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Islamabad, Pakistan

Mahmood M.,Pmas Arid Agriculture University | Mahmood M.,University Of Kashmir | Raza A.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Anwar M.A.,PAEC General Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2016

Hepatitis B virus has been classified into eight genotypes from A to H which have variety in geographical distribution. HBV/D is reported to be the most prevalent genotype in Pakistan. Sub genotypes D1 and D3 were reported in a study from Karachi. Present study was designed to investigate the genotypes and sub-genotypes of HBV with sequencing of S gene fragment as well as complete viral genome of samples from Islamabad, Pakistan. A total of 22 HBV sample were genotyped by type specific primer PCR method. Complete viral genome of 4 samples and the S gene fragment of all samples was subjected to direct sequencing. Genotypes and sub-genotypes were confirmed by phylogenetic analyses of the sequences. Employing type specific primer PCR method, 14 (63.6%) samples were detected with HBV/D infection while a mix infection with HBV/A and HBV/D was detected in 8 (36.4%) samples. However on direct sequencing of S gene fragment, all 20 of the sequenced samples were identified as only genotype D and not genotype A or mixed, while complete genome sequences of 4 were identified as sub-genotype D1. Thus this study provides evidence for prevalence of D genotype more specifically sub-genotype D1 in Islamabad. Furthermore, it is observed that sequence based results are more reliable as compared to type specific PCR based method. Source


Moosa N.Y.,Khyber Medical University | Khattak N.,Khyber Medical University | Alam M.I.,Pakistan International Medical College | Sher A.,Pakistan International Medical College | And 4 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

Cervical cancer is an issue of foremost importance globally, specifically affecting the developing nations. Significant advances have taken place with regard to diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially with screening. Appropriate screening measures can thus reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The most desirable screening technique should be less invasive, easy to perform, cost-effective and cover a wide range of diagnostic icons. Manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) can be considered as one of the suitable technique for screening with the above-mentioned benefits. The aim of the current study was to compare two cervical screening techniques on the basis of different morphological parameters and staining parameters by using modified acetic acid Pap staining to see the possibility of reducing time economy involved in conventional Pap staining (CPS). The study was conducted on a total 88 cases and all were analyzed with both MLBC and CPS. Forty eight cases that were regarded as satisfactory on the basis of Bethesda system by both methods were further recruited for investigation. Their morphological parameters and staining quality were compared and scored according to a scoring system defined in the study. Quality indices was calculated for both staining procedures and smear techniques. Source


Rehman A.,PAEC General Hospital
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan | Year: 2013

Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is an extremely rare variant of breast cancer having aggressive clinicopathological behaviour and poor prognosis. A 62 years old woman presented with a painless lump in the left breast. Microscopic and immunohistochemical evaluation of the core-tissue biopsy and of the mastectomy specimen revealed moderately-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast. She was labeled as a case of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast after an infallible exclusion of any concomitant lesion elsewhere in the body. Modified radical mastectomy with level II axillary clearance, chemoradiotherapy and Famoxifen have led to an uneventful 5-year survival till the last follow-up. Source


Sohaib M.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Rafique A.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Saeed S.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Afshan A.,PAEC General Hospital
Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging | Year: 2013

Several single sample methods for determination of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) clearance are being used clinically. Kabasakal et al. proposed a similar formula for 99mTc-ethylenedicysteine (EC). This study was performed to compare his method with Bubeck et al. formula for 99mTc-MAG3 already in use. Twenty-eight subjects divided in two groups were registered which included 22 patients with various renal diseases (group-I) and six normal volunteers (group II). All subjects were studied twice using both the radiopharmaceuticals. The images and renogram parameters, that is TMAX and T1/2 of both the agents, were similar in all the subjects. The clearance of the 99mTc-EC was however considerably higher than 99mTc-MAG3 in both the groups (mean ± SEM =279 ± 14 ml min-1/1·73 m2 versus 177 ± 15 ml min-1/1·73 m2 in group-I and 377 ± 11·90 ml min-1/1·73 m2 versus 238 ± 8·23 ml min-1/1·73 m2 in group II). This difference was more pronounced in cases with reduced renal functions. Among the Effective Renal Plasma Flow (ERPF) values determined from EC and MAG3 clearances in six normal volunteers, four cases only in MAG3 had ERPF below the lower limit. This study has demonstrated superiority of single sample method for 99 mTc-EC clearance over its analogous method for 99mTc-MAG3. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Source


Ikram M.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Khan R.U.,PAEC General Hospital | Firdous S.,National Institute of Lasers and Optronics | Atif M.,National Institute of Lasers and Optronics | Nawaz M.,National Institute of Lasers and Optronics
Laser Physics | Year: 2011

In this prospective study duly approved from Institutional Ethics Review Committee for research in medicine, PAEC General Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan, we investigate the efficacy, safety and tolerability along with cosmetic outcome of topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) and their precursors. Patients with Histological diagnosis of NMSCs and their precursors were assessed for PDT, after photographic documentation of the lesions and written consent, underwent two (2) sessions of PDT in one month (4 weeks) according to standard protocol. A freshly prepared 20% 5-ALA in Unguentum base was applied under occlusive dressing for 4-6 h as Drug Light Interval (DLI) and irradiated with light of 630 nm wavelength from a diode laser at standard dose of 90 J/cm2. Approximately 11% patients reported pain during treatment which was managed in different simple ways. In our study we regularly followed up the patients for gross as well as histopathological response and recurrence free periods during median follow-up of 24 months. Regarding Basal cell carcinomas complete response was observed in 86.2% (25/29), partial response in 10.3% (3/29) and recurrence during first year in 3.5% (1/29) lesions. All the lesions which showed partial response or recurrence were nBCCs. Regarding Actinic Keratosis complete response was observed in 95.3% (20/21), partial response in 4.7% (1/21) while Bowen's disease showed 100% (2/2) results. 81.8% (9/11) Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed complete, 9% (1/11) partial response and 9% (1/11) presented with recurrence after 3 months. We observed excellent and good cosmetic results along with tumor clearance in our study. Treatment sessions were well tolerated with high level of patient's satisfaction and only minor side effects of pain during treatment sessions and inflammatory changes post photodynamic therapy were observed. We concluded that 5-ALA PDT is an effective and safe emerging treatment modality for management of superficial non-melanoma skin cancers and their precursors with better cosmetic outcome and minor side effects. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011. Source

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