Munns C.F.,Childrens Hospital at Westmead |
Simm P.J.,Childrens Hospital at Westmead |
Simm P.J.,Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit |
Simm P.J.,Royal Melbourne Hospital |
And 8 more authors.
Medical Journal of Australia | Year: 2012
Objective: To determine the incidence of and factors associated with vitamin D deficiency rickets in Australian children. Design: 18-month questionnaire-based prospective observational study, using Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) data. Setting: Australian paediatricians and child health workers, January 2006 - July 2007. Participants: Children aged ≤ 15 years with vitamin D deficiency rickets (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] ≤ 50nmol/L, and elevated alkaline phosphatase levels [> 229 IU/L] and/or radiological rickets). Main outcome measures: Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets. Description of demographics, clinical presentation, identification and further analysis of overrepresented groups, and treatment regimens compared with best-practice guidelines. Results: We identified 398 children with vitamin D deficiency (55% male; median age, 6.3 years [range, 0.2-15 years]). The overall incidence in children ≤ 15 years of age in Australia was 4.9/100 000/year. All had a low 25OHD level (median, 28 nmol/L [range, 5-50nmol]) and an elevated alkaline phosphatase level (median, 407 IU/L [range, 229-5443 IU/L]), and 48 (12%) were hypocalcaemic. Ninety-five children had wrist x-rays, of whom 67 (71%) had rachitic changes. Most (98%) had dark or intermediate skin colour and 18% of girls were partially or completely veiled. Most children were born in Africa (252; 63%) and 75% of children were refugees. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to serum vitamin D levels in children < 3 years of age. Empirical vitamin D treatment was given to 4% of children before diagnosis. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency rickets is a significant problem in Australia among known high-risk groups. Public health campaigns to prevent, identify and treat vitamin D deficiency, especially in high-risk groups, are essential.
Samara-Boustani D.,University of Paris Descartes |
Colmenares A.,University of Paris Descartes |
Elie C.,University of Paris Descartes |
Dabbas M.,University of Paris Descartes |
And 15 more authors.
European Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2012
Objectives: To compare the pubertal development, the hormonal profiles and the prevalence of hirsutism and menstrual disorders in obese adolescent girls and adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: Data were collected from 96 obese adolescent girls and 78 adolescent girls with T1DM at Tanner stage IV or V, whose ages ranged between 11.9 and 17.9 years. Results: High prevalence of hirsutism and menstrual disorder was found in the obese adolescent girls (36.5 and 42% respectively) and the adolescent girls with T1DM (21 and 44% respectively). The obese girls were significantly younger at pubarche, thelarche and menarche than the girls with T1DM. Hirsutism in the obese girls and those with T1DM was associated with hyperandrogenaemia and a raised free androgen index (FAI).When the cause of the raised FAI was investigated in both the groups of girls with hirsutism, the raised FAI in the obese girls was due to low serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels. In contrast, the raised FAI of the girls with T1DM and hirsutism was due to hyperandrogenaemia. Menstrual disorders in the T1DM girls were associated also with hyperandrogenaemia unlike obese girls. Conclusions: Hirsutism and menstrual disorders are common in obese adolescent girls and adolescent girls with T1DM. Although hyperandrogenaemia is present in both groups of girls, the androgenic profiles of the two groups differ. The hyperandrogenaemia in the obese girls is primarily due to their decreased serum SHBG levels, whereas the hyperandrogenaemia in the girls with T1DM is due to their increased androgen production. © 2012 European Society of Endocrinology.