Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Lahore, Pakistan

Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research

Lahore, Pakistan
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Nelofar A.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Laghari A.H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Yasmin A.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010

A simple, swift with good sensitivity and reproducibility, HPLC-RI method has been developed for the quantification of lactulose and related compounds (fructose, galactose, epilactose and lactose) in oral suspension formulation. The analysis was carried out by using mobile phase (water and acetonitrile 75:25) at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. on isocratic HPLC-RI system. After manipulating mobile phase composition and mobile phase flow rate a good separation of five components was achieved within 15 minutes of run time. This study is beneficial to determine the active ingredient as well as related compounds simultaneously, without using buffer in mobile phase which causes bad resolution and has limitation to analyze on other hyphenated techniques such as LC-MS.


Nasir S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Sarfaraz T.B.,University of Karachi | Verheyen T.V.,Australian Sustainable Industry Research Center Ltd. | Chaffee A.L.,Monash University
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2011

The present paper describes the characterization of Pakistan lignite coal, derived humic acids (HAL) and nitrohumic acids (NHA) along with the standard leonardite humic acids (LHA). The study utilized chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to characterize the structure of coal and derived materials. Pyrolysis coupled to gc/ms was conducted with and without methylating agent (tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide). The pyrolysis study resulted in releasing mainly fatty acid methyl esters, different series of hydrocarbons and α, ω-dicarboxylic acid methyl esters. Triterpenoids, syringic and ρ-coumaric compounds and aromatic compounds derived from lignin moieties were also detected. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and NMR data helped to evaluate the influence of coal rank on regeneration and nitration processes with respect to chemical structural composition of coal and derived materials. FT-IR spectra of four materials were similar except that NHA showed an absorption band at 1532 cm-1, thus confirming the presence of -NO2 groups. 13C NMR indicated higher aromaticity and less hydroxylalkyl material in HAL than NHA. The elemental composition and acid functional group content of four materials were also reported. The combination of results from different analytical techniques gives an improved understanding of the Pakistan coal nature and helpful for its future utilization. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Laghari A.H.,University of Sindh | Laghari A.H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Memon S.,University of Sindh | Nelofar A.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Khan K.M.,University of Karachi
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

Lupeol, a bioactive triterpenoid, has been isolated from the root barks of Alhagi maurorum for the first time in considerable quantity via an easy extraction and isolation process. In this study, a new and versatile LC-MS method has also been developed by optimizing various parameters for the rapid determination of lupeol in plant extract. The anti-inflammatory property of A. maurorum can be correlated to this compound. The superiority of A. maurorum over other plant sources of lupeol is due to its wild nature and ability to grow throughout the year. On the basis of this fact, A. maurorum can be used as a cheaper and ever available source for the lupeol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Shah S.A.,Forman Christian College | Hashmi M.U.,The University of Lahore | Alam S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2011

The magnetic and heat generating properties of the ferrimagnetic zinc-ferrite containing bioactive glass ceramics have been enhanced by aligning magnetic field, without any compositional or micro-structural changes in the material. The glass ceramics were heated to 600 °C and cooled in an aligning magnetic field of 1 T. Magnetically aligned samples were compared with the non-aligned samples. VSM measurements taken at 500 Oe showed that coercive force, remanance magnetization and hysteresis area increased for the aligned samples. This occurred because the aligning magnetic field setup an easy axis for the magnetic domains. After cooling, the domains were trapped and became stable along the direction of aligning field. Now stronger magnetic field was required to turn the domains away from their aligned positions. Thus magnetic properties were enhanced by the aligning magnetic field and it led to enhance the heat generation under magnetic induction furnace operating at 500 Oe and 60 kHz for 2 min. Data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 4.4 W/g and 6.3 °C respectively for the aligned sample of maximum zinc-ferrite crystalline content having pseudo single domain crystalline structure. The glass ceramics were immersed in simulated body fluid over weeks. FTIR, SEM and EDX results indicated the growth of precipitated Hydroxyapatite suggesting the bioactivity of the materials. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shah S.A.,Forman Christian College | Majeed A.,Nazareth Hospital | Rashid K.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Awan S.-U.,Quaid-i-Azam University
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2013

Superparamagnetic iron oxide-based nanoparticles (SPIONS) have attracted an enormous attention for their potential use in biomedical applications due to their good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Current study is about doxorubicin-loaded multifunctional MnFe2O4 nanoparticles surface-modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) & folic acid (FA) for multimodal cancer therapy. Infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric data confirmed this surface modification. Nanoparticles were of moderate colloidal dispersion due to PEG coating. Composite nanoparticles having mean diameter of about 22 nm were of core-shell structure having about 31% (wt) organic shell over the (remaining) magnetic core. MnFe2O4 core of about 16 nm was superparamagnetic due to the pseudo-single domain structure. Drug loading & releasing were efficient in the initial 8 h and gradual in later hours. Magnetic heating was studied by exposing the magnetic fluid to high frequency magnetic field. Temperature of the fluid rose to 45 °C from 25 °C in about 22 min, which is an effective and appropriate temperature for the localized hyperthermia treatment of cancer. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shah S.A.,The University of Lahore | Hashmi M.U.,The University of Lahore | Shamim A.,The University of Lahore | Alam S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing | Year: 2010

For the hyperthermia therapy of cancer, ferrimagnetic glass ceramics are a potential candidate. Ferrimagnetic zinc-ferrite-containing bioactive glass ceramics were prepared by quenching the glass ceramics from sintering temperature. Then the samples were heated to 600°C and cooled in an aligning magnetic field of 1 Tesla to cause anisotropy. The magnetically aligned samples were compared with non-aligned samples. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements at 10 kOe showed that the magnetic properties were enhanced by the aligning magnetic field and it led to an enhancement of the magnetic heat generation under a magnetic induction furnace operating at 500 Oe and 400 kHz for 2 min. Data showed that the maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 31.5 W/g and 45°C, respectively, for the aligned sample of maximum zinc-ferrite crystalline content. The glass ceramics were immersed in simulated body fluid for 3 weeks. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared and atomic absorption spectroscopy results indicated the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to living tissues in physiological environment. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Grundlinger M.,Innsbruck Medical University | Yasmin S.,Innsbruck Medical University | Yasmin S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Lechner B.E.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2013

Siderophores play a central role in iron metabolism and virulence of most fungi. Both Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans excrete the siderophore triacetylfusarinine C (TAFC) for iron acquisition. In A.fumigatus, green fluorescence protein-tagging revealed peroxisomal localization of the TAFC biosynthetic enzymes SidI (mevalonyl-CoA ligase), SidH (mevalonyl-CoA hydratase) and SidF (anhydromevalonyl-CoA transferase), while elimination of the peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) impaired both, peroxisomal SidH-targeting and TAFC biosynthesis. The analysis of A.nidulans mutants deficient in peroxisomal biogenesis, ATP import or protein import revealed that cytosolic mislocalization of one or two but, interestingly, not all three enzymes impairs TAFC production during iron starvation. The PTS motifs are conserved in fungal orthologues of SidF, SidH and SidI. In agreement with the evolutionary conservation of the partial peroxisomal compartmentalization of fungal siderophore biosynthesis, the SidI orthologue of coprogen-type siderophore-producing Neurospora crassa was confirmed to be peroxisomal. Taken together, this study identified and characterized a novel, evolutionary conserved metabolic function of peroxisomes. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Nasir S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Kucerik J.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Mahmood Z.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Fuel Processing Technology | Year: 2012

Pre-combustion coal cleaning is one of the most effective methods for removing unwanted minerals and pollutants. Coals are cleaned at the mine site using water-based processes to remove non-combustible minerals and to lower the concentration of pollutants such as sulfur. This paper summarizes the washability study conducted under the coal quality evaluation and beneficiation project of Azad Kashmir (Pakistan) coalfield. The aim of the study was to investigate and interpret washability characteristics of Kotli coalfields. Washability parameters such as degree of washing and washability number were also calculated and compared. The coal samples of Kashmir coalfield belong to lignite (LigB) to high volatile bituminous (hvCb) category on the basis of proximate and gross calorific value analysis containing 8.80 to 85.2% ash, 4.70 to 85.7% fixed carbon and 4.63 to 34.3%, volatile matter. The majority of coal samples under investigation were found amenable to washing using gravity separation. As a result of present investigation 21.6, 22.4, 9.0, 52.1 and 42.3% of ash in the raw coal could be reduced to 7.7, 9.2, 4.8, 5.4 and 10.0% cumulative ash for the five samples. The optimum grade recovery conditions are also discussed in this paper. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Laghari A.H.,University of Sindh | Laghari A.H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Memon S.,University of Sindh | Nelofar A.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

In this study, determination of phenolic acids as well as investigation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the fruits and leaves of Chenopodium album is described. Extracts were subjected to acidic hydrolysis in order to obtain total free phenolic acids. However, some of phenolic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD. The results were confirmed by LC-MS equipped with MS-ESI. In addition, Folin-Ciocalteu method was applied to determine the total phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity of C. album extracts was examined by using DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity assays. Results revealed that the leaves extract exhibits better performance in antioxidant assays and in the higher total phenolic contents (3066 mg of GAE/100 g) when compared to fruits extract (1385 mg of GAE/100 g). From these results it has been revealed that the methanolic extracts of C. album from fruits and leaves have great potential as a source for natural health products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Laghari A.Q.,University of Sindh | Memon S.,University of Sindh | Nelofar A.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research | Laghari A.H.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The present study describes identification of flavonoids extracted from leaves and flowers of Tecomella undulata and their antioxidant potential. The total flavonoid contents (TFC) were determined by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Identification and quantification of individual flavonoids in the extracts were done by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The aqueous ethanol (70%) fractions of leaves and flowers are highly rich in flavonoids. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity of the extract was also determined. Of all the methods microwave extract has highest antioxidant activity as compared to other extracts obtained by sonication, marination, reflux and soxhlet extraction methods. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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