Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Chak Azam Saffo, Pakistan

The Pakistan Institute of Development Economics , is a post-graduate research institute, and a public policy think tank located in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan.Founded in 1957 by the Government of Pakistan, it is located in the university area of Quaid-e-Azam University but it has its own board of oversees. In 1964, it gained its influence on government and gained autonomous status the same year.Since its establishment, the PIDE is an influential voice in the formation of Pakistan's public policy concerning diverse issues. The institute has a long been a place of scholarship of high-profile and prominent individuals who previously held positions in government, including Benazir Bhutto, Mahbub-ul-Haq, Robert Mundell, Fazal-ur-Rahman, and Shahid Allam— all PIDE fellows.Since the 1990s, its research is devoted to theoretical and empirical research in Development economics in general and on Pakistan-related economic issues in particular. In addition, the PIDE also grants post-graduate and doctoral studies programmes in various disciplines of social science since 2006. Wikipedia.

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Memon J.A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics | Thapa G.B.,Asian Institute of Technology
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2016

Public property common pool resources in many developing countries are often portrayed as being in a dismal state, allegedly due to their governments’ inability to manage them sustainably. While this explanation may have some merit, it is certainly inadequate. Instead, we argue that public property commons degrade partially because governments, in their attempt to obtain an overall societal balance, sometime accord low priority to some resources and bestow their ownership to an agency that may lack the appropriate mandate. While for many governments, this tendency is deliberate, it results in a de jure public property commonly exhibiting de facto open-access status and creates a situation where anybody may benefit but nobody feels responsible for the conservation and management of such resources. Based on the policy and institutional analyses of mangrove management in the Indus Delta of Pakistan, we propose such a case for theoretical debate on the issue. We conclude that instead of packaging and allocating rights to a single entity, rights in complex CPRs may be defined and allocated separately to different entities to produce socially desired goods and services. No matter how complex it seems, such an arrangement is necessary to deal with the complexity inherent in various socio-ecological systems like mangroves. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Kumar Tiwari A.,ICFAI University, Tripura | Nasir M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This paper explores the effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environmental performance using time series data over the period 1965-2008 in case of South Africa. The ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration has been used to test the long run relationship among the variables while short run dynamics have been investigated by applying error correction method (ECM). The unit root properties of the variables are examined by applying Saikkonen and Lütkepohl (2002. Econometric Theory 18, 313-348) structural break unit root test. Our findings confirmed long run relationship among the variables. Results showed that a rise in economic growth increases energy emissions, while financial development reduces it. Coal consumption has significant contribution to deteriorate environment in South African economy. Trade openness improves environmental quality by reducing the growth of energy pollutants. Our empirical results also verified the existence of environmental Kuznets curve. This paper opens up new insights for South African economy to sustain economic growth by controlling environment from degrdation through efficient use of energy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Nasir M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics | Ur Rehman F.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This study investigates the relationship between carbon emissions, income, energy consumption, and foreign trade in Pakistan for the period 1972-2008. By employing the Johansen method of cointegration, the study finds that there is a quadratic long-run relationship between carbon emissions and income, confirming the existence of Environmental Kuznets Curve for Pakistan. Moreover, both energy consumption and foreign trade are found to have positive effects on emissions. The short-run results have, however, denied the existence of the Environmental Kuznets Curve. The short-run results are unique to the existing literature in the sense that none of the long-run determinants of emissions is significant. The contradictory results of short- and long-run give policy makers the opportunity to formulate different types of growth policies for the two terms taking environmental issues into consideration. In addition, the uni-directional causality from growth to energy consumption suggests that the policy makers should not only focus on forecasting future demand for energy with different growth scenarios but also on obtaining the least cost energy. Furthermore, the absence of causality from emissions to growth suggests that Pakistan can curb its carbon emissions without disturbing its economic growth. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ahmed K.,Sukkur Institute of Business Administration | Qazi A.Q.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

Purpose: The paper aims to fill the gap on energy and growth literature for Mongolia. The high growth rate over last decade has substantially increased the energy demand and as a result has increased the carbon-dioxide (CO2) emission. This observed emission trend has possible negative implications over environmental quality of the country. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the relationship between CO2 emission and four major explanatory variables (economic growth, energy consumption (EC) and trade openness) in Mongolia. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and employs Johansen method of cointegration and granger causality test for empirical investigation. In the end, the stability of model is also checked. Findings: The results confirm the existence of EKC hypothesis among the variables both in long-run and short-run except trade openness, which surprisingly found insignificant. This means increased EC due to growth in economy is imparting environmental degradation but positive sign for trade in long-run shows that country is not adequately open to trade. The model found stable and unidirectional causality is detected from growth to carbon emission. Practical implications: In the light of empirical results, this paper provides basic policy structure in order to keep both growth and environmental quality intact. The findings further imply that drastic measures are to be taken for country's trade liberalization. In nutshell, this research extends pragmatic policy tools for environmental degradation and growth nexus to assist government in the nick of time. Originality/value: This study is first of its kind for country Mongolia and it applies causality test besides model stability test, which does not only authenticate the results but also provide unique way to conduct similar future research. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Hussain A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics | Rahman M.,University of Peshawar | Memon J.A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

Growing shortfall of electricity in Pakistan affects almost all sectors of its economy. For proper policy formulation, it is imperative to have reliable forecasts of electricity consumption. This paper applies Holt-Winter and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models on time series secondary data from 1980 to 2011 to forecast total and component wise electricity consumption in Pakistan. Results reveal that Holt-Winter is the appropriate model for forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan. It also suggests that electricity consumption would continue to increase throughout the projected period and widen the consumption-production gap in case of failure to respond the issue appropriately. It further reveals that demand would be highest in the household sector as compared to all other sectors and the increase in the energy generation would be less than the increase in total electricity consumption throughout the projected period. The study discuss various options to reduce the demand-supply gap and provide reliable electricity to different sectors of the economy. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Alkhathlan K.,King Saud University | Javid M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

This study attempts to analyze the effect of total oil consumption and oil consumption in the transport2 sector on the environmental quality of Saudi Arabia over the period from 1971 to 2013. A structural time series technique is used in this study to expose the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) for the total carbon emissions and carbon emissions from the domestic transport sector. The results reveal that the trend is nonlinear and stochastic both for carbon emissions and for carbon emissions from the transport sector. In both models, the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to income and the square of income are positive and significant, which implies that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between carbon emissions and income in Saudi Arabia. The results further reveal that the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to total oil consumption and transport oil consumption are positive and significant. The empirical findings of this study demonstrate that a growth in real income forces CO2 emissions to grow, whereas the reverse is not true for both models. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Malik A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy | Year: 2016

Oil prices have fluctuated enormously in recent years. Strong volatility in oil prices has serious implications for Pakistan’s economy given its substantial dependence on imported fuels. Energy prices have a crucial role behind inflation rates in Pakistan and it is proved in this study. We estimate the effects of oil price changes on inflation for Pakistan using an augmented Phillips curve framework. Our results suggest a strong oil price-inflation relationship, especially when oil prices are rising continuously over the past 1 year. © 2016, Econjournals. All rights reserved.

Naeem S.,State Bank of Pakistan | Zaman A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Voluntas | Year: 2016

Our intent in this paper was to provide experimental evidence for the Gift Exchange Mechanism in the context of charitable donations in Pakistan. We chose a simple and elegant experiment of Falk as the basis for our experiment. Due to institutional differences, we replaced his postal campaign for charitable donations by a door-to-door campaign. The additional opportunity for social interaction, and cultural differences, led to substantial and unexpected variation in the results. Most importantly, in direct contrast to results of Falk, both frequency and average size of donations declined with increasing gift size. Thus the GEM failed to operate in this experiment. We provide some potential explanations for this surprising result. Our experiment also provides some information on gender and income effects on charitable donations, which vary from main findings in the literature. In particular, we find that females contribute more in frequency and size, and that the share of giving declines with income. © 2015, International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.

Javid M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics | Sharif F.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

In this study, we analyzed the effects of financial development, per capita real income, the square of per capita real income, per capita energy consumption and openness on per capita CO2 emissions for Pakistan during 1972-2013. The bound F-test for cointegration yielded evidence of a long-term relationship among these variables. The results confirm the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve in Pakistan for both the short and long term. This finding indicates that at the initial stage of development, the level of CO2 increases with income, and after some threshold level of income, this relationship may change from positive to negative as more efficient infrastructure and energy-efficient technology are implemented during the development process of the country. The findings of this study also reveal a significantly positive sign for the coefficient of financial development, suggesting that financial development has occurred at the expense of environmental quality. The results further indicate that the key contributing factors to carbon emissions in Pakistan are income, energy consumption and financial development. In addition, the openness variable has no significant influence on carbon emission in either the short or long term. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Javid M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics | Qayyum A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Energy | Year: 2014

This study investigates the relationships among electricity consumption, real economic activity, real price of electricity and the UEDT (underlying energy demand trend) at the aggregate and sectoral levels, namely, for the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. To achieve this goal, an electricity demand function for Pakistan is estimated by applying the structural time series technique to annual data for the period from 1972 to 2012. In addition to identifying the size and significance of the price and income elasticities, this technique also uncovers UEDT for the whole economy as well as for sub-sectors. The results suggest that the nature of the trend is not linear and deterministic but stochastic in form. The UEDT for the electricity usage of the commercial, agricultural and residential sectors shows an upward slope. This upward slope of the UEDT suggests that either energy efficient equipment has not been introduced in these sectors or any energy efficiency improvements due to technical progress is outweighed by other exogenous factors. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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