contents. However, pattern of decrease or increase was same for all other tested attributes in both radish cultivars. Overall, seed pre-sowing treatment induced growth improvement of radish plants under water stress that was found to be associated with a significant increase in chlorophyll a content, Pn, WUE, TSS, free proline contents as well as the activity of SOD enzyme in both radish cultivars. © 2015, Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source


Latif M.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Akram N.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation | Ashraf M.,King Saud University
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) is widely used as a vegetable in many countries; however, productivity is adversely affected in areas affected by drought. To investigate the role of exogenously applied ascorbic acid (AsA) in mitigating the negative effects of drought on cauliflower, a pot experiment was performed using two cultivars of cauliflower ‘Local’ and ‘S-78’. Seeds of both cultivars were soaked in 75 mg l–1, or in 150 mg l–1 AsA, or in water (control) for 16 h. Water-deficit stress suppressed plant growth, reduced leaf chlorophyll concentrations, relative water contents (RWC), shoot and root P and K+ ion concentrations, and total soluble protein concentrations, significantly. However, significant drought-induced increases were observed in relative membrane permeability (RMP), the accumulation of total phenolic compounds, leaf free proline, glycinebetaine (GB), endogenous AsA, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations, and in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Seed treatment with 75 or 150 mg l–1 AsA resulted in lower accumulations of H2O2, while increasing shoot and root fresh weights and dry weights, RWC, total phenolic compound, free proline, GB, and endogenous AsA concentrations, and the activities of SOD and catalase (CAT). No changes were observed in leaf chlorophyll concentrations or in peroxidase (POD) activities, RMP, shoot and root P and K+ ion accumulation, or in total soluble protein concentrations under water stress or non-stress conditions following seed treatment with AsA. ‘Local’ had higher proline concentrations and SOD activities; however, ‘S-78’ had higher RWC values, GB, and AsA concentrations. Overall, a pre-sowing treatment of cauliflower seed with 75 or 150 mg l–1 AsA improved seedling tolerance to drought stress in both cultivars, which could be attributed to AsA-induced decreases in RMP and H2O2 concentrations, increases in the activities of CAT and SOD, increased RWC, and higher total phenolic compound, proline, GB, and AsA concentrations. The exogenous application of AsA therefore offers an effective strategy to minimise the adverse effects of drought stress on vegetable crops, including cauliflower. © 2016 The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology Trust. Source

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