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Mayfield S.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2014

Respiratory support is a central component of the management of critically ill children. It can be delivered invasively via an endotracheal tube or non-invasively via face mask, nasal mask, nasal cannula or oxygen hood/tent. Invasive ventilation can be damaging to the lungs, and the tendency to use non-invasive forms is growing. However, non-invasive delivery is often poorly tolerated by children. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen delivery is a relatively new therapy that shows the potential to reduce the need for intubation and be better tolerated by children than other non-invasive forms of support. HFNC therapy differs from other non-invasive forms of treatment in that it delivers heated, humidified and blended air/oxygen via nasal cannula at rates > 2 L/kg/min. This allows the user to deliver high concentrations of oxygen and to potentially deliver continuous distending pressure; this treatment often is better tolerated by the child. To determine whether HFNC therapy is more effective than other forms of non-invasive therapy in paediatric patients who require respiratory support. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 4); MEDLINE via PubMed (January 1966 to April 2013); EMBASE (January 1980 to April 2013); CINAHL (1982 to April 2013); and LILACS (1982 to April 2013). Abstracts from conference proceedings, theses and dissertations and bibliographical references to relevant studies were also searched. We applied no restriction on language. We planned to included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quas-randomized trials comparing HFNC therapy with other forms of non-invasive respiratory support for children. Non-invasive support encompassed cot, hood or tent oxygen; low-flow nasal cannulae (flow rates ≤ 2 L/min); and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) delivered via facial or nasal mask/cannula. Treatment failure was defined by the need for additional respiratory support. We excluded children with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis. Two review authors independently assessed all studies for selection and data extraction. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Our search yielded 922 records. A total of 109 relevant records were retrieved with reference to our search criteria. After duplicates and irrelevant studies were removed, 69 studies were further scrutinized. Of these, 11 studies involved children. No study matched our inclusion criteria. Based on the results of this review, no evidence is available to allow determination of the safety or effectiveness of HFNC as a form of respiratory support in children. Source


Grant C.A.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | Grant C.A.,Queensland University of Technology | Pham T.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | Hough J.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2011

Introduction: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been shown to be able to distinguish both ventilation and perfusion. With adequate filtering the regional distributions of both ventilation and perfusion and their relationships could be analysed. Several methods of separation have been suggested previously, including breath holding, electrocardiograph (ECG) gating and frequency filtering. Many of these methods require interventions inappropriate in a clinical setting. This study therefore aims to extend a previously reported frequency filtering technique to a spontaneously breathing cohort and assess the regional distributions of ventilation and perfusion and their relationship.Methods: Ten healthy adults were measured during a breath hold and while spontaneously breathing in supine, prone, left and right lateral positions. EIT data were analysed with and without filtering at the respiratory and heart rate. Profiles of ventilation, perfusion and ventilation/perfusion related impedance change were generated and regions of ventilation and pulmonary perfusion were identified and compared.Results: Analysis of the filtration technique demonstrated its ability to separate the ventilation and cardiac related impedance signals without negative impact. It was, therefore, deemed suitable for use in this spontaneously breathing cohort.Regional distributions of ventilation, perfusion and the combined ΔZV/ΔZQwere calculated along the gravity axis and anatomically in each position. Along the gravity axis, gravity dependence was seen only in the lateral positions in ventilation distribution, with the dependent lung being better ventilated regardless of position. This gravity dependence was not seen in perfusion.When looking anatomically, differences were only apparent in the lateral positions. The lateral position ventilation distributions showed a difference in the left lung, with the right lung maintaining a similar distribution in both lateral positions. This is likely caused by more pronounced anatomical changes in the left lung when changing positions.Conclusions: The modified filtration technique was demonstrated to be effective in separating the ventilation and perfusion signals in spontaneously breathing subjects. Gravity dependence was seen only in ventilation distribution in the left lung in lateral positions, suggesting gravity based shifts in anatomical structures. Gravity dependence was not seen in any perfusion distributions. © 2011 Grant et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Hough J.L.,Materials Medical Research Institute | Hough J.L.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | Shearman A.D.,Materials Medical Research Institute | Shearman A.D.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health | Year: 2012

Aim: Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula (HHFNC) has been increasingly adopted as a new means of respiratory support throughout the world. However, evidence to support its safety and efficacy is limited. The aim of the present survey was to determine current practices regarding the usage of HHFNC by neonatologists in Australia and New Zealand. Methods: Surveys were sent to all 167 neonatologists identified by the list of centres in the Australia and New Zealand Neonatal Network. Results: A total of 157 surveys were sent to valid email addresses: 111 (71%) responded of which 105 (67%) had completed the questionnaire. HHFNC is used in 17 (63%) of neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. It is most commonly used to reduce nasal trauma (91%) and provide continuous positive airways pressure (62%). The main perceived benefits of HHFNC were the easier application and care of the infant (86%), and improved tolerance by the baby (84%). Rain out leading to fluid instillation into the upper airway (59%) was the most common problem. Conclusion: This survey has provided a snapshot of the practice of HHFNC usage in Australia and New Zealand in 2010 and has revealed that HHFNC use is widespread and that clinical practices are diverse. The majority of neonatologists acknowledge that there is limited evidence to support its efficacy and safety, and would be happy to participate in clinical trials to address how best to deliver HHFNC. © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians). Source


Pham T.M.T.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | Yuill M.,Materials Childrens Hospital | Dakin C.,Materials Childrens Hospital | Schibler A.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2011

Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been used to study regional ventilation distribution in neonatal and paediatric lung disease; however, little information has been obtained in healthy newborns and infants. Data on regional ventilation distribution and regional filling characteristics were obtained using EIT in the neonatal period, at 3 and 6 months of age, in spontaneously breathing infants during non-rapid eye movement sleep. Regional ventilation distribution was described using regional end-expiratory and end-inspiratory impedance amplitudes, and geometric centre of ventilation. Regional filling characteristics were described with the phase lag or lead of the regional impedance change in comparison to global impedance change. 32 infants were measured in the supine position. Regional impedance amplitudes increased with age but regional ventilation distribution remained unchanged in all infants at any age, with the dependent (posterior) lung always better ventilated. Regional filling characteristics showed that the dependent lung filled during inspiration before the nondependent lung during all follow-up measurements. Regional ventilation distribution and regional filling characteristics remained unchanged over the first 6 months of life, and the results obtained on regional ventilation distribution are very similar to those in adult subjects. Copyright©ERS 2011. Source


Schibler A.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group | Humphreys S.,Paediatric Critical Care Research Group
Critical Care and Resuscitation | Year: 2012

Objective: To investigate whether ventilatory management using a temperature-corrected (pH-stat) or uncorrected (alpha-stat) blood gas analysis strategy improves brain tissue oxygen tension (PbrO 2) in children prophylactically treated with moderate hypothermia for traumatic brain injury. Design, setting and participants: Double crossover study conducted in the intensive care unit of a tertiary children's hospital. Nine children aged 3-14 years with severe traumatic brain injury were randomly allocated twice to a 6-hour period of either alpha- or pH-stat management while being kept hypothermic at 32.5°C. Main outcome measures: PbrO 2, intracranial pressure (ICP) and PbrO 2/PaO2. Results: PbrO 2 was significantly higher during pH-stat management (alpha-stat, 23.2mmHg [95% CI, 22.4-24.0mmHg] v pH-stat, 28.7mmHg [95% CI, 27.9-29.5mmHg]; P < 0.001). PbrO 2/PaO2 was significantly higher during pH-stat (alpha-stat, 0.190 [95% CI, 0.187-0.193] v pH-stat, 0.251 [95% CI, 0.246-0.259]; P < 0.05). ICP was non-significantly higher during pH-stat (alpha-stat, 8.8mmHg [95% CI, 8.1-9.5mmHg] v ph-stat,10.2mmHg [95% CI, 9.6-10.8]). Conclusion: PbrO 2 may be improved using a pH-stat blood gas management strategy in prophylactic hypothermia for paediatric patients with traumatic brain injury without any clinically relevant increase in ICP. Source

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