Pakistan Council for Science and Technology

Islamabad, Pakistan

Pakistan Council for Science and Technology

Islamabad, Pakistan
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Anwar F.,Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University | Anwar F.,University of Sargodha | Anwar F.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Kanwal S.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The current study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leave extracts from four different species of Mulberry (Morus nigra L., Morus alba L., Morus macroura Miq. and Morus laevigata W.). In addition to estimation of total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated by measuring the reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity. The yield of the extractable components from leaves ranged from 4.41-14.53 g/100 g Dry Weight (DW). The tested leave extracts exhibited widely variable amounts of total phenolics (3.14 to 11.38 g GAE/100g DW) and total flavonoids (0.53-5.83 g CE/100g DW). Reducing power of extracts at concentration 2.5 to 12.5 mg mLG−1 ranged from 0.40-1.52. The leave extracts considerably inhibited linoleic acid peroxidation up to the level of 60.23-88.51% and also showed remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activity with contribution 43.83-77.51%. The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the tested leave extracts varied considerably in relation to the species and extraction solvents employed. Overall, the aqueous-methanolic extract of Morus nigra exhibited the superior antioxidant and antimicrobial activities among others. The present results advocate that mulberry leaves are a potential candidate for isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. © 2015 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Iqbal R.,Pakistan Council for Science and Technology | Gilani A.H.,Aga Khan University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low. Objective: This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients. Methods: A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol #100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol #40 mg/dL in men and #50 mg/dL in women, were recruited from the Aga Khan University Hospital. After recording vital signs and completing a dietary and physical activity questionnaire, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: the no-intervention group (NI), the Pakistani almonds group (PA), and the American almonds group (AA). The respective almond varieties (10 g/d) were given to patients with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin, and eat them before breakfast. Blood samples for lipid profiling, body weight, and blood pressure were collected, and assessment of dietary patterns was done at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Results: Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol. At weeks 6 and 12, HDL cholesterol was 12-14% and 14-16% higher, respectively, in the PA and AA than their respective baselines. In line with previous reports, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol; total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios, and the atherogenic index were reduced in both the PA and AA at weeks 6 and 12 compared with baseline (P < 0.05). Effects on serum lipids did not differ between the 2 almond groups. Dietary patterns, body weight, and blood pressure did not change in any of the 3 groups during the trial. Conclusion: A low dose of almonds (10 g/d) consumed before breakfast can increase HDL cholesterol, in addition to improving other markers of abnormal lipid metabolism in CAD patients with low initial HDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry as ACTRN12614000036617. J Nutr 2015;145:2287-92. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.


Zuber M.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Tabasum S.,Government College University at Faisalabad | Jamil T.,University of Punjab | Shahid M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

We prepared and then blended polyurethanes (PUs) with poly(methyl methacrylate)s (PMMAs) and TiO2 by varying the percentage compositions to form pellets. The chemistry of all of the blended samples was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The incorporation of TiO2 into the PU-PMMA matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis and compression testing was performed, and the results are discussed. The cytotoxicity level of the prepared blends displayed dependence on the composition ratio of the PU-PMMA blends. The results reveal that the optimum PU contents in the PU-PMMA-TiO 2 blend were responsible for its better biocompatibility. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Shinwari Z.K.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Salima M.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Faisal R.,Rehman Medical Institute | Huda S.,Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College | Asrar A.,Pakistan Council for Science and Technology
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

A survey was conducted in Kohat district of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa of Pakistan to document the plants which are used to treat diarrhea. Based on the survey, 11 medicinal plants were selected (Acacia nilotica, Artemisia absinthim, Carumcopticum, Cinnamomumzeylanicum, Curcuma longa, Fumariaindica, Menthalongifolia, Phyllanthsemblica, Punicagranatum, Withaniasomnifera, Woodfordiafruticosa). Their antibacterial activity against 7 pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigellasonnei, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes) causing diarrhea was checked. Forty four crude extracts at concentration of 50 mg/ml were used for in vitro antibacterial activity by agar well diffusion method. All of the crude extracts were found to inhibit one or the other bacterial strain examined. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against susceptible bacterial strains. The (MIC) of the extracts against all tested bacterial strains ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/ml. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was then determined for extracts with positive results for MIC that ranged between 6.25 to 50 mg/ml. Woodfordiafruticosa, Punicagranatumand Carumcopticum were found to be potential candidates for development of drugs for diarrhea.


PubMed | National Center for Physics, IBGE Inc, Pakistan Council for Science and Technology and Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Type: | Journal: International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2016

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have the potential to be used as multimodal imaging and cancer therapy agents due to their excellent magnetism and ability to generate reactive oxygen species when exposed to light. We report the synthesis of highly biocompatible SPIONs through a facile green approach using fruit peel extracts as the biogenic reductant. This green synthesis protocol involves the stabilization of SPIONs through coordination of different phytochemicals. The SPIONs were functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and succinic acid and were extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence emission, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and magnetization analysis. The developed SPIONs were found to be stable, almost spherical with a size range of 17-25 nm. They exhibited excellent water dispersibility, colloidal stability, and relatively high R 2 relaxivity (225 mM(-1) s(-1)). Cell viability assay data revealed that PEGylation or carboxylation appears to significantly shield the surface of the particles but does not lead to improved cytocompatibility. A highly significant increase of reactive oxygen species in light-exposed samples was found to play an important role in the photokilling of human cervical epithelial malignant carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The bio-SPIONs developed are highly favorable for various biomedical applications without risking interference from potentially toxic reagents.


PubMed | Aga Khan University, Pakistan Council for Science and Technology and Cardiology Section
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

More than one-half of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients have low HDL cholesterol despite having well-managed LDL cholesterol. Almond supplementation has not been shown to elevate circulating HDL cholesterol concentrations in clinical trials, perhaps because the baseline HDL cholesterol of trial subjects was not low.This clinical trial was designed to test the effect of almond supplementation on low HDL cholesterol in CAD patients.A total of 150 CAD patients (50 per group), with serum LDL cholesterol 100 mg/dL and HDL cholesterol 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women, were recruited from the Aga Khan University Hospital. After recording vital signs and completing a dietary and physical activity questionnaire, patients were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 groups: the no-intervention group (NI), the Pakistani almonds group (PA), and the American almonds group (AA). The respective almond varieties (10 g/d) were given to patients with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin, and eat them before breakfast. Blood samples for lipid profiling, body weight, and blood pressure were collected, and assessment of dietary patterns was done at baseline, week 6, and week 12.Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol. At weeks 6 and 12, HDL cholesterol was 12-14% and 14-16% higher, respectively, in the PA and AA than their respective baselines. In line with previous reports, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol; total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios, and the atherogenic index were reduced in both the PA and AA at weeks 6 and 12 compared with baseline (P < 0.05). Effects on serum lipids did not differ between the 2 almond groups. Dietary patterns, body weight, and blood pressure did not change in any of the 3 groups during the trial.A low dose of almonds (10 g/d) consumed before breakfast can increase HDL cholesterol, in addition to improving other markers of abnormal lipid metabolism in CAD patients with low initial HDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry as ACTRN12614000036617.


Nasir S.,Pakistan Council for Science and Technology | Akhtar M.S.,University of Education of Pakistan
Sociobiology | Year: 2011

Present studies on swarming of termites of Mianwali indicated that no single factor alone was responsible for the initiation of swarming of termites. Instead, a combination of various environmental factors was responsible for swarmingand rainfall played a critical role in creating a suitable humidity and temperature combination for flight period. During the period, 83 swarms of eight species of termite were observed. The influence of extrinsic factors on the daily capture rates was analyzed by correlation coefficient and regression. Atmospheric temperature and wind speed turned out to be the main determinants, as humidity remained more or less in the same range and swarming mostly continued in the absence of rainfall.


Nasir S.,Pakistan Council for Science and Technology | Jamila B.,Pakistan Council for Science and Technology | Khaleeq S.,Pakistan Institute of Medical science
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

The aim of present study was to determine the relative frequency of primary brain tumors among children under 14 years of age in Pakistan. A retrospective review of pediatric primary brain tumors, encountered over 13 years (January 1998 through July 2010) at the Neurosurgical Unit of the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan, was made covering 231 cases, 142 (61.5%) males and 89 (38.5%) females, with a male to female ratio of 1.69:1. The cases were divided into 5 age groups each covering three years of life (0-2, 3-5, 6-8,9-11 and 12-14 years), with the greatest number in age group 3 i.e. 6-8 years (32%) and the least number of patients in age groups 1 and 5 (10.3% each). The 231 malignancies were categorized by site into two groups, supratentorial (83 cases; 35.9%) and infratentorial (148 cases; 64.1%). The morphological distribution was medulloblastoma (33.3%), astrocytoma (24.7%), mixed gliomas (14.7%), craniopharyngioma (11.7%), ependymoma (8.7%), PNET (6.1%) and pineal tumor (0.9%). Since only a single institution was studied, cautious interpretation is needed. Ideally, a population-based approach would be adopted to determine the cancer burden due to pediatric malignancies of the brain in this population and for their morphological categorization in Pakistan.


Bashir T.,Pakistan Council for Science and Technology | Khan K.,Government of Pakistan | Malik K.,University of Manchester
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2010

This paper examines the industrial innovation landscape of Pakistan's North West Frontier Province (NWFP) presenting results from its first innovation survey (2008). Analysing data collected from 304 industrial firms, this paper confirms that only 14% of the surveyed firms possessed an in-house research and development unit and around 50% of firms have no scientists or engineers working for them. Science and technology (S&T) indicators are used to provide a better understanding of the current weaknesses and strengths of industry in the NWFP. The involvement of the private sector is essential for industrial competitiveness, which in turn is crucial to formulate and implement S&T policy. This is a major challenge for Pakistan, since its national security and other geopolitical concerns currently dominate most other public policy issues. © Beech Tree Publishing 2010.


PubMed | National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE, University of Guelph and Pakistan Council for Science and Technology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, D and E, showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades D and E are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occurred slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages.

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