Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute


Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute

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Shah S.I.A.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Malik T.H.,Pakistan Central Cotton Committee PCCC | Khan I.R.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Hussain Z.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2017

This study was conducted to evaluate the germplasms imported from United State Department of Agriculture (USDA), United State of America (USA) primarily for Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease with promising local varieties tolerant to the disease. After screening, the most resistant accessions of USDA were USG-14-2464 and USG-14-2478. However, USG-14-2481 and USG-14-2484 were recorded as partially resistant to CLCuV disease. Among the local germplasms, all accessions screened were found extremely susceptible. Disease index increased with day after planting (DAP) and high infestation level of whiteflies as it was positive and non-significantly correlated with DAP and whitefly on both USDA accessions and local varieties. Maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity were negative and non-significantly correlated while, % relative humidity (%R.H) was found non-significantly and positively correlated both with USDA accessions and local varieties. On overall basis, during the course of the season, lowest number of jassid/leaf was recorded on USG-12-8 (1.7) followed by USG- 12-44 (3.2) and USG-12-24 (3.3) while, number of whiteflies/leaf on USG-14-2460 (11.6) followed by USG-12-24 (12.4) and USG-14-2478 (12.7) whereas, highest resistance was recorded against thrips in all accessions. Among the local varieties, lowest jassid/leaf was noted on desi/arborum (0.8) followed by AA-703 (3.6) and AA-802 (3.7) while, whitefly (12.8) and thrips (0.4) on desi cotton. The most sensitive planting date (DAP) of the crop for jassid both on USDA accessions and local varieties were 30 DAP (June-July), for whitefly 90 DAP (August-September) and partially only on local varieties, 30-60 DAP (June-August) for thrips. Maximum temperature and wind velocity promoted jassid population both on USDA and local varieties while, %R.H and rainfall decreased it. Maximum temperature and wind velocity decreased whitefly on USDA accessions whereas, these positively favored (increased) on local varieties. Increased in %R.H efficiently developed whitefly on USDA accessions while, non-significantly on the local varieties however, rainfall was found non-significantly positively correlated with USDA as well as local. Thrips increased with increase in maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and wind velocity on USDA and local varieties while, increase in %R.H resulted to promote thrips on USDA accessions while it declined on local varieties. Copyright 2017 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Saeed R.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Razaq M.,Bahauddin Zakariya University
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2015

Host quality is one of the important factors affecting the life-history traits of predators. Here, we examined the development and reproductive responses of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) to all life stages [1st through 5th instar nymphs (N1-N5) and adult] of the cotton jassid, Amrasca devastans (Dist.) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). C. carnea larvae consumed more N2 than any other A. devastans life stage. Older life stages of the predator displayed higher rates of predation than younger ones. Larvae completed development on each of A. devastans life stages. However, the developmental time from egg hatch to adult eclosion was shortest on N3 and longest on the adult. C. carnea survival to the adult stage was the highest on N3, and lowest on adult A. devastans. Pupal weight (mg) and egg volume (mm3) was lowest on adult A. devastans. Fecundity and egg hatching was highest when females had been reared on N3 A. devastans. The net replacement rate was lowest for the populations reared on N5 and adult A. devastans; these prey regimens also resulted in the lowest intrinsic (rm) and finite (?) rates of population increase. The mean relative growth rate showed significantly positive correlations with intrinsic (rm) and finite (?) rates of population increase, while a negative correlation was found with generation doubling time (DT). The results illustrate the potential importance of prey resources (life stage) on C. carnea population growth, and they indicate that C. carnea has considerable potential for the biological control of A. devastans. Copyright © 2015 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

Pan Q.,China Agricultural University | Ali F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ali F.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Yang X.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Understanding genetic characteristics can reveal the genetic diversity in maize and be used to explore evolutionary mechanisms and gene cloning. A high-density linkage map was constructed to determine recombination rates (RRs), segregation distortion regions (SDRs), and recombinant blocks (RBs) in two recombinant inbred line populations (RILs) (B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1) generated by the single seed descent method. Population B73/By804 containing 174 lines were genotyped with 198 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers while population Zong3/87-1 comprised of 175 lines, were genotyped with 210 SSR markers along with 1536 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for each population, spanning 1526.7 cM and 1996.2 cM in the B73/By804 and Zong3/87-1 populations, respectively. The total variance of the RR in the whole genome was nearly 100 fold, and the maximum average was 10.43-11.50 cM/Mb while the minimum was 0.08-0.10 cM/Mb in the two populations. The average number of RB was 44 and 37 in the Zong3/87-1 and B73/By804 populations, respectively, whereas 28 SDRs were observed in both populations. We investigated 11 traits in Zong3/87-1 and 10 traits in B73/By804. Quantitative trait locus (QTLs) mapping of SNP+SSR with SNP and SSR marker sets were compared to showed the impact of different density markers on QTL mapping and resolution. The confidence interval of QTL Pa19 (FatB gene controlling palmitic acid content) was reduced from 3.5 Mb to 1.72 Mb, and the QTL Oil6 (DGAT1-2 gene controlling oil concentration) was significantly reduced from 10.8 Mb to 1.62 Mb. Thus, the use of high-density markers considerably improved QTL mapping resolution. The genetic information resulting from this study will support forthcoming efforts to understand recombination events, SDRs, and variations among different germplasm. Furthermore, this study will facilitate gene cloning and understanding of the fundamental sources of total variation and RR in maize, which is the most widely cultivated cereal crop. © 2012 Pan et al.

Ullah I.,Gomal University | Akhtar N.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Mehmood N.,Gomal University | Shah I.A.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Noor M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2014

The experiment was carried out at the laboratory of Botany Department, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat in December 2012. Two wheat cultivars (Janbaz and Atta Habib) were subjected to different mannitol levels (0, 125, 250 and 500 mM) under room temperature in petridishes. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of mannitol induced drought stress on seedling traits and protein profile of two wheat cultivars. Analyses of variance revealed significant differences for shoot and root length for mannitol levels as well as for interaction. Genotypes, however, showed significant variability for root length only. It was evident from the data that increased levels of mannitol decreased the shoot and root lengths linearly. The longest shoot (8.57 and 9.57 cm) and root (9.73 and 10.13 cm) were recorded from control treatments while the shortest shoot (3.03 and 2.67 cm) and roots (2.37 and 2.67 cm) were observed in 500 mM treatment for Janbaz and Atta Habib, respectively.96.1 and 88.6 % of variation in shoot length and 72.3 and 71.5 % variation in root length was due to the mannitol induced drought stress for Janbaz and Atta Habib, respectively. SDS-PAGE showed no band variation between genotypes as well as among mannitol levels.

PubMed | CIHEAM IAMM, Huazhong Agricultural University, Central South University, CIIT and 9 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is an important yield limiting factor for sunflower production. The correlation between yield components and growth parameters of three sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33, Hysun-38, Pioneer-64A93) were studied with five N rates (0, 60, 120, 180, 240 kg ha(-1)) at three different experimental sites during the two consecutive growing seasons 2008 and 2009. The results revealed that total dry matter (TDM) production and grain yield were positively and linearly associated with leaf area index (LAI), leaf area duration (LAD), and crop growth rate (CGR) at all three sites of the experiments. The significant association of yield with growth components indicated that the humid climate was most suitable for sunflower production. Furthermore, the association of these components can be successfully used to predict the grain yield under diverse climatic conditions. The application of N at increased rate of 180 kg ha(-1) resulted in maximum yield as compared to standard rate (120 kg ha(-1)) at all the experimental sites. In this way, N application rate was significantly correlated with growth and development of sunflower under a variety of climatic conditions. Keeping in view such relationship, the N dose can be optimized for sunflower crop in a particular region to maximize the productivity. Multilocation trails help to predict the input rates precisely while taking climatic variations into account also. In the long run, results of this study provides basis for sustainable sunflower production under changing climate.

Ali F.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ali F.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Yan J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Diseases are a potential threat to global food security but plants have evolved an extensive array of methodologies to cope with the invading pathogens. Non-host resistance and quantitative resistance are broad spectrum forms of resistance, and all kinds of resistances are controlled by extremely diverse genes called "R-genes". R-genes follow different mechanisms to defend plants and PAMP-induced defenses in susceptible host plants are referred to as basal resistance. Genetic and phenotypic diversity are vital in maize (Zea mays L.); as such, genome wide association study (GWAS) along with certain other methodologies can explore the maximum means of genetic diversity. Exploring the complete genetic architecture to manipulate maize genetically reduces the losses from hazardous diseases. Genomic studies can reveal the interaction between different genes and their pathways. By confirming the specific role of these genes and protein-protein interaction (proteomics) via advanced molecular and bioinformatics tools, we can shed a light on the most complicated and abstruse phenomena of resistance. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Jan A.,University of Peshawar | Ahmad G.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Arif M.,University of Peshawar | Jan M.T.,University of Peshawar | Marwat K.B.,University of Peshawar
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute Pirsabak Nowshera, Pakistan, for two years (2003-2004 and 2004-2005) to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) levels and their methods of application on quality parameters of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. 'Bulbul-98'). Four levels of S (0, 20, 40, and 60 kg ha -1) and three levels of N (80, 120, and 160 kg ha -1) and a control treatment (with both nutrients at zero level) were applied as a sole dose at sowing, in two split applications (half each at sowing and leaf rosette stages) and three split applications (one third each at sowing, leaf rosette stage, and early flowering). Large increases in oil and protein concentrations were measured at 40 kg S ha -1 while no further significant increase was observed at 60 kg S ha -1. However, increasing level of S consistently increased glucosinolate concentrations to the highest level of 60 kg S ha -1. Nitrogen significantly increased protein concentrations up to the maximum level of 160 kg N ha -1 while glucosinolate concentrations were increased up to 120 kg N ha -1. However, oil concentrations showed negative trend to increasing level of N. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Akmal M.,University of Peshawar | Shah S.M.,University of Peshawar | Asim M.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Arif M.,University of Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Soil moisture availability at planting time of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is critical and can delay sowing if moisture is insufficient in a typical rainfed area. Shortening of vegetative growth (post emergence to pre flowering) by delay sowing can cause yield losses. We compared growth and yield of four wheat varieties viz., Inqilab 91, Bakhtawar 92, Nowshera 96 and Fakhre Sarhad planted at different dates; starting from Oct. 24 to Dec.11 with 15 days interval at the Research Farm, KP Agricultutal University Peshawar, Pakistan. Uniform cultural practices were applied during the crop growth. Fakhre Sarhad ranked the best (p<0.05) variety, followed by Nowshera 96, Bakhtawar 92 and Inqilab 91 for seed yield. However, each delay in sowing from Oct. 24 onwards decreased (p<0.05) seed yield. Emergence and tiller number by late sowing decreased. Rate and duration of linear growth stage (LGS) along with time of peak periods also differed for the varieties and sowing dates. The LGS duration among varieties differed from 28 to 54 for Inqilab 91, 30 to 60 for Bakhtawar 92, 48 to 75 for Nowshera 96 and 45 to 65 for Fakhre Sarhad by delaying sowing time which created significant differences in seed and biomass production. It was observed that crop growth rate and its duration in the LGS are in close association with dry matter and seed losses. Breeding efforts need to improve LGS of wheat variety to be recommended as rainfed variety for the area.

Azhar M.T.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Amin I.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Anjum Z.I.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Arshad M.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2010

Betasatellites are symptom-modulating DNA satellites that are associated with the majority of monopartite begomoviruses in the Old World. Betasatellites show both geographical and host-specific relatedness; those isolated from malvaceous hosts form one group and those isolated from non-malvaceous hosts form the second group. Real-time PCR based estimation of begomovirus DNA in cotton species grown in a living herbarium under field conditions at the Central Cotton Research Institute (CCRI), Multan was carried out to understand their role in the ongoing cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) epidemic in Pakistan. The levels of begomovirus DNA in cotton species from the herbarium was found to be several folds lower than symptomatic plants of commercially grown cotton. Among herbarium species Gossypium anomalum, G. robinsoni and G. somalense contained higher levels of begomovirus DNA in comparison to other wild species. Characterization of betasatellites from two cotton species (G. anomalum and G. somalense) was carried out to understand their role in accumulation of begomovirus DNA. Here, we show that the two wild species of cotton are associated with Cotton leaf Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB), a malvaceous betasatellite associated with CLCuD, as well as Chili leaf curl betasatellite, a non-malvaceous betasatellite not previously identified in a malvaceous host. This is the first evidence of the presence of a non-malvaceous betasatellite in malvaceous hosts. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Azhar M.T.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE | Anjum Z.I.,Pakistan Cereal Crops Research Institute | Mansoor S.,National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering NIBGE
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

The diploid cotton species belonging to A, D and tetraploids with AD genome were screened for the presence/absence of components of cotton leaf curl complex. These cotton species are being maintained in a living herbarium for more than fourdecades under natural conditions. As expected, the two diploid species (Gossypium arboreum and G. herbaceum) of A genome, were found to be free of virus when screened by PCR and Φ29 DNA polymerase. The two cotton species of D genome (G. thurberii and G. aridum) showed the presence of begomovirus. The species belonging to AD genome were found to be susceptible to CLCuD due to the presence of both begomovirus and betasatellite. However, the interesting exception among D genome species was G. gossypioides. The results from present study suggest that G. gossypioides is a valuable resource for mapping of resistance by developing segregating populations and for developing synthetic tetraploids.

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