Santos J.G.,Neuromusculoskeletal Dynamics Research Group |
Brito J.O.,Neuromusculoskeletal Dynamics Research Group |
de Andrade D.C.,Pain Group |
de Andrade D.C.,University of Sao Paulo |
And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2010
The Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire was developed by the French Neuropathic Pain Group and is a simple and objective tool, with the ability to distinguish nociceptive from neuropathic pain. The purpose of this work was to validate the DN4 questionnaire in the Portuguese language in order to allow its use in clinical and research settings. A double-blind, accuracy study was conducted, consisting of translation, back-translation, literal evaluation, semantic equivalence, and communication with the target population. The Portuguese version of the questionnaire was applied in a sample of 101 patients with neuropathic (N = 42) or nociceptive pain (N = 59), ranked according to medical diagnosis. The reproducibility, reliability and validity of the instrument were analyzed, and showed a high diagnostic power for this version of the DN4 questionnaire. The Portuguese version of the DN4 questionnaire presented good validity and reliability, allowing it to identify neuropathic pain and neuropathic characteristics of mixed pain syndromes. Perspective: This article presents the first validated neuropathic pain questionnaire in the Portuguese language and represents a useful tool in the assessment of neuropathic pain both in the clinical setting and in population-based studies. The sensible and quick format of this instrument are key factors that will contribute to its widespread use, permitting a true recognition of patients with neuropathic pain. © 2010 American Pain Society.
Upadhyay J.,Pain Group |
Maleki N.,Pain Group |
Potter J.,McLean Hospital |
Potter J.,National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network |
And 19 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2010
A dramatic increase in the use and dependence of prescription opioids has occurred within the last 10 years. The consequences of long-term prescription opioid use and dependence on the brain are largely unknown, and any speculation is inferred from heroin and methadone studies. Thus, no data have directly demonstrated the effects of prescription opioid use on brain structure and function in humans. To pursue this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a highly enriched group of prescription opioid-dependent patients [(n=10); from a larger study on prescription opioid dependent patients (n=133)] and matched healthy individuals (n=10) to characterize possible brain alterations that may be caused by long-term prescription opioid use. Criteria for patient selection included: (i) no dependence on alcohol or other drugs; (ii) no comorbid psychiatric or neurological disease; and (iii) no medical conditions, including pain. In comparison to control subjects, individuals with opioid dependence displayed bilateral volumetric loss in the amygdala. Prescription opioid-dependent subjects had significantly decreased anisotropy in axonal pathways specific to the amygdala (i.e. stria terminalis, ventral amygdalofugal pathway and uncinate fasciculus) as well as the internal and external capsules. In the patient group, significant decreases in functional connectivity were observed for seed regions that included the anterior insula, nucleus accumbens and amygdala subdivisions. Correlation analyses revealed that longer duration of prescription opioid exposure was associated with greater changes in functional connectivity. Finally, changes in amygdala functional connectivity were observed to have a significant dependence on amygdala volume and white matter anisotropy of efferent and afferent pathways of the amygdala. These findings suggest that prescription opioid dependence is associated with structural and functional changes in brain regions implicated in the regulation of affect and impulse control, as well as in reward and motivational functions. These results may have important clinical implications for uncovering the effects of long-term prescription opioid use on brain structure and function. © 2010 The Author(s).