Peshāwar, Pakistan
Peshāwar, Pakistan

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Jan-i-Alam,Pak International Medical College | Jan S.S.,Saidu Medical College
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2016

Objectives: To study association of vitamin D deficiency and depressive illness in adults. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in a Private hospital in Hayatabad from May 2015 to December 2015. A total of 340 patients with depression were enrolled in study. Age range was 15 to 70 years. It consisted of equal number of male and female patients i.e. 170 each. Samples of bloods (4ml) were collected from these patients by vanupuncture by disposable syringe after overnight fasting and stored at -18oC. The variables which were studied are age, gender, serum levels of vitamin D, serum Ca levels and history of depression. SPSS-version-10 for windows was used to analyse the study. P value of <0.05 was considered significant statistically. Results: 76% i.e. 258 were vitamin D deficient (cut off value 30 ng/ml). This number comprised 186(72%) females and 72(28%) males. Low serum calcium was observed among 25.5% patients with low vitamin D and depression. Among females 36.8% observed veil (Pardah) and in this group 82% had low serum vitamin D levels. Most of the female patients were from low socio-economic group. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is common in adult patients with depression. © 2016, Khyber Medical College. All rights reserved.


Faisal R.,Rehman Medical College | Shinwari L.,Lady Reading Hospital | Jehangir T.,Pak International Medical College
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine the effect of thymoquinone and methotrexate on blood urea and serum creatinine in arthritic rats. Study Design: Experimental, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, from March to August 2013. Methodology: Thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four equal groups (n=8); group A (healthy control), group B (positive control), group C (Thymoquinone treated) and group D (Methotrexate treated). Arthritis developed within two weeks after a single pristane injection. Total leukocyte count, blood urea and serum creatinine were taken at day 0, 15 and 30. While clinical score of inflammation was taken at day 0 and then on every alternate day. Results: Development of arthritis and renal involvement was accompanied by significant raise in total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation, blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to healthy control rats (group A) till day 15 (p < 0.001). From day 15 to day 30 both thymoquinone (group C) and methotrexate (group D) significantly lowered the total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation and improved blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to arthritic rats (group B) (p < 0.001). Methotrexate was found a bit more effective than thymoquinone. Conclusion: Evaluation of results supported the beneficial effects of thymoquinone in renal injury produced by rheumatoid arthritis.


PubMed | Lady Reading Hospital, Pak International Medical College and Rehman Medical College
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP | Year: 2015

To determine the effect of thymoquinone and methotrexate on blood urea and serum creatinine in arthritic rats.Experimental, comparative study.Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, from March to August 2013.Thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four equal groups (n=8); group A(healthy control), group B (positive control), group C (Thymoquinone treated) and group D (Methotrexate treated). Arthritis developed within two weeks after a single pristane injection. Total leukocyte count, blood urea and serum creatinine were taken at day 0, 15 and 30. While clinical score of inflammation was taken at day 0 and then on every alternate day.Development of arthritis and renal involvement was accompanied by significant raise in total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation, blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to healthy control rats (group A) till day 15 (p < 0.001). From day 15 to day 30 both thymoquinone (group C) and methotrexate (group D) significantly lowered the total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation and improved blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to arthritic rats (group B) (p < 0.001). Methotrexate was found a bit more effective than thymoquinone.Evaluation of results supported the beneficial effects of thymoquinone in renal injury produced by rheumatoid arthritis.


Inayat A.,Khyber Teaching Hospital | Faisal M.S.,Pak International Medical College | Hayat W.,Khyber Teaching Hospital | Shabbie G.,Khyber Teaching Hospital | Ishtiaq M.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2016

Objectives: To assess the prevalence of different complications among hypertensive patients admitted in Medical Intensive Care Units. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Medical Units and ICU of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from September 2014 to February 2015. It was across-sectional study of 219 hypertensive patients, ages between 20 to 70 All the hypertensive patients who had given consent were included and relevant data regarding complications was collected from the patient’s record by means of a structured questionnaire. Results: Most of the patients were males (60.29%) and male to female ratio was approximately 1.5:1, 42.58% had age above 60 years, 11.96% had less than 5 years, 25.36% had more than 10 years, while 62.68% had 5-10 years duration of hypertension. Moreover, 56.45% were obese, 35.4% were smokers, 70.33% had positive history of family hypertension and 59.33% had sedentary life style habits. Out of all hypertensive patients, following complications were noticed; blood vessel (20.57%), cardiac (64.59%), brain (13.88%), renal (29.67%), eye (15.79%) and miscellaneous (67.94%). Conclusion: Effective control of hypertension can reduce the risk of blood vessel, cardiac, brain and renal complications of hypertension. © 2016 Khyber Medical College. All rights reserved.


Nawaz U.,Pak International Medical College | Ilyas N.,WMC | Jehangir A.,IIMC
Medical Forum Monthly | Year: 2014

Objective: To study antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous extract of Cassia fistula leaves in mice. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Pharmacology Laboratory of Islamic International Medical College, Rawalpindi, and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from February to April 2011. Materials and Method: 40 male Balb/c mice were used which were randomly divided into 4 groups i.e. Group A, B, C and D, each group containing 10 mice. Duration of study was 8 weeks after acclimatization (1 week). Group A served as control group (received standard mice diet), Group B as disease control (received 2% cholesterol diet) and Group C & D as Cassia fistula groups (received 2% cholesterol diet + aqueous extract of Cassia fistula leaves 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively). Results: At the end of 8 weeks, blood samples of all the mice were analyzed. In disease Group B, there was significant rise in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C and decline in HDL-C. In Group C and D (Cassia fistula groups), there was much less rise in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C especially in Group D. Also, there was significant increase in HDL-C level in group D. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that administration of aqueous extract of Cassia fistula leaves, along with cholesterol diet, not only prevented the rise in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels but also increased the HDL-C level, demonstrating antihyperlipidemic properties of the extract.


Nawaz R.,Pak International Medical College | Ur Rehman S.,Khyber Medical College | Nawaz S.,Khyber Medical College | Iftikhar B.,Khyber Medical College
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2015

Objective: To determine toxic heavy metals in red meat samples at Peshawar. Material and Methods: This study was conducted in Peshawar from January 2013 to December 2013. Hundred red meat samples were collected randomly from thirty different union councils of District Peshawar. Samples were transported to the laboratory by keeping in separate plastic bags and kept in refrigerator for processing. In order to detect these metals in various samples, methodology based on the principle of heavy metals that absorb different wavelengths of light is adopted and is termed as flame atomic absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Mean concentration of Cadmium and Lead in meat samples was 0.107 ug and 2.133 ug respectively. Average concentration of cadmium in buffalo and cow meat was 0.19 ug and 0.14 ug. Average concentration of lead in buffalo and cow meat was 2.52 ug and 1.95 ug. The distribution and concentration of metals varied in different organs of both species. Mean lead concentration in buffalo organ meat was higher than the permissible limits set internationally. Mean mercury concentration was higher in meat of both species. Mean of Cadmium (Cd) concentration in meat samples of both species were below the permissible limits. Conclusion: There is difference in the concentrations of elements across different areas and meat samples from dif­ferent parts and organs of cows and buffalos. This in turn can be related to the origin of organism or food preferences. © 2015, Khyber Medical College. All rights reserved.


Jan-e-Alam,Pak International Medical College | Ul Rashid H.,Khyber Medical College | Wazir A.K.,Nowshera Medical College
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2016

Objectives: To study deficiency of vitamin “D”and its effects on human body. Material & Methods: The study was conducted in a local private clinic situated in Hayatabad from January 2015 to May 2015. Five hundred subjects were included in the sample which consisted of 250 males and 250 females. These subjects presented to the clinic due to any major or minor illness. These subjects also included those who had or had no body aches. Samples of blood were also collected from these patients by venupuncture by disposable syringe after overnight fasting in mooring. 4 ml of blood sample was taken which was stored at -18°C till the time the sample was analyzed. The variables which were studied are age, gender, serum levels of vitamin “D”, serum calcium levels and past history of any pain in bones. SPSS-version-10 for windows was used to analyse the study. P value of <0.05 was considered to be significant statistically. Results: In 75.5% of the patients included in sample had vitamin “D” deficiency, 9.5% of them were having levels of vitamin “D” within normal range while 15% among the sample patients were in the category of vitamin “D” insufficiency. There was a prevalence of 90.5% of vitamin “D” deficiency and insufficiency overall. 163 (32.6%) patients were presented with the complaints of body aches while remaining 337 (67.4%) patients were having no complaints of body aches. Serum calcium levels were in normal range in all patients which were included in the sample. Conclusion: The dietary insufficiency and lack of exposure to sunlight being the major causes of vitamin D deficiency in humans. © 2016 Khyber Medical College. All rights reserved.


Motasimbillah,Bacha Khan Medical College | Motasimbillah,Pak International Medical College | Ahmad S.,Bacha Khan Medical College | Ahmad S.,Pak International Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2016

Objective: To assess bone health and various vital metabolites for optimum bone growth in local thalassemia major population. Material and Methods: The study was conducted from June 2014 to December 2014, after approval from Advanced Studies & Research Board (ASRB) and Ethical Research Committee, KMU. A comprehensive questionnaire was offered to 141 thalassemia syndrome patients, followed by collection of blood samples. The samples were processed and analyzed in the laboratories of IBMS KMU, Peshawar. Results: Mean age of study group patients was 12.62+5.10 years. Our study findings revealed that 76.6% of the patients experienced persistent bone pain in the last 4 weeks at different body sites. The mean serum 25-OHD concentration of study patients was 17.48+11.34 ng/dl, while mean serum total Ca level was 8.67+9.1 mg/dl. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of bone pain in thalassemia syndrome patients. It was also found that low vitamin D levels are negatively associated with bone pains. Low calcium levels were also found to have been negatively correlated to pains in said patients. The presence of such metabolic derangements may be due to the presence of high serum ferritin levels and poor nutrition intake. It is therefore advised to monitor these vital metabolites regularly and replenish where needed. © 2016, Khyber Medical College. All rights reserved.


Badshah M.,Pak International Medical College | Qadir M.,Pak International Medical College | Hasnain J.,Pak International Medical College | Soamer R.,Pak International Medical College | Iqbal Z.,Pak International Medical College
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2015

Objectives: To study the coronary blood supply and its anatomical variations in a population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of cardiac patients registered for treatment at Peshawar Institute of Medical Sciences, Hayatabad, Peshawar was conducted. The angiographic reports were made by consultant radiologists and consultant interventional cardiologists. Data from the reports were recorded on specially designed registers and analyzed using SPSS (version 18.0). Results: Angiographs of 197 patients were analyzed of which 123 were males and 74 females. In 62% (n=122.14) the blood supply of heart was right side dominant. Regarding the anatomy of the coronary arteries 11% (n=21.67) of patients showed normal anatomical variants, while anomalous arteries were observed in 2% (n=3.94) cases. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is no significant difference regarding the normal anatomical variations of coronary arteries and its anomalies between males and females. The arterial supply of the heart of the population studied is very similar as reported in the literature. It is recommended that similar studies should be conducted in order to understand the anatomy of the coronary arteries, as well as other structures, in different local populations to assist in evaluation and determination of invasive procedures. © 2015, Khyber Medical College. All rights reserved.


Ishtiaq M.,Pak International Medical College | Jehan N.,Pak International Medical College | Rehman Z.U.,Pak International Medical College | Rabnawaz,Pak International Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Sciences (Peshawar) | Year: 2014

Objective: To find the frequency and factors associated with occupational injuries among coal miners. Material & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among coal miners of Cherat, District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, between September 2012 and March 2013. A sample size of 400 was selected based on 95% confidence interval, 50% prevalence and with P < 0.05. The non-probability cluster sampling technique was used in which the study area was divided into four clusters and then from each cluster 40% coal miners were selected based on simple random technique. There are approximately 80-90 Cherat coal mines in which around 1000 of coal miners are working. Coal miners of age range 20-60 years with more than one year of coal mining job were included while those who had less duration and had age either less than 20 or more than 60 years were excluded from the study. Field visits were conducted to collect relevant data from the study areas. The structured pretested questionnaire was used to collect data like age, duration of coal mining job, job satisfaction, smoking history: and then those coal miners who have history of mine injuries were evaluated for various risk factors. Results: Our study results showed that 45.25% (n=181) had history of previous injuries. Among those coal miners who gave history of injuries, 81.77% (n=148) were due to lack of training, 85.08% (n=154) to health education, 63.54% (n=115) to early years of coal mining job, 65.74% (n=119) to less than 30 years miner age, 70.17% (n=127) to unsatisfied with coal mining job, 71.27% (n=129) for not using personnel protective measures and 78.45% (n=142) of injuries were related to smoking among coal miners. Conclusion: The prevalence of occupational injuries among coal miners were high and had strong relationship with age, job duration, smoking, training, knowledge & with compliance of personnel protective devices.

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