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Georgiev S.K.,Niigata University | Furue H.,Kyushu University | Furue H.,National Institute for Physiological science | Baba H.,Niigata University | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Pain | Year: 2010

Background: The molecular targets for the promising gaseous anaesthetic xenon are still under investigation. Most studies identify N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors as the primary molecular target for xenon, but the role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is less clear. In this study we evaluated the effect of xenon on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord using in vitro patch-clamp recordings from rat spinal cord slices. We further evaluated the effects of xenon on innocuous and noxious stimuli using in vivo patch-clamp method.Results: In vitro, xenon decreased the amplitude and area under the curve of currents induced by exogenous NMDA and AMPA and inhibited dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents. Xenon decreased the amplitude, but not the frequency, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. There was no discernible effect on miniature or evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents or on the current induced by inhibitory neurotransmitters. In vivo, xenon inhibited responses to tactile and painful stimuli even in the presence of NMDA receptor antagonist.Conclusions: Xenon inhibits glutamatergic excitatory transmission in the superficial dorsal horn via a postsynaptic mechanism. There is no substantial effect on inhibitory synaptic transmission at the concentration we used. The blunting of excitation in the dorsal horn lamina II neurons could underlie the analgesic effect of xenon. © 2010 Georgiev et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Georgiev S.K.,Niigata University | Baba H.,Niigata University | Kohno T.,Niigata University | Kohno T.,Pain Mechanism Research Group
European Journal of Pain | Year: 2010

The analgesic effect of nitrous oxide (N2O) is thought to depend on noradrenaline release in the spinal cord following activation of descending inhibitory neurons. In addition to this indirect facilitation of inhibition in the spinal cord, we previously showed direct inhibition of glutamate receptors in dorsal horn neurons by N2O. Since general anesthetics could possibly affect excitatory and/or inhibitory components of synaptic transmission, we sought to evaluate the direct effect of N2O on inhibitory transmission in spinal cord neurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording from rat transversal spinal cord slices, we investigated the actions of 50% N2O and 0.5% isoflurane (both 0.3 rat MAC; minimum alveolar concentration) on exogenously applied γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-induced currents in rat dorsal horn lamina II neurons. The amplitudes and integrated areas of GABA- and glycine-induced currents were not significantly affected by N2O, but were increased in the presence of isoflurane. N2O did not affect the amplitude, frequency or decay time probability distribution of either GABA or glycine receptor-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents. We further sought to determine the effect of N2O on focal stimulation-evoked synaptic currents mediated by GABA and glycine receptors, and found no effect in the majority of neurons. These and other findings suggest that N2O has a discrete action in the spinal cord, distinct from the effects of the volatile anesthetics, consisting of inhibition of excitation in SG neurons through an action on ionotropic glutamatergic receptors and potentiation of inhibition through the descending noradrenergic system. © 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Source


Miura M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Sasaki M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Mizukoshi K.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | Shibasaki M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2011

Sensitization of primary afferent neurons is one of the most important components of pain hypersensitivity after tissue injury. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), involved in wound repair in injured tissue, also plays an important role in maintaining neuronal function. In the present study, we investigated the effect of tissue IGF-1 on nociceptive sensitivity of primary afferent neurons. Local administration of IGF-1 induced thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in a dose-dependent manner, and was attenuated by IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) inhibition. Tissue but not plasma IGF-1 levels, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, significantly increased after plantar incision. Immunohistochemistry revealed that IGF1R was predominantly expressed in neurons as well as in satellite glial cells in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Double-labeling immunohistochemistry showed that IGF1R expression colocalized with peripherin and TRPV1, but not with NF200 in DRG neurons. The IGF1R inhibitor successfully alleviated mechanical allodynia, heat hyperalgesia, and spontaneous pain behavior observed after plantar incision. Expression of phosphorylated Akt in DRG neurons significantly increased after plantar incision and was suppressed by IGF1R inhibition. These results demonstrate that increased tissue IGF-1 production sensitizes primary afferent neurons via the IGF1R/Akt pathway to facilitate pain hypersensitivity after tissue damage. Insulin-like growth factor 1 is synthesized locally after tissue injury and contributes to the sensitization of primary afferent neurons. © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Kohno T.,Niigata University | Kohno T.,Pain Mechanism Research Group | Kimura M.,Gunma University | Sasaki M.,Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Pain | Year: 2012

Background: Antidepressants, which are widely used for treatment of chronic pain, are thought to have antinociceptive effects by blockade of serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. However, these drugs also interact with various receptors such as excitatory glutamatergic receptors. Thermal hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal injection of NMDA in rats. Paw withdrawal latency was measured after intrathecal injection of antidepressants. The effects of antidepressants on the NMDA and AMPA-induced responses were examined in lamina II neurons of rat spinal cord slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The effects of milnacipran followed by application of NMDA on pERK activation were also investigated in the spinal cord.Results: Intrathecal injection of milnacipran (0.1 μmol), but not citalopram (0.1 μmol) and desipramine (0.1 μmol), followed by intrathecal injection of NMDA (1 μg) suppressed thermal hyperalgesia. Milnacipran (100 μM) reduced the amplitude of NMDA (56 ± 3 %, 64 ± 5 % of control)-, but not AMPA (98 ± 5 %, 97 ± 5 % of control)-mediated currents induced by exogenous application and dorsal root stimulation, respectively. Citalopram (100 μM) and desipramine (30 μM) had no effect on the amplitude of exogenous NMDA-induced currents. The number of pERK-positive neurons in the group treated with milnacipran (100 μM), but not citalopram (100 μM) or desipramine (30 μM), followed by NMDA (100 μM) was significantly lower compared with the NMDA-alone group.Conclusions: The antinociceptive effect of milnacipran may be dependent on the drug's direct modulation of NMDA receptors in the superficial dorsal horn. Furthermore, in addition to inhibiting the reuptake of monoamines, glutamate NMDA receptors are also important for analgesia induced by milnacipran. © 2012 Kohno et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Tazawa T.,Yokohama City University | Tazawa T.,Pain Mechanism Research Group | Kamiya Y.,Yokohama City University | Kamiya Y.,Pain Mechanism Research Group | And 9 more authors.
Molecular Pain | Year: 2015

Background: The descending antinociceptive system (DAS) is thought to play crucial roles in the antinociceptive effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS), especially through its serotonergic pathway. The nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) in the rostral ventromedial medulla is a major source of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] to the DAS, but the role of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the ventral periaqueductal gray matter is still unclear. Moreover, the influence of the noradrenergic pathway is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the involvement of these serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways in SCS-induced antinociception by behavioral analysis of spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats. We also investigated immunohistochemical changes in the DRN and locus coeruleus (LC), regarded as the adrenergic center of the DAS, and expression changes of synthetic enzymes of 5-HT [tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)] and norepinephrine [dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH)] in the spinal dorsal horn. Results: Intrathecally administered methysergide, a 5-HT1- and 5-HT2-receptor antagonist, and idazoxan, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, equally abolished the antinociceptive effect of SCS. The numbers of TPH-positive serotonergic and phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein (pCREB)-positive neurons and percentage of pCREB-positive serotonergic neurons in the DRN significantly increased after 3-h SCS. Further, the ipsilateral-to-contralateral immunoreactivity ratio of DβH increased in the LC of SNL rats and reached the level seen in naïve rats, even though the number of pCREB-positive neurons in the LC was unchanged by SNL and SCS. Moreover, 3-h SCS did not increase the expression levels of TPH and DβH in the spinal dorsal horn. Conclusions: The serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways of the DAS are involved in the antinociceptive effect of SCS, but activation of the DRN might primarily be responsible for this effect, and the LC may have a smaller contribution. SCS does not potentiate the synthetic enzymes of 5HT and norepinephrine in the neuropathic spinal cord. © 2015 Tazawa et al. Source

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