Pakistan Science Foundation

Islamabad, Pakistan

Pakistan Science Foundation

Islamabad, Pakistan
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Khan Z.I.,University of Sargodha | Ahmad K.,University of Sargodha | Yasmeen S.,University of Sargodha | Akram N.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2017

Metal buildup was estimated in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), grown in central Punjab, Pakistan. This crop was irrigated with multiple water sources like ground, sewage and canal water. Concentrations of different metals like zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), molybdenum (Mo), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) were assessed in the potato crop irrigated with different types of waters. Sewage water treated crop and soil had higher metal concentrations than those treated with other two treatments. All metals had positive and significant correlation except for Mo which was non-significantly correlated between the vegetable and soil. Highest daily intake was observed for Fe (0.267), whereas the lowest was seen for Se (0.003). The enrichment factor and health index varied between 0.135-15.08 and 0.285–83.77, respectively. This study concludes that vegetables cultivated on soil treated with sewage water is a potent threat for human health as the metals manifest toxicity after entering the food chain. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Arzani A.,Isfahan University of Technology | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2017

A sustainable and wholesome food supply is the most important incentive that has led to an increasing interest in ancient wheats over the past few decades. Domestication of wheat, followed by breeding efforts, largely over the past 2 centuries, has resulted in yield increases but with grain quality deterioration due to the reduction of protein, vitamins, and minerals in grains. It has also resulted in a decrease in food diversity due to the loss of genetic variation in the cultivated wheat gene pool. Ancient hulled wheats, einkorn, emmer, and spelt are among the early cereals that were domesticated in their places of origin in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East where their wild predecessors still grow. The ancient wheats had a long history as part of human diet, and played an important role as a major source of food for the early civilizations in that region. The risks of genetic erosion of crop plants and the associated likely consequences for agriculture now call for revitalization of the unrealized potentials of ancestral species like einkorn, emmer, and spelt wheat, the domesticated ancestors of modern durum and bread wheats. These ancestors need to be exploited to maximize the sustainable supply of grain protein, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. In addition, ancient wheat biodiversity can be utilized to ensure sustainable wheat production in the context of climate change and low-input organic farming systems. This review provides a holistic synthesis of the information on ancient wheats to facilitate a greater exploitation of their potential benefits. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®


Akram N.A.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Shafiq F.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation | Ashraf M.,King Saud University
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants under stress conditions is a common phenomenon. Plants tend to counter this problem through their ability to synthesize ROS neutralizing substances including non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. In this context, ascorbic acid (AsA) is one of the universal non-enzymatic antioxidants having substantial potential of not only scavenging ROS, but also modulating a number of fundamental functions in plants both under stress and non-stress conditions. In the present review, the role of AsA, its biosynthesis, and cross-talk with different hormones have been discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, the possible involvement of AsA-hormone crosstalk in the regulation of several key physiological and biochemical processes like seed germination, photosynthesis, floral induction, fruit expansion, ROS regulation and senescence has also been described. A simplified and schematic AsA biosynthetic pathway has been drawn, which reflects key intermediates involved therein. This could pave the way for future research to elucidate the modulation of plant AsA biosynthesis and subsequent responses to environmental stresses. Apart from discussing the role of different ascorbate peroxidase isoforms, the comparative role of two key enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and ascorbate oxidase (AO) involved in AsA metabolism in plant cell apoplast is also discussed particularly focusing on oxidative stress perception and amplification. Limited progress has been made so far in terms of developing transgenics which could over-produce AsA. The prospects of generation of transgenics overexpressing AsA related genes and exogenous application of AsA have been discussed at length in the review. © 2017 Akram, Shafiq and Ashraf.


Sadiq M.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Aisha Akram N.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation | Ashraf M.,King Saud University
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

Alpha-tocopherol (α-Toc), so-called vitamin E, is a low molecular weight lipophilic antioxidant that generally protects plants from stress-induced cellular oxidation. It is well known that exogenously applied α-Toc is effective in improving plant growth and developmental processes under adverse environmental conditions. The current study was performed to determine the best concentration of α-Toc [0 (no spray), 100, 200, and 300 mg L–1] that could improve the biological yield and chemical constituents of fresh green pods of mung bean (Vigna radiata) and hence their quality under varying water regimes. Foliar spray of α-Toc significantly improved total soluble proteins, chlorophyll a and b, total soluble sugars, proline, phenolics, total free amino acids, nonreducing sugars, and activities of SOD, POD, and CAT under water stress conditions. However, no prominent change was observed in reducing sugars and biological yield due to externally applied α-Toc in either mung bean cultivar subjected to either water regime. Both mung bean cultivars (Cyclone 7008 and Cyclone 8009) showed similar behavior in chlorophyll a and b, while cv. Cyclone 7008 was superior with respect to the concentrations of total soluble sugars and total free amino acids, whereas Cyclone 8009 was better in activities of CAT, SOD, and POD. Overall, externally applied 200 and 300 mg L–1 α-Toc considerably enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT), chlorophyll a and b, proline, and total phenolic contents in both mung bean cultivars. © TÜBİTAK.


Wakil W.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Riasat T.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ghazanfar M.U.,University of Sargodha | Kwon Y.J.,Kyungpook National University | Shaheen F.A.,Pakistan Science Foundation
Entomological Research | Year: 2011

A diatomaceous earth formulation enhanced with bitterbarkomycin (DEBBM) combined with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin was evaluated against lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) under laboratory conditions. DEBBM was applied at the rates of 15 and 30ppm alone as well as in combination with 6.69 × 10 6, 6.69 × 10 8 and 6.69 × 10 10conidia/kg of wheat. Mortality of treated adults was recorded after 5, 10 and 15 days of exposure. Bioassays were carried out at 20, 25 and 30°C with 55 and 75% relative humidity. The emergence of progeny was also assessed 60 days post exposure. The combined use of DEBBM and B. bassiana considerably increased adult mortality especially at increasing temperatures and longer exposure intervals compared with DEBBM and B. bassiana alone. Progeny production was less in wheat treated with high dose rates of DEBBM +B. bassiana. The per cent mycosis in the cadavers was maximum where B. bassiana was applied at low dose rates. The results of the present study indicated that a combination of DEBBM and B. bassiana may provide effective control of R. dominica. © 2011 The Authors. Entomological Research © 2011 The Entomological Society of Korea and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


PubMed | University of Punjab, Government of Pakistan, CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, National Veterinary Laboratory and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Environmental toxicology and chemistry | Year: 2016

The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of organochlorine-pesticides (OCPs) from human milk (n=45) and blood serum (n=40) of female workers who pick cotton in Khanewal District, southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener-specific analysis, and risk surveillance of OCPs are reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 ppb to 538.3ppb and from 16.4ppb to 747.1ppb, respectively, and were lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe. Congener-specific analysis revealed that DDTs were predominant, followed by hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated results for source apportionment analysis suggested that contamination load was a new input of DDTs as well as the historic use of lindane in the study area. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum were significantly (p<0.05) correlated with age, time period of picking cotton, and number of children. Health risk revealed that female workers had risk of cancer among 1 per million; however, noncarcinogenic risks were not considerable. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-9. 2016 SETAC.


Maghsoudi K.,Shiraz University | Emam Y.,Shiraz University | Ashraf M.,Pakistan Science Foundation
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2016

To evaluate the response of some selected wheat cultivars to silicon application at different growth stages under drought stress, an experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran, during 2012 using a completely randomized factorial design with four replications. Experimental treatments included drought stress (100% F.C. as control and 40% F.C. as drought) and foliar application of 6 mM sodium silicate (control, application at mid tillering stage, at anthesis stage, and application at tillering + anthesis stages) and wheat cultivars (Sirvan and Chamran, relatively drought-tolerant, and Shiraz and Marvdasht, drought-sensitive cultivars). Drought stress significantly reduced chlorophyll content, leaf area, relative water content, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and biomass of all wheat cultivars. Furthermore, drought stress increased electrolyte leakage of the flag leaves of all cultivars. In contrast, foliar-applied silicon significantly increased these parameters and reduced electrolyte leakage. Furthermore, highest positive influence of silicon application was observed at combined use of silicon both at the tillering + anthesis stages in wheat plants under both stress and non-stress conditions. Significant differences were found in physiological responses among wheat cultivars. The drought tolerant cultivars (Sirvan and Chamran) had significantly higher growth and yield than those of drought sensitive cvs. Shiraz and Marvdasht under drought stress. In conclusion, foliar application of silicon especially at the tillering + anthesis stages was very effective in promoting resistance in wheat plants to drought conditions by maintaining cellular membrane integrity and relative water content, and increasing chlorophyll content. © 2016, © Taylor & Francis.


Nafees M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Ahmad S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Anwar R.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ahmad I.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013

Poor plant health condition due to various known biotic and abiotic stresses; becoming a disaster in each mango growing country of the world including Pakistan. On the basis of previous researches on the identification of pathogen and several abiotic factors; Soil drenching and foliar spray of various concentrations of Topsin M (TMIC), Aliette (ATP) and Ridomil Gold (ACE) in combination with CuSO4 (Copper sulphate) was done on mango plants of cv. S.B. (Samar Bahist) Chaunsa showing wilting of leaves and shoots. Foliar application of micro-nutrients (Fe, B and Zn) (Iron, Boron and Zinc) was also practiced to improve general health of experimental plants Month-wise emergence of flushes was significantly higher in all treated plants compared with control. Percentage of wilted leaves and root rot in plants, which received drenching and foliar treatments, was significantly reduced (≥50%) compared with untreated plants. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P and K) levels in leaves were significantly improved in treated plants compared with control. Sigmoid relationship was observed between fungicides and copper sulphate concentrations and uptake of N, P and K in treated plants. Application of 250g ATP fungicide by foliar spray plus 125g by soil drench, each along with 50g CuSO4 proved to be the best against leaf wilting and it improved the N and P level in leaves. While, application of 250g TMIC by foliar spray and 125g by soil drench, each with 50g CuSO4, was found to be the best to reduce the spread of root rot in experimental plants. Preliminary spray of TMIC along with Copper sulphate is effective to improve plant health of mango cv. S.B. Chounsa.


PubMed | Pakistan Science Foundation and Government College University at Faisalabad
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Hydroponic experiment was conducted to appraise variation in the salt tolerance potential of two wheat cultivars (salt tolerant, S-24, and moderately salt sensitive, MH-97) at different growth stages. These two wheat cultivars are not genetically related as evident from randomized polymorphic DNA analysis (random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)) which revealed 28% genetic diversity. Salinity stress caused a marked reduction in grain yield of both wheat cultivars. However, cv. S-24 was superior to cv. MH-97 in maintaining grain yield under saline stress. Furthermore, salinity caused a significant variation in different physiological attributes measured at different growth stages. Salt stress caused considerable reduction in different water relation attributes of wheat plants. A significant reduction in leaf water, osmotic, and turgor potentials was recorded in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Maximal reduction in leaf water potential was recorded at the reproductive stage in both wheat cultivars. In contrast, maximal turgor potential was observed at the boot stage. Salt-induced adverse effects of salinity on different water relation attributes were more prominent in cv. MH-97 as compared to those in cv. S-24. Salt stress caused a substantial decrease in glycine betaine and alpha tocopherols. These biochemical attributes exhibited significant salt-induced variation at different growth stages in both wheat cultivars. For example, maximal accumulation of glycine betaine was evident at the early growth stages (vegetative and boot). However, cv. S-24 showed higher accumulation of this organic osmolyte, and this could be the reason for maintenance of higher turgor than that of cv. MH-97 under stress conditions. Salt stress significantly increased the endogenous levels of toxic ions (Na(+) and Cl(-)) and decreased essential cations (K(+) and Ca(2+)) in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages. Furthermore, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios decreased markedly due to salt stress in both wheat cultivars at different growth stages, and this salt-induced reduction was more prominent in cv. MH-97. Moreover, higher K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios were recorded at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars. It can be inferred from the results that wheat plants are more prone to adverse effects of salinity stress at early growth stages than that at the reproductive stage.


Lal Shah S.,Pakistan Science Foundation
Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences | Year: 2010

Tench, Tinca tinca, were exposed to three treatments (one acute lethal; 96 hrs Lc 50/48 hrs and two chronic sublethal10 and 25% Lc 50/504 hrs) each of Mercury, Cadmium and Lead and its behaviour as an indicator of impaired hematology was studied. It was observed that impairments in hematological parameters (increased/decreased Hct, Hb, RBC, WBC and Lct) were reflected in behaviour of fish in the form of hyperactivity, increased breathing, accelerated ventilation with rapid arrhythmic opercular and mouth movement, frequent surfacing and sinking, erratic swimming, gradual onset of inactivity, lethargy, loss of equilibrium, revolving and convulsion on exposure to heavy metal treatments. It was concluded that possibly four physiological systems; (i) faulty gaseous exchange at gills, (ii) stress mediated hormonal imbalance, (iii) impaired osmoregulation and (iv) disturbed metabolism were involved in hematological impairments and their reflection in the behaviour of fish.

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