Shrestha M.,University of Tokyo |
Koike T.,University of Tokyo |
Hirabayashi Y.,University of Tokyo |
Xue Y.,University of California at Los Angeles |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres | Year: 2015
Energy budget-based distributed modeling of snow and glacier melt runoff is essential in a hydrologic model to accurately describe hydrologic processes in cold regions and high-altitude catchments. We developed herein an integrated modeling system with an energy budget-based multilayer scheme for clean glaciers, a single-layer scheme for debris-covered glaciers, and multilayer scheme for seasonal snow over glacier, soil, and forest within a distributed biosphere hydrological modeling framework. Model capability is demonstrated for Hunza River Basin (13,733km2) in the Karakoram region of Pakistan on a 500m grid for 3 hydrologic years (2002-2004). Discharge simulation results show good agreement with observations (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency=0.93). Flow composition analysis reveals that the runoff regime is strongly controlled by the snow and glacier melt runoff (50% snowmelt and 33% glacier melt). Pixel-by-pixel evaluation of the simulated spatial distribution of snow-covered area against Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-derived 8day maximum snow cover extent data indicates that the areal extent of snow cover is reproduced well, with average accuracy 84% and average absolute bias 7%. The 3year mean value of net mass balance (NMB) was estimated at +0.04myr-1. It is interesting that individual glaciers show similar characteristics of NMB over 3years, suggesting that both topography and glacier hypsometry play key roles in glacier mass balance. This study provides a basis for potential application of such an integrated model to the entire Hindu-Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya region toward simulating snow and glacier hydrologic processes within a water and energy balance-based, distributed hydrological modeling framework. © 2015 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Muhammad R.W.,Pakistan Agriculture Research Council |
Qayyum A.,Bahauddin Zakariya University |
Liaqat S.,Regional Research Institute |
Hamza A.,Pakistan Agriculture Research Council |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2012
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important cereal crop in the world, is cultivated in temperate climatic zones. Assessment of genetic variability and heritability within barley is fundamental tool for the success of barley breeding program. The current study was made to work out the heritability and genetic diversity among seven barley genotypes. Data on eight morphological traits, i.e. plant height (PH), flag leaf area (FLA), number of tillers per plant (NTP), spike length (SL), number of spikelets per spike (NSPK), number of kernels per spike (NKSP), hundred kernel weight (HKWT) and kernel yield per plant (KYP) were collected and analysed. Phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV) was higher than genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV) for all the traits. Estimates of broad sense heritability for kernel yield per plant (KYP) and number of kernels per spike (NKSP) were 99.11% and 98.96%, respectively, coupled with high value of genetic advance. High amount of broad sense heritability with higher value of genetic advance provided the evidence that these plant attributes might be under the control of additive genetic effects and selection breeding can be beneficial for improvement of barley genotypes.
Hassan S.W.,Sindh Agriculture University |
Oad F.C.,Sindh Agriculture University |
Tunio S.D.,Sindh Agriculture University |
Gandahi A.W.,Sindh Agriculture University |
And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2010
Field investigations were carried out to test the effect of varying levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 kg ha-1) applied through different application methods viz., broadcast, fertigation and side dressing on maize variety Akbar for fodder production. Nitrogen fertigation had better efficiency over broadcast and side dressing. Maximum leaves plant-1 (15.1), stem girth (6.86 cm), green fodder yield (91.25 t ha-1), total dry matter (8.90 t ha-1), leaf area index (15.57), leaf area duration (201 days), N content (1.35%) and N uptake (120.42 kg ha-1) were noted with the application of 140 kg N ha-1 through fertigation. Further increase in nitrogen had non-significant response on these traits. Higher N regime 180 kg ha-1 through fertigation increased growth traits viz., plant height (199 cm) and crop growth rate (16.90 g m-2day-1), followed by broadcast application of 180 kg N ha-1. It is concluded that application of 140 kg N ha-1 through fertigation method was an optimum N dose for the maize fodder production.
Rauf C.A.,PMAS AAUR |
Naz F.,PMAS AAUR |
Ahmad I.,Pakistan Agriculture Research Council |
Ul Haque I.,PMAS AAUR |
Riaz A.,PMAS AAUR
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2015
The efficacy of soil application with microbial preparations viz. Trichoderma harzianum, effective microbe (EM) culture and biological potassium fertilizer (BPF) was evaluated for the management of soil-borne inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani the cause of black scurf of potato cv. Desiree. Soil application with three dosages of culture suspension of T. harzianum, effective microbe (EM) culture and biological potassium fertilizer (BPF) were applied in the soil to know the efficacy of these treatments in reducing the disease. Soil application with T. harzianum at the time of sowing followed by two and three dosages at 20 days intervals gave significant protection to eyes with EGI of 30.55%, SK 24.07%, SCI 36.10%, StCI 30.60%, BSDI 26.43% and YR of 35.09% against the fungus which ultimately contributed to better crop stand and increased yield as compared to inoculated control and rest of the treatments. © 2015 Friends Science Publishers.
Iqbal A.,Pakistan National Agricultural Research Center |
Ahmad M.,Pakistan Agriculture Research Council
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2014
Potable water is a basic need for the habitants of an area. In Pakistan, almost 53% of total population does not have access to safe and sufficient drinking water because of brackish/saline water. The brackish/saline water could be economically desalinized by solar desalinization (distillation). To solve this problem, a solar still was designed, fabricated and installed at Agricultural and Biological Engineering Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. The solar still was developed with mild steel sheet having 2 m2 area, the inlet water depth was kept 2 cm, angle of glazing (glass) was kept 150, and the basin base was painted black to absorb the solar radiation. The performance of the solar still was evaluated from June to December, 2011. The parameters measured/calculated were: ambient temperature, inlet water temperature, vapours temperature, basin water temperature, basin temperature, wind speed, solar radiation, and productivity (output) of the solar still. The average daily productivity of the solar still for months of June, July, August, September, October, November, and December was 5738 ml, 3937 ml, 2637 ml, 1837 ml, 2082 ml, 1620 ml, and 1510 ml, respectively. The productivity of the solar still was higher during the month of June (5738 ml) as compare to its productivity during the month of December (1510 ml), this was because of higher solar intensity during the month of June. The average productivity of solar still from June to December was 3000 ml and the overall efficiency was 22%. The average cost of desalination was predicted Rs. 3.9 per litre. © 2006-2014 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN).