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Queen, Sweden

Hesselmar B.,Paediatric Allergology | Hesselmar B.,Gothenburg University | Sjoberg F.,Gothenburg University | Saalman R.,Paediatric Gastroenterology | And 7 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: Immune stimulation through exposure to commensal microbes may protect against allergy development. Oral microbes may be transferred from parents to infants via pacifiers. We investigated whether pacifier cleaning practices affected the risk of allergy development. METHODS: A birth-cohort of 184 infantswas examined for clinical allergy and sensitization to airborne and food allergens at 18 and 36 months of age and, in addition, promptly on occurrence of symptoms. Pacifier use and pacifier cleaning practices were recorded during interviews with the parents when the children were 6 months old. The oral microbiota of the infants was characterized by analysis of saliva samples collected at 4 months of age. RESULTS: Children whose parents "cleaned" their pacifier by sucking it (n = 65) were less likely to have asthma (odds ratio [OR] 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01-0.99), eczema (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and sensitization (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.10-1.27) at 18 months of age than children whose parents did not use this cleaning technique (n = 58). Protection against eczema remained at age 36 months (hazard ratio 0.51; P = .04). Vaginal delivery and parental pacifier sucking yielded independent and additive protective effects against eczema development. The salivary microbiota differed between children whose parents cleaned their pacifier by sucking it and children whose parents did not use this practice. CONCLUSIONS: Parental sucking of their infant's pacifier may reduce the risk of allergy development, possibly via immune stimulation by microbes transferred to the infant via the parent's saliva. Source


Hesselmar B.,Paediatric Allergology | Hesselmar B.,Follow up and Analysis Unit | Hesselmar B.,Gothenburg University | Hicke-Roberts A.,Vastra Frolunda Paediatric Outpatient Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The hygiene hypothesis stipulates that microbial exposure during early life induces immunologic tolerance via immune stimulation, and hence reduces the risk of allergy development. Several common lifestyle factors and household practices, such as dishwashing methods, may increase microbial exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate if such lifestyle factors are associated with allergy prevalence. METHODS: Questionnaire-based study of 1029 children aged 7 to 8 years from Kiruna, in the north of Sweden, and Mölndal, in the Gothenburg area on the southwest coast of Sweden. Questions on asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis were taken from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. RESULTS: Hand dishwashing was associated with a reduced risk of allergic disease development (multivariate analysis, odds ratio 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.85). The risk was further reduced in a dose-response pattern if the children were also served fermented food and if the family bought food directly from farms. CONCLUSIONS: In families who use hand dishwashing, allergic diseases in children are less common than in children from families who use machine dishwashing. We speculate that a less-efficient dishwashing method may induce tolerance via increased microbial exposure. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

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