Bandung, Indonesia

Padjadjaran University

www.unpad.ac.id/
Bandung, Indonesia

Universitas Padjadjaran is an institution of higher learning located in Bandung, which is the provincial capital of West Java, Indonesia. UNPAD was established on 11th of September 1957, and officially opened by the President of Republic Indonesia Soekarno on the 24th of September 1957. Wikipedia.

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Indrawati I.,Padjadjaran University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016

Research has been conducted on the sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria to buah merah (Pandanus conoideus Lam.). The method used are the Kirby-Bauer method. The results showed that all test bacteria sensitive to the antibiotic chloramphenicol 30 μg, 10 μg streptomycin, vancomycin 30 μg, gentamicin 10 μg and sulfonamide 300 μg. Bacterial sensitivity test results showed that fraction of water from buah merah can inhibit Salmonella typhi (14.78 mm), Bacillus cereus (15.72 mm) and Streptococcus pyogenes (14.44 mm), hexane fraction can inhibit S. typhi (9.94 mm), Escherichia coli (8.94 mm), B. cereus (9.33 mm), S. pyogenes (9.94 mm), Butanol fraction can inhibit E. coli (14.56 mm), Fraction ethylacetate can inhibit K. pneumoniae (14.56 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (14.39 mm) and ethanol extracts can inhibit Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.28 mm), S. aureus (8.67 mm), The effective concentration of buah merah in inhibiting bacterial growth is 80 %, on S. typhi (32 mm), E. coli (20.87 mm), K. pneumoniae (20.27 mm), S. aureus (21.13 mm) and S. pyogenes (19.47 mm). There are differences in sensitivity between buah merah and antibiotics against bacteria, where the buah merah inhibitory zone was smaller than the antibiotics. © 2016 Author(s).


Oehadian A.,Padjadjaran University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2013

Aim: to evaluate neutrophyl lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) as an inflammatory marker in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: this was a cross sectional study involving 21 SLE patients with mild and moderate disease activity according to Mex SLEDAI score and 30 normal subjects. White blood cells counts were examined with Sysmex XE-5000. The absolute neutrophyl count and absolute lymphocyte count were tabulated and compared between SLE and normal subjects using unpaired t-test. The comparison of NLCR between SLE and normal subject was calculated using Mann-Whitney test. This study was conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine Hasan Sadikin Hospital from November 2011 until January 2012. Results: there was no significant difference in absolute neutrophyl count between SLE and normal subjects (4158+1517 vs 4031+1218 /mm3, p=0.74). The absolute lymphocyte count was significantly lower in SLE than normal subjects (1721+600 vs 2397+587/mm3, p=0.000). NLCR was significantly higher in SLE than normal subjects (2.52 (1.01-10.92) vs 1.65 (0.77-4.59), p=0.007). There was no significant difference in NLCR between SLE with mild and moderate activity (2.59 (1.01-10.92) vs 2.01 (1.38-3.98), p= 0.412). Based on ROC curve, with AUC 0.727, cut off NLCR value >1.93 had 70% sensitivity and 67% specificity in differentiating between SLE and normal subjects. Conclusion: NLCR could be used as simple inflammatory parameter in SLE.


Cahyana Y.,University of Reading | Cahyana Y.,Padjadjaran University | Gordon M.H.,University of Reading
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The affinity of anthocyanins for human serum albumin (HSA) was determined by a fluorescence quenching method. The effects of pH and structure of anthocyanins on the binding constants were studied. The constants for binding of anthocyanins to HSA ranged from 1.08 × 105 to 13.2 × 105 M-1. A hydrophobic effect at acidic pH was shown by the relatively high positive entropy values under the conditions studied. Electrostatic interactions, including hydrogen bonding, contributed to the binding at pH 7.4. The effect of structure of anthocyanins on the affinity was pH-dependent, particularly the effect of additional hydroxyl substituents. Hydroxyl substituents and glycosylation of anthocyanins decreased the affinity for binding to HSA at lower pH (especially pH 4), but increased the strength of binding at pH 7.4. In contrast, methylation of a hydroxyl group enhanced the binding at acidic pH, whilst this substitution reduced the strength of binding at pH 7.4. This paper shows that changes in anthocyanin structure or reductions in pH, which may occur in the region of inflammatory sites, have an effect on the binding of anthocyanins to HSA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fauzi A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Anna Z.,Padjadjaran University
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2013

Payments for Environmental Services (PES) have been widely adopted worldwide as a new market-based initiative for conservation and environmental management. In Indonesia several PES initiatives exist ranging from watershed and terrestrial to marine ecosystem. Nevertheless, developing and managing PES programs in Indonesia are exacerbated by the complexity of institutional arrangements. Fiscal constraints are still the main obstacle of sustainable financing of PES mechanism. Rules and regulations with regard to PES fiscal mechanism are rather lacking, making it difficult for effective management of PES programs. As a consequence, efficient mechanism between users (firms) and environmental services is rather weak. This paper explores such a problem based on case studies of two existing PES programs in Indonesia. The paper analyzes the complexity of fiscal mechanism as a derivative of regulations and discusses challenges to overcome the constraints. © 2013 The Authors.


Kurniadie D.,Padjadjaran University
American Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

Problem statement: A constructed wetland to treat wastewater from farm house has been built in Padjadjaran University farming research station in Jatinangor, Indonesia, in July 2009. Approach: Water samples from both influent and effluent were taken every two weeks and analysed for COD, BOD 5, NO 3-N, NO 2-N, NH 4-N, total-N, PO 4-P, total coliform bacteria, pH, O 2 and settleable solids. Results: The objective of this study was to install one constructed wetland with a vertical flow system to treat sewage from farm house by using an aquatic macrophyte (Phragmites karka). The average treatment efficiencies during the period from August 2009 to January 2010 for BOD 5, COD, NH 4-N, total- N, PO 4-P and total coliform bacteria were 76,03, 78,89, 88,18, 71,70, 91,06 and 99,45% respectively. The average concentration in effluent from period of August to January for BOD5 was 21.87 mg L -1, COD (57.66 mg L -1), NH 4-N (0.82 mg L -1), NO 3-N (1,36 mg L -1), total-N (2.68 mg L -1), PO 4-P (0.07 mg L -1) and total coliform bacteria (4880 MPN/100 ml). Conclusion/Recommendations: The overall results show that all effluent concentration from constructed wetlands except BOD5 were still low and fall considerably short of Indonesian effluent standards for irrigation water. These results were very promising to be used in treating wastewater from agricultural industry and produce clean water which then can still be used for other purposes such as irrigation water, fisheries and other necessities. © 2010 Science Publications.


Verrall A.J.,University of Otago | G. Netea M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Alisjahbana B.,Padjadjaran University | Hill P.C.,University of Otago | van Crevel R.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Immunology | Year: 2014

Summary: Early clearance (EC) is the successful eradication of inhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis before an adaptive immune response develops. Evidence for EC comes from case contact studies that consistently show that a proportion of heavily exposed individuals do not develop M. tuberculosis infection. Further support for the existence of this phenotype comes from genetic loci associated with tuberculin reactivity. In this review we discuss aspects of the innate response that may underpin EC and hypotheses that can be tested through field laboratory link studies in M. tuberculosis case contacts. Specifically, we consider mechanisms whereby alveolar macrophages recognize and kill intracellular M. tuberculosis, and how other cell types, such as neutrophils, natural killer T cells, mucosa-associated invariant T cells and γδ T cells may assist. How EC may be impaired by HIV infection or vitamin D deficiency is also explored. As EC is a form of protective immunity, further study may advance the development of vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent M. tuberculosis infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Parwati I.,Padjadjaran University | van Crevel R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van Soolingen D.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The wide geographic distribution of one clade of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the Beijing genotype family, and its genetic homogeneity, suggests that strains belonging to this grouping might have a selective advantage over other M tuberculosis strains. This hypothesis was addressed by reviewing molecular-epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies. Beijing strains represent about 50% of strains in east Asia and at least 13% of strains worldwide. Their emergence might be linked to escape from BCG vaccination, and to multidrug resistance, which is associated with the Beijing genotype in many areas. Different animal models have shown Beijing strains to be more virulent, and to cause more histopathological changes, higher outgrowth, and increased mortality. At a molecular level, Beijing strains have specific properties in terms of protein and lipid structures and their interaction with the human immune system. Finally, the Beijing genotype has been linked to polymorphisms in immune genes, suggesting the possibility of human-mycobacterial co-evolution. The emergence of the Beijing genotype family might represent an evolutionary response of M tuberculosis to vaccination or antibiotic treatment, with an important negative impact on tuberculosis control. More research is needed to further unravel the mechanisms underlying the emergence of M tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains, and examine the implications for future control strategies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Ruslami R.,Padjadjaran University | Ganiem A.R.,Padjadjaran University | Dian S.,Padjadjaran University | Apriani L.,Padjadjaran University | And 5 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Intensified antibiotic treatment might improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. We assessed pharmacokinetics, safety, and survival benefit of several treatment regimens containing high-dose rifampicin and moxifloxacin in patients with tuberculous meningitis in a hospital setting. Methods: In an open-label, phase 2 trial with a factorial design in one hospital in Indonesia, patients (aged >14 years) with tuberculous meningitis were randomly assigned to receive, according to a computer-generated schedule, first rifampicin standard dose (450 mg, about 10 mg/kg) orally or high dose (600 mg, about 13 mg/kg) intravenously, and second oral moxifloxacin 400 mg, moxifloxacin 800 mg, or ethambutol 750 mg once daily. All patients were given standard-dose isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and adjunctive corticosteroids. After 14 days of treatment all patients continued with standard treatment for tuberculosis. Endpoints included pharmacokinetic analyses of the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, adverse events attributable to tuberculosis treatment, and survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01158755. Findings: 60 patients were randomly assigned to receive rifampicin standard dose (12 no moxifloxacin, ten moxifloxacin 400 mg, and nine moxifloxacin 800 mg) and high dose (ten no moxifloxacin, nine moxifloxacin 400 mg, and ten moxifloxacin 800 mg). A 33% higher dose of rifampicin, intravenously, led to a three times higher geometric mean area under the time-concentration curve up to 6 h after dose (AUC0-6; 78·7 mg.h/L [95% CI 71·0-87·3] vs 26·0 mg.h/L [19·0-35·6]), maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax; 22·1 mg/L [19·9-24·6] vs 6·3 mg/L [4·9-8·3]), and concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (0·60 mg/L [0·46-0·78] vs 0·21 mg/L [0·16-0·27]). Doubling the dose of moxifloxacin resulted in a proportional increase in plasma AUC0-6 (31·5 mg.h/L [24·1-41·1] vs 15·1 mg.h/L [12·8-17·7]), Cmax (7·4 mg/L [5·6-9·6] vs 3·9 mg/L [3·2-4·8]), and drug concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (2·43 mg/L [1·81-3·27] vs 1·52 mg/L [1·28-1·82]). Intensified treatment did not result in increased toxicity. 6 month mortality was substantially lower in patients given high-dose rifampicin intravenously (ten [35%] vs 20 [65%]), which could not be explained by HIV status or severity of disease at the time of presentation (adjusted HR 0·42; 95% CI 0·20-0·91; p=0·03). Interpretation: These data suggest that treatment containing a higher dose of rifampicin and standard-dose or high-dose moxifloxacin during the first 2 weeks is safe in patients with tuberculous meningitis, and that high-dose intravenous rifampicin could be associated with a survival benefit in patients with severe disease. Funding: Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences, Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research, and Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Background. In many countries, private general practitioners are the first contact in health services for people with symptoms of tuberculosis. Targeting the private sector has been recommended in previous studies to improve tuberculosis control. A brief face-to-face intervention using Catharsis Education Action (CEA) method, repeated at periodic intervals, seems to change physicians' attitudes, beliefs and practice. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of CEA method in improving the private general practitioners' (PPs) adherence to the national guideline on the management of tuberculosis patients in Bandung District, Indonesia. Method. A randomized controlled trial was done. For the intervention group, a session of the CEA method was delivered to PPs while brief reminder with provision of pamphlet was used for the comparative group. Results. A total of 82 PPs were included in the analysis. The intervention group showed some positive trends in adherence especially in the use of sputum as first laboratory examination (RR = 1.24) and follow up (RR = 1.37), though not reaching statistical significance. After intervention PPs in CEA group maintained the adherence, but PPs in pamphlets group showed deterioration (score before to after: -12.5). Conclusion. Face to face education using CEA method seems to be as effective as brief reminder with provision of pamphlet in improving the adherence. CEA offers additional information that can be useful in designing intervention programs to improve the adherence to guideline. © 2012 Arisanti; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Bestari M.B.,Padjadjaran University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2013

We report a 67-year-old female patient, recently diagnosed to have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). On first PET (positron emission tomography) examination in October 2009, no distant metastasis. Four months later, second PET examination was done, detecting pancreatic foci in the uncinate process and in the tail of the pancreas measuring 22 mm which were more likely to be metastatic rather than primary origin. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. After 1 month of follow up, jaundice was noticed. Laboratory exams and MRCP showed obstructive jaundice. ERCP was performed with biliary stenting for palliative treatment. Symptomatic metastatic lesions of the pancreas from carcinoma of the lung are extremely rare. Typically, the patients remain asymptomatic until their disease reaches a fairly advanced stage, and therapeutic options are then limited to palliative measures.

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