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Bandung, Indonesia

Universitas Padjadjaran is an institution of higher learning located in Bandung, which is the provincial capital of West Java, Indonesia. UNPAD was established on 11th of September 1957, and officially opened by the President of Republic Indonesia Soekarno on the 24th of September 1957. Wikipedia.

Oehadian A.,Padjadjaran University
Acta medica Indonesiana | Year: 2013

Aim: to evaluate neutrophyl lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) as an inflammatory marker in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: this was a cross sectional study involving 21 SLE patients with mild and moderate disease activity according to Mex SLEDAI score and 30 normal subjects. White blood cells counts were examined with Sysmex XE-5000. The absolute neutrophyl count and absolute lymphocyte count were tabulated and compared between SLE and normal subjects using unpaired t-test. The comparison of NLCR between SLE and normal subject was calculated using Mann-Whitney test. This study was conducted in the Department of Internal Medicine Hasan Sadikin Hospital from November 2011 until January 2012. Results: there was no significant difference in absolute neutrophyl count between SLE and normal subjects (4158+1517 vs 4031+1218 /mm3, p=0.74). The absolute lymphocyte count was significantly lower in SLE than normal subjects (1721+600 vs 2397+587/mm3, p=0.000). NLCR was significantly higher in SLE than normal subjects (2.52 (1.01-10.92) vs 1.65 (0.77-4.59), p=0.007). There was no significant difference in NLCR between SLE with mild and moderate activity (2.59 (1.01-10.92) vs 2.01 (1.38-3.98), p= 0.412). Based on ROC curve, with AUC 0.727, cut off NLCR value >1.93 had 70% sensitivity and 67% specificity in differentiating between SLE and normal subjects. Conclusion: NLCR could be used as simple inflammatory parameter in SLE.

Fauzi A.,Bogor Agricultural University | Anna Z.,Padjadjaran University
Ecosystem Services | Year: 2013

Payments for Environmental Services (PES) have been widely adopted worldwide as a new market-based initiative for conservation and environmental management. In Indonesia several PES initiatives exist ranging from watershed and terrestrial to marine ecosystem. Nevertheless, developing and managing PES programs in Indonesia are exacerbated by the complexity of institutional arrangements. Fiscal constraints are still the main obstacle of sustainable financing of PES mechanism. Rules and regulations with regard to PES fiscal mechanism are rather lacking, making it difficult for effective management of PES programs. As a consequence, efficient mechanism between users (firms) and environmental services is rather weak. This paper explores such a problem based on case studies of two existing PES programs in Indonesia. The paper analyzes the complexity of fiscal mechanism as a derivative of regulations and discusses challenges to overcome the constraints. © 2013 The Authors.

Cahyana Y.,University of Reading | Cahyana Y.,Padjadjaran University | Gordon M.H.,University of Reading
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

The affinity of anthocyanins for human serum albumin (HSA) was determined by a fluorescence quenching method. The effects of pH and structure of anthocyanins on the binding constants were studied. The constants for binding of anthocyanins to HSA ranged from 1.08 × 105 to 13.2 × 105 M-1. A hydrophobic effect at acidic pH was shown by the relatively high positive entropy values under the conditions studied. Electrostatic interactions, including hydrogen bonding, contributed to the binding at pH 7.4. The effect of structure of anthocyanins on the affinity was pH-dependent, particularly the effect of additional hydroxyl substituents. Hydroxyl substituents and glycosylation of anthocyanins decreased the affinity for binding to HSA at lower pH (especially pH 4), but increased the strength of binding at pH 7.4. In contrast, methylation of a hydroxyl group enhanced the binding at acidic pH, whilst this substitution reduced the strength of binding at pH 7.4. This paper shows that changes in anthocyanin structure or reductions in pH, which may occur in the region of inflammatory sites, have an effect on the binding of anthocyanins to HSA. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Parwati I.,Padjadjaran University | van Crevel R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van Soolingen D.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The wide geographic distribution of one clade of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the Beijing genotype family, and its genetic homogeneity, suggests that strains belonging to this grouping might have a selective advantage over other M tuberculosis strains. This hypothesis was addressed by reviewing molecular-epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies. Beijing strains represent about 50% of strains in east Asia and at least 13% of strains worldwide. Their emergence might be linked to escape from BCG vaccination, and to multidrug resistance, which is associated with the Beijing genotype in many areas. Different animal models have shown Beijing strains to be more virulent, and to cause more histopathological changes, higher outgrowth, and increased mortality. At a molecular level, Beijing strains have specific properties in terms of protein and lipid structures and their interaction with the human immune system. Finally, the Beijing genotype has been linked to polymorphisms in immune genes, suggesting the possibility of human-mycobacterial co-evolution. The emergence of the Beijing genotype family might represent an evolutionary response of M tuberculosis to vaccination or antibiotic treatment, with an important negative impact on tuberculosis control. More research is needed to further unravel the mechanisms underlying the emergence of M tuberculosis Beijing genotype strains, and examine the implications for future control strategies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Verrall A.J.,University of Otago | G. Netea M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Alisjahbana B.,Padjadjaran University | Hill P.C.,University of Otago | van Crevel R.,Radboud University Nijmegen
Immunology | Year: 2014

Summary: Early clearance (EC) is the successful eradication of inhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis before an adaptive immune response develops. Evidence for EC comes from case contact studies that consistently show that a proportion of heavily exposed individuals do not develop M. tuberculosis infection. Further support for the existence of this phenotype comes from genetic loci associated with tuberculin reactivity. In this review we discuss aspects of the innate response that may underpin EC and hypotheses that can be tested through field laboratory link studies in M. tuberculosis case contacts. Specifically, we consider mechanisms whereby alveolar macrophages recognize and kill intracellular M. tuberculosis, and how other cell types, such as neutrophils, natural killer T cells, mucosa-associated invariant T cells and γδ T cells may assist. How EC may be impaired by HIV infection or vitamin D deficiency is also explored. As EC is a form of protective immunity, further study may advance the development of vaccines and immunotherapies to prevent M. tuberculosis infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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