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Azhar M.T.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Amin I.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Anjum Z.I.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Mansoor S.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2011

Three wild species of cotton (Gossypium sp.) of Australian origin being maintained in a living herbarium at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, Pakistan were screened for the presence of cotton leaf curl begomovirus components. The screening by PCR, rolling circle amplification and Southern hybridisation, showed that G. robinsonii is an asymptomatic carrier of components of the disease complex prevalent in Pakistan.). Only betasatellites associated with CLCuD was identified by PCR and RCA in G. nelsonii, and G. bickii and suggests that begomovirus levels were below detection limits. © 2011 Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Pan Q.,China Agricultural University | Ali F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ali F.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Yang X.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43-11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08-0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. © 2012 Pan et al.

Akmal M.,University of Peshawar | Shah S.M.,University of Peshawar | Asim M.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Arif M.,University of Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Soil moisture availability at planting time of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is critical and can delay sowing if moisture is insufficient in a typical rainfed area. Shortening of vegetative growth (post emergence to pre flowering) by delay sowing can cause yield losses. We compared growth and yield of four wheat varieties viz., Inqilab 91, Bakhtawar 92, Nowshera 96 and Fakhre Sarhad planted at different dates; starting from Oct. 24 to Dec.11 with 15 days interval at the Research Farm, KP Agricultutal University Peshawar, Pakistan. Uniform cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. Fakhre Sarhad ranked the best (p<0.05) variety, followed by Nowshera 96, Bakhtawar 92 and Inqilab 91 for seed yield. However, each delay in sowing from Oct. 24 onwards decreased (p<0.05) seed yield. Emergence and tiller number by late sowing decreased. Rate and duration of linear growth stage (LGS) along with time of peak periods also differed for the varieties and sowing dates. The LGS duration among varieties differed from 28 to 54 for Inqilab 91, 30 to 60 for Bakhtawar 92, 48 to 75 for Nowshera 96 and 45 to 65 for Fakhre Sarhad by delaying sowing time which created significant differences in seed and biomass production. It was observed that crop growth rate and its duration in the LGS are in close association with dry matter and seed losses. Breeding efforts need to improve LGS of wheat variety to be recommended as rainfed variety for the area.

Ali F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ali F.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Pan Q.,China Agricultural University | Chen G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Meta-analysis was performed for three major foliar diseases with the aim to find out the total number of QTL responsible for these diseases and depict some real QTL for molecular breeding and marker assisted selection (MAS) in maize. Furthermore, we confirmed our results with some major known disease resistance genes and most well-known gene family of nucleotide binding site (NBS) encoding genes. Our analysis revealed that disease resistance QTL were randomly distributed in maize genome, but were clustered at different regions of the chromosomes. Totally 389 QTL were observed for these three major diseases in diverse maize germplasm, out of which 63 QTL were controlling more than one disease revealing the presence of multiple disease resistance (MDR). 44 real-QTLs were observed based on 4 QTL as standard in a specific region of genome. We also confirmed the Ht1 and Ht2 genes within the region of real QTL and 14 NBS-encoding genes. On chromosome 8 two NBS genes in one QTL were observed and on chromosome 3, several cluster and maximum MDR QTL were observed indicating that the apparent clustering could be due to genes exhibiting pleiotropic effect. Significant relationship was observed between the number of disease QTL and total genes per chromosome based on the reference genome B73. Therefore, we concluded that disease resistance genes are abundant in maize genome and these results can unleash the phenomenon of MDR. Furthermore, these results could be very handy to focus on hot spot on different chromosome for fine mapping of disease resistance genes and MAS. © 2013 Ali et al.

Jan A.,University of Peshawar | Ahmad G.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Arif M.,University of Peshawar | Jan M.T.,University of Peshawar | Marwat K.B.,University of Peshawar
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute Pirsabak Nowshera, Pakistan, for two years (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) levels and their methods of application on quality parameters of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. 'Bulbul-98'). Four levels of S (0, 20, 40, and 60 kg ha -1) and three levels of N (80, 120, and 160 kg ha -1) and a control treatment (with both nutrients at zero level) were applied as a sole dose at sowing, in two split applications (half each at sowing and leaf rosette stages) and three split applications (one third each at sowing, leaf rosette stage, and early flowering). Large increases in oil and protein concentrations were measured at 40 kg S ha -1 while no further significant increase was observed at 60 kg S ha -1. However, increasing level of S consistently increased glucosinolate concentrations to the highest level of 60 kg S ha -1. Nitrogen significantly increased protein concentrations up to the maximum level of 160 kg N ha -1 while glucosinolate concentrations were increased up to 120 kg N ha -1. However, oil concentrations showed negative trend to increasing level of N. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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