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Chak Azam Saffo, Pakistan

The Pakistan Institute of Development Economics , is a post-graduate research institute, and a public policy think tank located in the vicinity of Islamabad, Pakistan.Founded in 1957 by the Government of Pakistan, it is located in the university area of Quaid-e-Azam University but it has its own board of oversees. In 1964, it gained its influence on government and gained autonomous status the same year.Since its establishment, the PIDE is an influential voice in the formation of Pakistan's public policy concerning diverse issues. The institute has a long been a place of scholarship of high-profile and prominent individuals who previously held positions in government, including Benazir Bhutto, Mahbub-ul-Haq, Robert Mundell, Fazal-ur-Rahman, and Shahid Allam— all PIDE fellows.Since the 1990s, its research is devoted to theoretical and empirical research in Development economics in general and on Pakistan-related economic issues in particular. In addition, the PIDE also grants post-graduate and doctoral studies programmes in various disciplines of social science since 2006. Wikipedia.

Naeem S.,State Bank of Pakistan | Zaman A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Voluntas | Year: 2016

Our intent in this paper was to provide experimental evidence for the Gift Exchange Mechanism in the context of charitable donations in Pakistan. We chose a simple and elegant experiment of Falk as the basis for our experiment. Due to institutional differences, we replaced his postal campaign for charitable donations by a door-to-door campaign. The additional opportunity for social interaction, and cultural differences, led to substantial and unexpected variation in the results. Most importantly, in direct contrast to results of Falk, both frequency and average size of donations declined with increasing gift size. Thus the GEM failed to operate in this experiment. We provide some potential explanations for this surprising result. Our experiment also provides some information on gender and income effects on charitable donations, which vary from main findings in the literature. In particular, we find that females contribute more in frequency and size, and that the share of giving declines with income. © 2015, International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University. Source

Alkhathlan K.,King Saud University | Javid M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

This study attempts to analyze the effect of total oil consumption and oil consumption in the transport2 sector on the environmental quality of Saudi Arabia over the period from 1971 to 2013. A structural time series technique is used in this study to expose the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) for the total carbon emissions and carbon emissions from the domestic transport sector. The results reveal that the trend is nonlinear and stochastic both for carbon emissions and for carbon emissions from the transport sector. In both models, the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to income and the square of income are positive and significant, which implies that there is a monotonically increasing relationship between carbon emissions and income in Saudi Arabia. The results further reveal that the elasticity of carbon emissions with respect to total oil consumption and transport oil consumption are positive and significant. The empirical findings of this study demonstrate that a growth in real income forces CO2 emissions to grow, whereas the reverse is not true for both models. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Ahmed K.,Sukkur Institute of Business Administration | Qazi A.Q.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Management of Environmental Quality | Year: 2014

Purpose: The paper aims to fill the gap on energy and growth literature for Mongolia. The high growth rate over last decade has substantially increased the energy demand and as a result has increased the carbon-dioxide (CO2) emission. This observed emission trend has possible negative implications over environmental quality of the country. Therefore, this paper empirically examines the relationship between CO2 emission and four major explanatory variables (economic growth, energy consumption (EC) and trade openness) in Mongolia. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis and employs Johansen method of cointegration and granger causality test for empirical investigation. In the end, the stability of model is also checked. Findings: The results confirm the existence of EKC hypothesis among the variables both in long-run and short-run except trade openness, which surprisingly found insignificant. This means increased EC due to growth in economy is imparting environmental degradation but positive sign for trade in long-run shows that country is not adequately open to trade. The model found stable and unidirectional causality is detected from growth to carbon emission. Practical implications: In the light of empirical results, this paper provides basic policy structure in order to keep both growth and environmental quality intact. The findings further imply that drastic measures are to be taken for country's trade liberalization. In nutshell, this research extends pragmatic policy tools for environmental degradation and growth nexus to assist government in the nick of time. Originality/value: This study is first of its kind for country Mongolia and it applies causality test besides model stability test, which does not only authenticate the results but also provide unique way to conduct similar future research. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

Khan M.A.,Government Post graduate College Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir | Ahmed A.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Pakistan Development Review | Year: 2011

This study examines the transmission channels through which the global food and oil price shocks affects selected macroeconomic variables including inflation rate, output, money balances, interest rate and real effective exchange rate for Pakistan using monthly data over the period 1990M1-2011M7. An empirical analysis is carried out by employing structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) framework. Generalised Impulse Response Functions and Generalised Forecast Variance Decompositions are employed to track the impact of oil and food price shocks to Pakistan's economy. Results suggest that oil price shock affects industrial production, appreciates real effective exchange rate negatively and affect inflation and interest rate positively. Whereas, following food price shocks, industrial output increases. Similarly, interest rate and inflation rate responds positively following food price shocks. However, the variation in interest rate due to food price shock is relatively larger than that of oil price shocks. Generalised impulse response functions reveal that real effective exchange rate is most important source of disturbances following either oil price or food price shocks. Generalised forecast variance decompositions analysis also supports the findings based on generalised impulse response functions. The result clearly reveals that oil and food price shocks significantly affect output, short-term interest rate, inflation rate and real effective exchange rate. However, among all, real effective exchange rate has seen a dominant source of variations in Pakistan. This implies that supply-side and demand-side disturbances originated by external shocks are the major sources of inflation (stagflation) in Pakistan. © The Pakistan Development Review. Source

Shahbaz M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Kumar Tiwari A.,ICFAI University, Tripura | Nasir M.,Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

This paper explores the effects of financial development, economic growth, coal consumption and trade openness on environmental performance using time series data over the period 1965-2008 in case of South Africa. The ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration has been used to test the long run relationship among the variables while short run dynamics have been investigated by applying error correction method (ECM). The unit root properties of the variables are examined by applying Saikkonen and Lütkepohl (2002. Econometric Theory 18, 313-348) structural break unit root test. Our findings confirmed long run relationship among the variables. Results showed that a rise in economic growth increases energy emissions, while financial development reduces it. Coal consumption has significant contribution to deteriorate environment in South African economy. Trade openness improves environmental quality by reducing the growth of energy pollutants. Our empirical results also verified the existence of environmental Kuznets curve. This paper opens up new insights for South African economy to sustain economic growth by controlling environment from degrdation through efficient use of energy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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