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Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ahmad N.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR Laboratories Complex | Zamir R.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Sugar Tech | Year: 2011

The callogenic and shoot organogenic potential of the medicinaly important plant, S. rebaudiana were investigated. Callus induction and shoot regeneration were induced from flower explants of greenhouse plants incubated on Murashige and Skoog (MS)-medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators (PGRs). The best callogenic response was observed on explants incubated on MS-medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after 30-days of culture. Subsequent transfer of callogenic explants onto MS-medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BA gave 85.2% shoot organogenesis after 30-days following culture. Maximum number (21.6) of shoots/explant was recorded for 2.0 mg/l BA. Subsequent sub culturing of shoots after 3 weeks of culture, on medium with similar compositions of PGRs gave 5.1 cm longest shoot. The palynology of S. rebaudiana has also been investigated. © 2011 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Iqbal M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Iqbal M.,University of Peshawar | Bhatti I.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Zia-Ur-Rehman M.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR Laboratories Complex | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

The possibility of applying photo-catalytic treatment (UV/H 2O2/TiO2) to reduce the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity as well as the microbial load of soap and detergent wastewater has been investigated. Wastewater from three soap and detergent industries were collected from Faisalabad, Gujranwala and Sargodha regions of Pakistan. Bioassays such as allium cepa, haemolytic and brine shrimp were utilized to assess the cytotoxicity, while mutagenicity was evaluated through Ames test. The microbial load; bacterial count and total coliform tests were performed under standardized conditions. Along with toxicity appraisal, the water quality parameter such as BOD, COD, DO, pH, TDS and TSS were also measured before and after application of UV/H2O2/TiO2 treatment. A considerable reduction in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity was achieved with the maximum degradation of pollutants. With the application of advanced oxidation treatment complete removal of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity was obtained and results indicate that the advanced oxidation process can be successfully used for toxicity removal, for the improvement of water quality parameters and hence the treated wastewater could possibly be used for irrigation purposes.

Abbasi B.H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR Laboratories Complex | Mahmood T.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2010

Piper nigrum, commonly known as "Black-pepper", has gained a global consideration because of its volume in the spice industry. This plant has shown great potential for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds and need for techniques to enhance the production of high quality consistent plant material for feasible accumulation of metabolites. Tissue culture of P. nigrum can play a vital role in germplasm conservation, enhanced multiplication and genetic engineering for feasible production of biologically active compounds. Liquid culture is yet to be established and reserves corner for industrial production of these active components. This review provides the developments in the propagation practices and challenges that remain in P. nigrum biotechnology. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Ahmad N.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Ahmad N.,Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture NIFA Tarnab | Fazal H.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Fazal H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR Laboratories Complex | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2011

The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176 × 103/μL, 8.10 × 103/μL, 84.0% to 55 × 103/μL, 3.7 × 103/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55 × 103/μL to 168 × 103/μL, WBC from 3.7 × 103/μL to 7.7 × 103/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.

Imran M.,University of Peshawar | Khan H.,University of Peshawar | Shah M.,University of Peshawar | Khan R.,University of Peshawar | Khan F.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research PCSIR Laboratories Complex
Journal of Zhejiang University: Science B | Year: 2010

In the present work, the fruits of four Morus species, namely Morus alba (white mulberry), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Morus laevigata (large white fruit), and Morus laevigata (large black fruit), were analyzed for proximate composition, essential minerals, and antioxidant potentials. For this purpose, the ripe fruits were collected from the northern regions of Pakistan. The major nutritional components (moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, fibres, carbohydrates, and total sugar) were found to be in the suitable range along with good computed energy. Total dry weight, pH, and titratable acidity (percent citric acid) were (17.60±1.94)-(21.97±2.34) mg/100 g, (3.20±0.07)-(4. 78±0.15), and (0.84±0.40)%-(2.00±0.08)%, respectively. Low riboflavin (vitamin B2) and niacin (vitamin B3) contents were recorded in all the fruits, while ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was in the range from (15.20±1.25) to (17.03±1.71) mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The mulberry fruits were rich with regard to the total phenol and alkaloid contents, having values of(880±7.20)-(1650±12.25) mg/100 g FW and (390±3.22)- (660±5.25) mg/100 g FW, respectively. Sufficient quantities of essential macro-(K, Ca, Mg, and Na) and micro-(Fe, Zn, and Ni) elements were found in all the fruits. K was the predominant element with concentration ranging from (1270±9.36) to (1731±11.50) mg/100 g, while Ca, Na, and Mg contents were (440±3.21)-(576±7.37), (260±3.86)- (280±3.50), and (240±3.51)-(360±4.20) mg/100 g, respectivly. The decreasing order of micro-minerals was Fe>Zn>Ni. The radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of fruits was concentration-dependent and showed a correlation with total phenolic constituents of the respective fruits. Based on the results obtained, mulberry fruits were found to serve as a potential source of food diet and natural antioxidants. © Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010.

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