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Fazal H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR | Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Khan M.A.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

The active parts of 11 medicinal plants were analyzed for physico-chemical evaluation, phytochemical determinationand antioxidant activity. The physico-chemical evaluation revealed that highest water soluble extractive was from Origanumvulgare (38%), highest chloroform extractive was from Psoralea corylifolia (21%); highest ethanolic extractive was that ofAcorus calamus (11%) and the highest hexane extractive value was for Arnebia nobilis (9.8%). The total ash contentevaluation indicated that Achillea millefolium yielded (20.2%) and Rauvolfia serpentina yielded (41.6%); these values aremuch higher than the standard ash values for these plants indicating that these drugs are highly adulterated and substandard.The highest essential oil was yielded by Acorus calamus (3.2%). The highest saponin percentage was analyzed in Acoruscalamus (8.9%), while the alkaloids percentage was determined at 21% in Peganum harmala. Among all the plants assessedfor DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the maximum activity was shown by Paeonia emodi (85.8%), followed byAchillea millefolium (81.7%) and Origanum vulgare (80.3%). Source


Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR | Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Haider Abbasi B.,Quaid-i-Azam University
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2013

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. © 2013 Hina Fazal et al. Source


Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ahmad N.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA | Fazal H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2012

Mentha species are used in every day life in various food items. These species produce valuable secondary metabolites that scavenge toxic free radicals. Toxic free radicals can cause different diseases in the human body. In the present study free radical scavenging potential (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity) in nine Mentha species were investigated to evaluate and explore new potential sources for natural antioxidants. The activity was performed after different time intervals with incubation period of 30 minutes. The methanolic extracts revealed that significantly higher activity (82%) was observed in Mentha suaveolens, followed by Mentha longifolia (79%), Mentha officinalis (76%) and Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha royleana (75%), respectively. Significantly same activity was observed in Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata. Lower activity was observed in Mentha citrata (64%). The present study revealed that these species can be used as natural antioxidants. © 2012 The Author(s). Source


Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ahmad N.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA | Fazal H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate in vitro larvicidal and antioxidant enzymes potential of the medicinal plants Ginkgo biloba (G. biloba), Stevia rebaudiana (S. rebaudiana) and Parthenium hysterophorous (P. hysterophorous) against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) 4th instars larvae. Methods: For evaluation of larvicidal potential, the ethanolic, methanolic and dichloromethane leaves extracts of three different plants were used in dose-dependent experiments in two media, while the antioxidant enzymes activities were investigated using four different methods viz., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate and catalase. Results: An. stephensi has developed resistance to various synthetic insecticides, making its control increasingly difficult. The comparative performance of ethanolic extracts (65%-90%) was found better than the methanolic extract (70%-87%) and dichloromethane extract (60%-70%). Among the three plants extracts tested in two media, S. rebaudiana exhibited higher larvicidal activity with LC 50 (24 h) in methanolic extract than P. hysterophorous and G. biloba. G. biloba and P. hysterophorous exhibited the strongest antioxidative enzymes activity and S. rebaudiana were less active and no significant difference was observed. Conclusions: These three plants exhibit larvicidal potential and can be further used for vector control alternative to synthetic insecticide due to eco-friendly and diseases control, furthermore these plant species have potent antioxidative enzyme activities, therefore, making them strong natural candidate particularly for diseases which are caused due to free radicals. © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Source


Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR | Abbasi B.H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ali M.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Forest Systems | Year: 2013

Aim of study: The main objective of this study is to introduce a reliable system for in vitro seed germination. Cedrus deodara stands are gradually decreasing in different regions of the world due to overexploitation, natural disasters and lower seed viability. Area of study: Swat is situated at the northwestern corner of Pakistan; with total area of 5,337 square km. Total cultivated land is 95281 hectares in 2007, while the area under forest cover is 135,427 hectares. Material and methods: We used MS-medium with or without PGRs for overall in vitro seed germination. To enhance germination frequency, we applied different photoperiods (16hrs-Dark/8hrs-Light and 16hrs-Light/8hrs-Dark) and sterilization reagents (mercuric chloride and ethanol). Synthetic free radical of DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) was used for the determination of antioxidant activity Main results: Maximum shoot length (3.6 cm) and root length (2.6 cm) were recorded on MS-medium augmented with BA (1.0 mg L-1) and GA3 (0.5 mg L--1) under light incubation (16 hrs-Light/8hrs-Dark) after 2-3 weeks of inoculation. Without PGRs, maximum root length (4.0 cm, with shoots of 3.2 cm) was observed in dark incubation (16 hrs-Dark/8 hrs-Light), whereas light incubation produced maximum shoot length (3.5 cm) and minimum root length (1.5 cm). Lower concentration of HgCl2 (0.1%) showed a lower inhibitory effect on shoot and root length (2.4 cm and 2.5 cm) as compared to higher concentrations. The antioxidant potential was also investigated in different Cedrus organs and tissues. Research highlights: The results suggested that this simple protocol is useful for Cedrus deodara conservation and plantlets production for commercial purposes. Source

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